|Birth name||Melba Doretta Liston|
|Born||January 13, 1926|
Kansas City, Missouri, U.S.
|Died||April 23, 1999 (aged 73)|
Los Angeles, California
Melba Doretta Liston (January 13, 1926 – April 23, 1999) was an American jazz trombonist, arranger, and composer. She was the first woman trombonist to play in big bands during the 1940s and 1960s, but as her career progressed she became better known as an arranger particularly in partnership with pianist Randy Weston.
Life and career
Liston was born in Kansas City, Missouri. At the age of seven, Melba's mother purchased her a trombone. Her family encouraged her musical pursuits, as they were all music lovers. Liston was primarily self-taught, but she was "encouraged by her guitar-playing grandfather" who she spent significant time with learning to play spirituals and folk songs. At the age of eight, she was good enough to be a solo act on a local radio station. At the age of ten, she moved to Los Angeles, California. She was classmates with Dexter Gordon, and friends with Eric Dolphy. After playing in youth bands and studying with Alma Hightower, she joined the big band led by Gerald Wilson in 1944.
She recorded with saxophonist Dexter Gordon in 1947 and joined Dizzy Gillespie's big band, which included saxophonists John Coltrane, Paul Gonsalves, and pianist John Lewis) in New York for a time when Wilson disbanded his orchestra in 1948. Liston performed in a supporting role and was nervous when asked to take solos, but with encouragement she became more comfortable as a featured voice in bands. She toured with Count Basie, then with Billie Holiday (1949) but was so profoundly affected by the indifference of the audiences and the rigors of the road that she gave up playing and turned to education. Liston taught for about three years.
She took a clerical job for some years and supplemented her income by taking work as an extra in Hollywood, appearing in The Prodigal (1955) and The Ten Commandments (1956). She returned to Gillespie for tours sponsored by the U.S. State Department in 1956 and 1957, recorded with Art Blakey's Jazz Messengers (1957), and formed an all-women quintet in 1958. In 1959, she visited Europe with the show Free and Easy, for which Quincy Jones was music director. She accompanied Billy Eckstine with the Quincy Jones Orchestra on At Basin Street East, released on October 1, 1961, by Verve.
In the 1960s she began collaborating with pianist Randy Weston, arranging compositions (primarily his own) for mid-size to large ensembles. This association, especially strong in the 1960s, would be rekindled in the late 1980s and 1990s until her death. In addition, she worked with Milt Jackson, Clark Terry, and Johnny Griffin, as well as working as an arranger for Motown, appearing on albums by Ray Charles. In 1964, she helped establish the Pittsburgh Jazz Orchestra. In 1971 she was chosen as musical arranger for a Stax recording artist Calvin Scott whose album was being produced by Stevie Wonder's first producer, Clarence Paul. On this album she worked with Joe Sample and Wilton Felder of the Jazz Crusaders, blues guitarist Arthur Adams, and jazz drummer Paul Humphrey. In 1973, she moved to Jamaica to teach at the Jamaica School of Music for six years before returning to the U.S. to lead her own bands.
During her time in Jamaica, she composed and arranged music for the 1975 comedy film Smile Orange starring Carl Bradshaw, who three years earlier starred in the first Jamaican film, The Harder They Come.
She was forced to give up playing in 1985 after a stroke left her partially paralyzed, but she continued to arrange music with Randy Weston. In 1987, she was awarded the Jazz Masters Fellowship of the National Endowment for the Arts. After suffering repeated strokes, she died in Los Angeles, California in 1999 a few days after a tribute to her and Randy Weston's music at Harvard University. Her funeral at St. Peter's in Manhattan featured performances by Weston with Jann Parker as well as by Chico O'Farrill's Afro-Cuban ensemble and by Lorenzo Shihab (vocals).
Composing and arranging
Her early work with the high-profile bands of Count Basie and Dizzy Gillespie shows a strong command of the big-band and bop idioms. However, perhaps her most important work was written for Randy Weston, with whom she worked for four decades from the early 1960s. 
