|Birth name||Slinger Francisco|
|Born||July 9, 1935|
Grand Roy, Grenada
|Origin||Became Trinidad & Tobago citizen after arriving with parents at 18 months old.|
|Occupation(s)||Musician, producer, Calypsonian, song-writer|
|Labels||Balisier, RCA, National, Recording Artists, Warner Bros., Charlie's, B's, Ice|
|Associated acts||Byron Lee and the Dragonaires|
Slinger Francisco ORTT CMT OBE (July 9, 1935), better known as Mighty Sparrow, is a Grenada-born Trinidadian calypso vocalist, songwriter, and guitarist. Known as the "Calypso King of the World", he is one of the best-known and most successful calypsonians. He has won Trinidad's Carnival Road March competition eight times, Calypso King/Monarch eight times, and has twice won the Calypso King of Kings title.
Slinger Francisco was born in the fishing village of Grand Roy, Grenada, West Indies on July 9, 1935. He moved to Trinidad with his mother, his father having relocated there in 1937. He grew up in Port of Spain. He began singing as a small child, but his love of calypso was discouraged while at Newtown Boys Catholic School, where he sang in the choir. At the age of 14 he joined a steel band comprising neighbourhood boys, and performed with the band at Carnival.
He received his performing name "Little Sparrow" during his early career, as a result of his energetic stage performances:
Your calypso name is given to you by your peers, based on your style. In the old days they tried to emulate British royalty. There was Lord Kitchener, Lord Nelson, Duke. When I started singing, the bands were still using acoustic instruments and the singers would stand flat footed, making a point or accusing someone in the crowd with the pointing of a finger, but mostly they stood motionless. When I sing, I get excited and move around, much like James Brown, and this was new to them. The older singers said "Why don't you just sing instead of moving around like a little Sparrow." It was said as a joke, but the name stuck.— Mighty Sparrow
After a couple of years he changed his stage name to "Mighty Sparrow". On leaving school he began working for the government Control Board, but continued to perform calypso, which became the better paid of the two, and his residency at the Lotus Club made him a star locally.
One of Mighty Sparrow's more well-known songs
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His first performance as a carnival singer came in 1954 with "The Parrot and the Monkey". In 1955, Sparrow made his first recordings "Missing Baby (Ruby)" "High Cost of Living" and "Race Track" for Vitadisc, which were included on the Royalties of Calypso Kingdom compilation a few years later. In 1955 and 1956, he also recorded "Give The Youngsters A Chance", "Family Size Coke", "Goaty", "Clara Honey Bunch" and "Yankee's Back Again" for GEMS, "Jean And Dinah" and "The Queen's Canary" for Kay, and "Sailor Man" for Veejay Special Ace.
In 1956, Sparrow won Trinidad's Carnival Road March and Calypso King competitions with his most famous song, "Jean and Dinah" (aka "Yankees Gone", a song celebrating the departure of US troops from Trinidad). A live performance of "Yankees Gone" was included in the album Jump Up Carnival in Trinidad. His prize for winning the Calypso King title was $40. In protest of the small sum (the winner of the Carnival Queen beauty contest won $7,500), he wrote the song "Carnival Boycott" and attempted to organize other singers to boycott the competition. About half of the singers followed, including Lord Melody. Sparrow claims credit for succeeding improvements in the conditions of calypso and steelband musicians in Trinidad, as well as the formation of the Carnival Development Committee, a musicians' assistance organization. Sparrow refused to officially participate in the competition for the next three years, but he continued to perform unofficially, even winning another Road March title in 1958 with "P.A.Y.E." He did perform at the 1957 carnival in the Young Brigade Calypso Tent, where the four songs he performed were recorded and later released on the album Calypso Kings and Pink Gin.
Sparrow went on to have local hits in 1956 and 1957 with singles such as "Jack Palance", "No Doctor No", and "Sailor Man", before beginning a musical slanging match with Lord Melody, each releasing singles attacking the other. The rivalry went on for several years. In 1957, Sparrow recorded his first album, Calypso Carnival 58, released the following year on the Balisier label.
