Minuscule 28

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Minuscule 28
New Testament manuscript
Now atNational Library of France
Size23.1 cm by 18.7 cm
TypeCaesarean text-type, Byzantine text-type
CategoryIII / V
Handcarelessly written

Minuscule 28 (in the Gregory-Aland numbering), ε 168 (Soden),[1] formerly known as Colbertinus 4705, is a Greek minuscule manuscript of the New Testament, written on vellum. Palaeographically it has been assigned to the 11th-century.[2][3] It has marginalia. It is lacunose.


The codex contains the text of the four Gospels on 292 parchment leaves (23.1 cm by 18.7 cm), with numerous lacunae. The text is written in one column per page, 19 lines per page.[4]

The words are written continuously without any separation. The letters are "written carelessly by an ignorant scribe",[5] "but containing many noticeable readings".[6] The initial letters in colour.

The text is divided according to the κεφαλαια (chapters), whose numbers are given at the margin, and the τιτλοι (titles of chapters) at the top of the pages. There is also a division according to the Ammonian Sections (in Mark 234, the last section in 16:9), with references to the Eusebian Canons (added by later hand).[4]

It contains the tables of the κεφαλαια (tables of contents) before each Gospel but inaccurate, and subscriptions at the end of each Gospel. It contains also the Synaxarion.[4] The manuscript was extensively altered by a later hand.[5]


Matthew 7:19-9:22, 14:33-16:10, 26:70-27:48, Luke 20:19-22:46, John 12:40-13:1; 15:24-16:12, 18:16-28, 20:19-21:4, 21:19-end). John 19:11-20:20, 21:5-18 were added by a later hand in the 15th century.[4]


The Greek text of this codex is a representative of the Caesarean text-type in the Gospel of Mark, and the Byzantine text-type in rest of the Gospels. Aland placed it in Category III but only in Gospel of Mark, in the rest of the Gospels Aland placed in Category V.[7]

Accordint to the Claremont Profile Method it represents the textual family Kx in Luke 10 and Luke 20. In Luke 1 it has mixture of the Byzantine families.[8]

It contains the Pericope Adulterae (John 7:53-8:11).

In Matthew 10:34 it has singular reading μαχην και μαχαιραν (warfare and a sword) instead of μαχαιραν.[9]

In Mark 9:49 it reads πας γαρ πυρι αλισθησεται – as manuscripts (א εν πυρι) B L W Δ f1 f13 565 700 260 syrs copsa.[10]

In Mark 10:19 — phrase μη αποστερησης omitted (as in codices B, K, W, Ψ, f1, f13, 700, 1010, 1079, 1242, 1546, 2148, 10, 950, 1642, 1761, syrs, arm, geo).[11]

In Mark 10:47 it has singular reading Ναζωρινός;[12]


The manuscript is dated by the INTF to the 11th-century.[3]

It was added to the list of the New Testament manuscripts by Johann Jakob Wettstein, who gave it the number 28.[13] It was examined and described by Mill, Wettstein, Scholz, and Paulin Martin.[14] C. R. Gregory saw the manuscript in 1885.[4]

It is currently housed at the Bibliothèque nationale de France (Gr. 379) at Paris.[2][3]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Gregory, Caspar René (1908). Die griechischen Handschriften des Neuen Testament. Leipzig: J. C. Hinrichs'sche Buchhandlung. p. 49.
  2. ^ a b K. Aland; M. Welte; B. Köster; K. Junack (1994). Kurzgefasste Liste der griechischen Handschriften des Neues Testaments. Berlin, New York: Walter de Gruyter. p. 48.
  3. ^ a b c "Liste Handschriften". Münster: Institute for New Testament Textual Research. Retrieved 2013-09-26.
  4. ^ a b c d e Gregory, Caspar René (1900). Textkritik des Neuen Testamentes. 1. Leipzig: J.C. Hinrichs. p. 135.
  5. ^ a b Scrivener, Frederick Henry Ambrose; Edward Miller (1894). A Plain Introduction to the Criticism of the New Testament. 1 (4 ed.). London: George Bell & Sons. p. 194.
  6. ^ F. G. Kenyon, Handbook to the Textual Criticism of the New Testament, London2, 1912, p. 132.
  7. ^ Aland, Kurt; Aland, Barbara (1995). The Text of the New Testament: An Introduction to the Critical Editions and to the Theory and Practice of Modern Textual Criticism. Erroll F. Rhodes (trans.). Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. p. 129. ISBN 978-0-8028-4098-1.
  8. ^ Wisse, Frederik (1982). The Profile Method for the Classification and Evaluation of Manuscript Evidence, as Applied to the Continuous Greek Text of the Gospel of Luke. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. p. 53. ISBN 0-8028-1918-4.
  9. ^ NA26, p. 26.
  10. ^ UBS3, p. 162.
  11. ^ UBS3, p. 165
  12. ^ UBS3, p. 169
  13. ^ A., Kurt; Aland, B. (1995). The Text of the New Testament: An Introduction to the Critical Editions and to the Theory and Practice of Modern Textual Criticism. p. 72.
  14. ^ Jean-Pierre-Paul Martin, Description technique des manuscrits grecs, relatif au Nouveau Testament, conservé dans les bibliothèques des Paris (Paris 1883), p. 40-41

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]