Liston worked as a "ghost writer" during her career. According to one writer, "Many of the arrangements found in the Gillespie, Jones, and Weston repertoires were accomplished by Liston."
Liston was a female in a profession of mostly males. Although some consider her an unsung hero, she is highly regarded in the jazz community. Liston was a trailblazer as a trombonist and a woman. She articulated difficulties of being a woman on the road.
"There's those natural problems on the road, the female problems, the lodging problems, the laundry, and all those kinda things to try to keep yourself together, problems that somehow or other the guys don't seem to have to go through."
She goes on to recount the struggles she experienced as an African American woman, which affected her musical career. However, she generally spoke positively about the camaraderie with and support from male musicians. Liston also dealt with larger issues of inequity in the music industry. One writer has said, "It was clear that she had to continually prove her credentials in order to gain suitable employment as a musician, composer, and arranger. She was not paid equitable scale and was often denied access to the larger opportunities as a composer and arranger."
Liston's musical style reflects bebop and post-bop sensibilities learned from Dexter Gordon, Dizzy Gillespie, and Art Blakey. Her earliest recorded work—such as Gordon's "Mischievous Lady" a tribute to her—her solos show a blend of motivic and linear improvisation, though they seem to make less use of extended harmonies and alterations.
Her arrangements, especially those with Weston, show a flexibility that transcends her musical upbringing in the bebop 1940s, whether working in the styles of swing, post-bop, African musics, or Motown. Her command of rhythmic gestures, grooves, and polyrhythms is particularly notable (as illustrated in Uhuru Afrika and Highlife). Her instrumental parts demonstrate an active use of harmonic possibilities; although her arrangements suggest relatively subdued interest in the explorations of free jazz ensembles, they use an extended tonal vocabulary, rich with altered harmonic voicings, thick layering, and dissonance. Her work throughout her career has been well received by both critics and audiences alike.
As sidewoman or guest
With Betty Carter
- 1958 Out There with Betty Carter
- 1961 I Can't Help It
With Ray Charles
- 1959 The Genius of Ray Charles
- 1962 The Ray Charles Story, Vol. 2
With Dizzy Gillespie
- 1955 Jazz Recital
- 1956 World Statesman
- 1957 Dizzy Gillespie at Newport
- 1957 Birks' Works
- 1957 Dizzy in Greece
With Quincy Jones
- 1959 The Birth of a Band!
- 1960 Swiss Radio Days Jazz Series, Vol. 1
- 1960 I Dig Dancers
- 1961 Newport '61
- 1961 The Great Wide World of Quincy Jones: Live!
- 1962 The Quintessence
- 1963 Plays Hip Hits
- 1965 I/We Had a Ball
- 1965 Quincy Plays for Pussycats
With Jimmy Smith
- 1963 Any Number Can Win
- 1966 Jimmy & Wes
- 1966 The Further Adventures of Jimmy and Wes
- 1966 Hoochie Coochie Man
- 1969 Jimmy Smith Plays the Blues
With Dinah Washington
- 1957 Dinah Washington Sings Fats Waller
- 1958 Dinah Washington Sings Bessie Smith
With Randy Weston
- 1958 Little Niles
- 1959 Destry Rides Again
- 1959 Live at the Five Spot
- 1961 Uhuru Afrika
- 1963 Highlife (album) - Music from the new African nations featuring the Highlife
- 1973 Tanjah
- 1992 The Spirits of Our Ancestors
- 1993 Volcano Blues
- 1997 Earth Birth
- 1998 Khepera
- 1957 Last Chorus, Ernie Henry