He again boycotted the carnival in 1959, choosing instead to tour extensively, and early that year released the album Sparrow in Hi Fi before signing a deal with RCA, for whom he recorded eleven albums between 1960 and 1964.
Taking calypso abroad
Calypso music enjoyed a brief period of popularity in other parts in the world during the 1950s. Trinidadian expatriate Lord Kitchener had helped popularize calypso in England, and Sparrow also found some success there. In the United States, interest in calypso was sparked largely by Harry Belafonte's 1956 album Calypso, the first LP to sell over one million copies. In January 1958, Sparrow, along with longtime rival Lord Melody, travelled to New York City seeking access to the American music audience. Sparrow had already been recording with Balisier and Cook Records, and with Belafonte's help he also began to record for RCA Victor. He did not achieve the success he had hoped for; he said in a 2001 interview, "When nothing happened for me, I went back to England and continued on with my career."
In 1960 Sparrow returned to the Calypso Monarch competition, winning his second Kingship and third Road March title with "Ten to One Is Murder" (an autobiographical song about an incident in which Sparrow allegedly shot a man) and "Mae Mae". He also began recording for his own label, National Recording. He won the Road March title in 1961 with "Royal Jail" and won his third Calypso King title in 1962 with "Model Nation" and "Sparrow Come Back Home". He won further titles in the 1960s and 1970s and continued to enjoy great popularity in Trinidad. He recorded prolifically, with forty albums released in the 1960s and 1970s. In the latter half of the 1960s his recordings began to be released in the United Kingdom.
In 1968 he recorded the album Sparrow Meets the Dragon with Byron Lee in Jamaica. Their version of "Only a Fool Breaks His Own Heart" (written by Norman Bergen and Shelly Coburn) gave them an international hit in 1969, earning a gold disc upon its re-release in late 1977 igniting a #2 hit record in 1978 in the Netherlands. 
He had his greatest success internationally in the 1970s, starting with the album The Best Of, featuring live recordings in Brooklyn, New York of Sparrow favorites. In 1974, with Van Dyke Parks as producer, he recorded the album Hot and Sweet for Warner Bros. in Miami, and the following year reunited with Byron Lee for the Sparrow Dragon Again album. He had a big hit in 1977 with "Crawford", a tribute to sprinter Hasley Crawford, and that year embarked on a tour of West Africa, during which he was given the honorary Yoruba title Chief Omo Wale of Ikoyi. In 1978 he recorded the album Only a Fool in London for Trojan Records.
As soca began to supplant calypso in popularity in Trinidad and Tobago during the late 1970s and early 1980s, Sparrow embraced the hybrid of Calypso and Soul fused with the local (Chutney) music. In 1984 he won his eighth Road March title with the soca-influenced "Doh Back Back". Also around this time, he began to spend at least half the year in New York City, finding an apartment in the West Indian neighborhoods in Jamaica, Queens. In 1985 he performed at the carnival's King of Kings show alongside Lord Kitchener, Lord Melody, and Black Stalin, taking the "King of Kings" title and the $10,000 first prize. He would later win the title for a second time. His last major title came in 1992, with "Both of Them" and "Survival" winning him the Calypso Monarch title. He made an appearance at the Reggae Sunsplash festival in 1993. Although less active since the mid-1990s, Sparrow continued to write, perform, and tour into the 21st century; in a 2001 interview he mentioned that he had been singing and performing a "Gospel-lypso" hybrid. In 2008, he released a song supporting Barack Obama's presidential campaign, "Barack the Magnificent". He also did a remake of his "Congo Man" song with fellow Trinidadian Machel Montano on the Flame On album.
In 2010 he left the stage in a wheelchair after a performance in Trinidad, and later that year was hospitalised after suffering an inguinal hernia while performing in Maryland. He made a full recovery and continued to tour internationally. He has been hospitalised several times with complications of diabetes. In September 2013 he was due to receive a lifetime achievement award from the Trinidad & Tobago consulate in New York, but was admitted to a New York hospital where he fell into a coma for two weeks before regaining consciousness.
He returned to public performance in January 2014 with a forty-minute set at a bar in Brooklyn, New York. At the end of the year he was voted 'Express Individual of the Year 2014' by the Trinidad Express.