- 1958 Back on the Scene, Bennie Green
- 1959 Rhythm Crazy, Jimmy Cleveland
- 1959 Tales of Manhattan, Babs Gonzales
- 1960 Trane Whistle, Eddie "Lockjaw" Davis
- 1961 African Waltz, Cannonball Adderley
- 1961 At Basin Street East, Billy Eckstine/Quincy Jones
- 1961 Rah, Mark Murphy
- 1961 The Chant, Sam Jones
- 1961 The Soul of Hollywood, Junior Mance
- 1962 Afro-American Sketches, Oliver Nelson
- 1962 Big Bags, Milt Jackson
- 1962 Bursting Out with the All Star Big Band!, Oscar Peterson
- 1962 Rhythm Is My Business, Ella Fitzgerald
- 1962 Snap Your Fingers, Al Grey
- 1962 The Complete Town Hall Concert, Charles Mingus
- 1962 This Is Billy Mitchell Featuring Bobby Hutcherson, Billy Mitchell
- 1963 For Someone I Love, Milt Jackson
- 1963 The Body & the Soul, Freddie Hubbard
- 1964 Mary Lou Williams Presents Black Christ of the Andes, Mary Lou Williams
- 1965 And Then Again, Elvin Jones
- 1966 Roll 'Em: Shirley Scott Plays the Big Bands, Shirley Scott
- 1967 A Mann & A Woman, Tamiko Jones/Herbie Mann
- 1967 Heads Up, Blue Mitchell
- 1968 Listen Here, Freddie McCoy
- 1970 Kim Kim Kim, Kim Weston
- 1973 That Lovin' Feelin' , Junior Mance
- 1978 Skylark, Freddie Hubbard
- Black Music Research Journal, Vol. 34, No. 1 (Spring 2014). Special issue devoted to Melba Liston.
- Ammer, Christine. 2001. Unsung: A History of Women in American Music, 2nd edn. Portland, OR: Amadeus.
- Dahl, Linda. 1984. Stormy Weather: The Music and Lives of a Century of Jazzwomen. New York: Pantheon.
- Hughes, Langston. 1960. Liner notes, Uhuru Afrika. (See discography.)
- Voce, Steve. 1999, April 27. Obituary, in The Independent, London.
- Watrous, Peter. 1999, April 30. "Melba Liston, 73, Trombonist And Prominent Jazz Arranger", The New York Times, C21.
- Miller, S.L. (1992). "Randy Weston & Melba Liston: Together Again, Miraculously". Jazz Times. 22 (1): 24.
- Jessie Carney Smith, Shirelle Phelps (eds.) Notable Black American Women: Book 2. VNR AG, 1996 ISBN 0810391775, pp. 413-415.
- Louise, Ava. "Melba and Her Horn - Accomplishments of the Great Melba Liston". All About Jazz.
- Kaplan, Erica (Summer 1999). "Melba Liston: It's All from My Soul". The Antioch Review. 57 (3). doi:10.2307/4613889. JSTOR 4613889.
- Nicole Williams Sitaraman, "Melba Liston", The Girls in the Band.
- Yanow, Scott. "Melba Liston". AllMusic. Retrieved 15 January 2019.
- Ginell, Richard S. "Randy Weston". AllMusic. Retrieved 15 January 2019.
- "Whatever happened to...Melba Liston". Ebony Magazine. Johnson Publishing Company. June 1977. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- Barg, Lisa; Kernodle, Tammy; Spencer, Dianthe; Tucker, Sherrie (Spring 2014). "Introduction". Black Music Research Journal. 34 (1): 5–6.
- Price III, Emmett G. (Spring 2014). "Melba Liston: Renaissance Woman". Black Music Research Journal. 34 (1): 163.
- Sitaraman, Nicole (25 September 2011). "Unsung Women of Jazz #6 – Melba Liston". Curt's Jazz Cafe.
- Price III, Emmett G. (Spring 2014). "Melba Liston: Renaissance Woman". Black Music Research Journal. 34 (1): 162.
- "Melba Liston | Credits | AllMusic". AllMusic. Retrieved 7 August 2018.
- Interview of Melba Liston, Center for Oral History Research, UCLA Library Special Collections, University of California, Los Angeles.
- "Melba Liston: Bones of an Arranger", NPR
- "Melba Liston: A Sensitive and Daring Arranger", The Scotsman
- "Melba Liston and Her 'Bones", All About Jazz
- Melba Liston at Women in Jazz
- Melba Liston with Randy Weston
- Melba Liston biography at National Endowment for the Arts