Sparrow's lyrics are famous for being witty, ironic, and ribald. He sings flirtatiously of the attractions of Hispanic women in "Margarita", and of East Indian women in "Marajhin". He tells some outrageously frank tales of sexuality in "Mae Mae", "The Lizard" and "Big Bamboo". And there is humorous commentary on West Indian culture to be found in "Obeah Wedding" and "Witch Doctor". Robert Christgau called his controversial song "Congo Man" "a wildly perverse piss-take on African roots, interracial revenge, interracial sex, male-female relations, and cannibalism". The 1965 song was criticized for its attitudes toward women and Africans, and banned from radio airplay until 1989.
Sparrow also frequently comments on social and political issues in his songs. During his early career he was a supporter of Eric Williams and his People's National Movement (PNM), which formed in 1955 and led Trinidad and Tobago to independence in 1962; songs such as "Leave The Damn Doctor Alone" and "William the Conqueror" mentioned Williams directly, while others such as "Federation" (blaming Jamaica for the breakup of the short-lived West Indies Federation), "Our Model Nation" (celebrating Trinidadian independence), and "PAYE" (supporting the PNM's pay-as-you-earn tax system) echoed PNM positions. Sparrow did express discontent in 1957's "No, Doctor, No", but it was comparatively mild, and aimed at holding PNM politicians to their promises rather than replacing them. Sparrow cleverly combined political criticism with sexual innuendo in his mid-1960s song "BG Plantain", which decried the ban levied by PM Williams on imported plantain from British Guiana (BG); plantain, a large banana-shaped vegetable, is a staple of West Indian cuisine, and Sparrow praised the BG plantain as larger, sweeter, and superior to the home-grown Trinidadian variety.
One of his most famous hits, "Dead or Alive" (1979), which achieved international acclaim, addressed the tyranny of rulers like Idi Amin, the Shah of Iran and other leaders of the era.
His tongue-in-cheek humor is best expressed by his 1970 hit "Sparrow Dead", which addressed the premature rumors of his death, which persist to this day. Amongst the lyrics of the song:
- "I hear he have Cancer
- I hear he have Yellow Fever
- Something in the bladder
- And a double dose of Leukemia!"
- Two gossip mongers gossipin'
- I stand in a corner listenin'
- Before I could ask who dey talkin' about
- A newspaper boy started to shout
- 'Hey! Extra! Read all about it!
- "Who killed the Sparrow - nobody know . . . "
- Well big mouth Lillian
- Say de funeral was on television
- She picky head cousin say that the coffin cost twenty thousand
- This is why he sell de company
- To pay de doctor and de burial fee!" 
In more recent times Sparrow continues to incorporate social issues into his music. "Crown Heights Justice" is a plea for peace and understanding in the wake of the 1991 Crown Heights Riot in Sparrow's adopted home of New York City. The themes of peace, tolerance, and concern for the poor show up repeatedly in songs such as "Human Rights" (1981), "Capitalism Gone Mad" (1983), and "This Is Madness" (1995).
- Calypso Carnival 58 (1958), Balisier
- This Is Sparrow (1958), Balisier
- Sparrow in Hi Fi (1959), Balisier
- Sparrow (1960), RCA
- The Mighty Sparrow (1960), RCA
- Sparrow's Greatest Hits (1960), RCA
- More Sparrow's Greatest Hits (1960), RCA
- Sparrow Calypso King (1960), RCA
- Sparrow the Conqueror (1961), RCA
- The Calypso King of Trinidad (1961), RCA
- Sparrow Come Back (1962), RCA
- Calypso Sparrow (1963), RCA
- The Slave (1963), RCA
- Sparrow Sings Songs for Lovers (1964), RCA
- The Outcast (1964), National
- Christmas with Sparrow (1964), National
- Congo Man (1965), National
- "Dan Is The Man" (1965), Wirl Records, Jamaica 7"
- "Harry And Mama" (1965), Wirl Records, Jamaica 7"
- Sparrow's Calypso (1965), National
- Tattooed Lady (1966), National
- The Calypso Genius (1966), National
- Spicy Sparrow (1967), Recording Artists
- Sparrow Calypso Carnival (1968), Recording Artists
- Sparrow Meets the Dragon (1968), Spalee – aka Only a Fool – Mighty Sparrow & Byron Lee
- "Jughead" (1969) Tiger, Jamaica 7" (DYNA 868)
- More Sparrow More (1969), Recording Artists
- Bang Bang Lulu in New York (1969), Recording Artists
- Calypso Time (1970), Recording Artists
- Calypso a la King (1971), Hilary
- Sparrow Power (1971), Recording Artists
- Moods of Sparrow (1972), Bestway
- Hotter Than Ever (1972), Recording Artists
- Sparrow Spectacular (1973), WIRL
- Knock Dem Down (1973), Recording Artists
- Hot and Sweet (1974), Warner Bros. – Produced by Van Dyke Parks
- Calypso Maestro (1974), Recording Artists
- Sparrow Dragon Again (1975), Spalee – Mighty Sparrow & Byron Lee
- "How You Jamming So" (1976), Tysott, Jamaica 7" (SP 1002 DSR 4048-A-DT)
- Sparrow vs the Rest (1976), Tysott
- "Witch Doctor" (1976) Tysott, Jamaica 7" (SP 1002 DSR 4048-B-DT)
- Boogie Beat 77 (1977), Semp
- Sparrow NYC Blackout (1977), Charlie's
- Only a Fool (1978), Trojan
- Pussycat Party (1978), SH
- London Bridge (1979), JAF
- Latin Black (1980), Sparrow
- Sparrow Sanford (1981), Charlies
- Sweeter Than Ever (1982), Charlies
- The Greatest (1983), Charlies
- Vanessa (1984), B's
- King of the World (1984), B's
- A Touch of Class (1986), B's
- One Love One Heart (1987)
- Dr Bird (1988)
- Hot Like Fire (1992), Ice
- Dancing Shoes (1994), Ice
- The Supreme Serenader (1998), AR
- Live albums
- Sparrow at the Sheraton Kingston (1963), National
- Sparrow at the Hilton (1967), Recording Artists
- Live Volume Two (1971), Hilary
- The Best of (1971), Strakers – recorded live in Brooklyn
- Major compilations
- Mighty Sparrow Volume 1 (1992), Ice
- Mighty Sparrow Volume 2 (1993), Ice
- Mighty Sparrow Volume 3 (1993), Ice
- Mighty Sparrow Volume 4 (1994), Ice
- The Millennium Series (2000–2001), Mika Enterprises – a series of 40 albums compiling Sparrow's recordings
- Compilation appearances
- Calypso Kings and Pink Gin (Cook Records, 1957)
- Calypso Exposed (Cook, 1961)
- 16 Carnival Hits (with Lord Kitchener) – 1992
- Calypso Awakening from the Emory Cook Collection (Smithsonian Folkways, 2000)
- First Flight: Early Calypsos from the Emory Cook Collection (Smithsonian Folkways, 2005)
Major awards and honors
- 1993 – Chaconia Medal Gold
- 1987- Honorary Doctor of Letters (D. Litt.) from the University of the West Indies
- 2013 – Lifetime Achievement Award, Trinidad & Tobago Government
- 2015 – Officer of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire (OBE)
Carnival Road March titles
|1966||"Melda (Obeah Wedding)"|
|1969||"Sa Sa Yea"|
|1972||"Drunk And Disorderly"|
|1984||"Doh Back Back"|
Calypso King/Monarch titles
|Year||Song 1||Song 2|
|1960||"Ten to One Is Murder"||"Mae Mae"|
|1962||"Sparrow Come Back Home"||"Federation"|
|1963||"Dan Is the Man (In the Van)"||"Kennedy"|
|1972||"Drunk and Disorderly"||"Rope"|
|1973||"School Days"||"Same Time, Same Place"|
|1974||"We Pass That Stage"||"Miss Mary"|
|1992||"Both of Them"||"Survival"|
- Thompson, p. 184.
- j.poet (1994). Sparrow. In Hot Like Fire [CD liner notes]. London: Ice Records.
- Broughton et al (2000), p. 512.
- Thompson, p. 185.
- Biography from Sparrow's official page.
- Thompson, p. 186
- Harry Belafonte article at Donald's Encyclopedia of Popular Music
- Rohlehr, Gordon (2005). "First Flight: Early Calypsos of the Mighty Sparrow". In First Flight: Early Calypsos from the Emory Cook Collection. CD liner notes, p. 8. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Folkways Recordings.
- Interview with the Mighty Sparrow by Ital-K 2001
- Delblond (2003)
-  Chart history of "Only a fool" (song writers Norman Bergen and Shelly Coburn) credited to The Mighty Sparrow with Byron Lee & the Dragonaires in the Dutch Top 40; the record spent 30 weeks on the hitlist, however not in a single run: it entered in June 1969, spending just 3 weeks on the charts peaking at #31, and upon re-entering in the last weekly chart of 1977, it spent another staggering 27 weeks in the charts, peaking at #2 for 5 consecutive weeks in the spring of 1978.
- Thompson, p. 188
- Thompson, 187
- Guilbault (2007), p. 154.
- Thompson, p. 5.
- Dunlevy, T. (2006), "Mighty Sparrow still sings", Montreal Gazette, October 7, 2006. Retrieved September 15, 2013.
- Richardson (2010).
- "Mighty Sparrow recuperating after surgery" Archived May 17, 2014, at the Wayback Machine., Jamaica Observer, July 30, 2010. Retrieved September 15, 2013
- "Sparrow fighting", Trinidad Express, September 9, 2013. Retrieved September 15, 2013.
- "False reports of Mighty Sparrow's death" Archived September 14, 2013, at the Wayback Machine., Jamaica Observer, September 12, 2013. Retrieved September 15, 2013.
- "T&T's New York Consulate confirms Sparrow is alive", Trinidad Express, September 12, 2013. Retrieved September 15, 2013
- "Mighty Sparrow now conscious and responsive, relatives say", Jamaica Observer, September 17, 2013. Retrieved September 18, 2013.
- "Sparrow hits road again", Jamaica Observer, 23 January 2014. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
- "The Birdie Soars", Jamaica Observer, January 1, 2015. Retrieved January 2, 2015.
- Broughton et al (2000), p. 529.
- Robert Christgau's Consumer Guide
- Mighty Sparrow article at Donald's Encyclopedia of Popular Music
- Guilbault (2007), p. 75.
- Hebdige, Dick (1987) Cut 'n' Mix, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415058759, p. 23.
- Broughton et al (2000), p. 513.
- "Mighty Sparrow receives OBE in Queen's Birthday Honours | The Trinidad Guardian Newspaper". www.guardian.co.tt. June 15, 2015. Retrieved March 10, 2017.
- Thompson, p. 6.
- Broughton, Simon et al. (2000) World Music, The Rough Guide: Latin and North America, Caribbean, India, Asia and Pacific, Rough Guides, ISBN 978-1858286365
- Delblond, Michael (February 28, 2003). "Sparrow, 'the lovable rascal'". Trinidad & Tobago Newsday
- Guilbault, Jocelyne (2007) Governing Sound: The Cultural Politics of Trinidad's Carnival Musics, University of Chicago Press, ISBN 978-0226310602
- Harris, Craig "Mighty Sparrow Biography", AllMusic. Retrieved September 15, 2013
- Richardson, Clem (2010) "Calypso king The Mighty Sparrow still flying high", New York Daily News, August 20, 2010. Retrieved September 15, 2013
- Thompson, Dave (2002) Reggae & Caribbean Music, Backbeat Books, ISBN 0-87930-655-6
- De Four, Linda Claudia (1997), Gimme Room to Sing: Calypsoes of the Mighty Sparrow, 1958–1993 : a Discography, University of the West Indies Press, ISBN 978-9768104687
- Johnstone, Graham (1988), The Mighty Sparrow: Calypso Catalogue, Grenada Music
- Kwamdela, Odimumba (2006), Mighty Sparrow, Calypso King of the World, Kibo Books, ISBN 978-0941266321
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