Mohamed Lahouaiej-Bouhlel

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Mohamed Lahouaiej-Bouhlel
Lahouaiej Bouhlel.jpg
Native nameمحمد لحويج بوهلال
Born(1985-01-03)3 January 1985
M'saken, Sousse Governorate, Tunisia
Died14 July 2016(2016-07-14) (aged 31)
Nice, France
Cause of deathGunshot wound
ResidenceNice, France[1]
NationalityTunisian
Known for2016 Nice attack
Details
CountryFrance
Location(s)Promenade des Anglais, Nice
Target(s)Bastille Day crowds
Killed86
Injured458
WeaponsRenault Midlum cargo truck
.32-caliber handgun

Mohamed Salmene Lahouaiej-Bouhlel (French pronunciation: ​[mɔamɛd lauɛʒ bulɛl]; Arabic: محمد لحويج بوهلالMuḥammad Laḥwiyyij-Būhlāl; 3 January 1985 – 14 July 2016) was a Tunisian terrorist living in France who carried out the 2016 Nice attack, in which he drove a truck into a crowd celebrating Bastille Day on the Promenade des Anglais in Nice, France, killing 86 people and injuring 458.[2] Immediately after the attack, Lahouaiej-Bouhlel was shot dead by responding French police officers.

Life[edit]

Lahouaiej-Bouhlel was born in M'saken, Tunisia, a small town about 10 kilometres (6 mi) outside the coastal city of Sousse. According to police reports, he had a French residency permit and moved to Nice in 2005, where he worked as a delivery-truck driver.[3][4] He trained in martial arts, frequented salsa night clubs, and had an "unbridled sex life".[5] Lahouaiej-Bouhlel was married, and had three children, but was in the process of divorce. He was reported to have had financial difficulties and to have worked as a driver, acquiring a truck permit less than a year before the attack.[6] In January 2016, he fell asleep at the wheel of a van, and was subsequently fired.[7]

His parents are divorced.[8] His father, who lives in the family's native town, told an international news agency that Lahouaiej-Bouhlel suffered from depression, drank alcohol and was a drug user: "From 2002 to 2004, he had problems that caused a nervous breakdown. He would become angry and he shouted ... he would break anything he saw in front of him."[9] Lahouaiej-Bouhlel's sister Rabeb said that his family handed over documents to the police showing that he had been seeing psychologists for several years.[10] His father and his younger brother insisted that the attack "had nothing to do with religion", stating that Lahouaiej-Bouhlel did not pray and never observed the holy month of Ramadan. His brother claimed that Lahouaiej-Bouhlel did not know people, never sent his family presents, and never said hello.[11] He married a French-Tunisian cousin, living in Nice, with whom he had three children. According to his wife's lawyer, he was repeatedly reported for domestic violence and the couple separated.[12]

The Times of India described Lahouaiej-Bouhlel as "mentally unstable", with a tumultuous personal life, which included drug use and consumption of violent online content.[13] Police examination of his phone revealed what Sky News described as a "string" of relationships with both men and women, including an affair with a 73-year-old man.[14]

In the days before the attack, Lahouaiej-Bouhlel let his beard grow[15] and told people "the meaning of this beard is religious." French authorities stated that Lahouaiej-Bouhlel showed a passion for religion only recently;[16][17] "Mohamed only started visiting a mosque in April," a witness stated.[18] French investigator François Mulins stated "Bouhlel had expressed support for the Islamic State."[19][20]

Molins also found that from 1 July, Lahouaiej-Bouhlel made more or less daily Internet searches for verses of the Koran and "nasheeds" –. He also researched the Islamic holiday of Eid al-Fitr. Investigators found photos of dead bodies and images linked to radical Islamism on his computer, including the flag of the Islamic State, the cover of an issue of French satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo – which had been attacked by gunmen in January 2015 – and photos of Osama bin Laden and Algerian jihadist Mokhtar Belmokhtar. He also told friends he did not understand why IS could not hold territory and showed them a video of a beheading on his mobile phone. In response to their shock, he said he was "used to it".[21] In addition, he had searched the Internet for the terms "terrible mortal accidents", "horrible mortal accidents" and "shocking video, not for sensitive souls"[22][23] and consulted news articles on fatal accidents,[23] including on 1 January 2016 an article[24][23] or a photo[25][22] from a local newspaper about a car incident[24] with the caption: "He deliberately crashes onto the terrace of a restaurant".[24][22][23]

According to media reports, Lahouaiej-Bouhlel was known to police for five prior criminal offenses, notably regarding armed violence. On 27 January 2016 he was put on probation for attacking a motorist with a wooden pallet after a traffic accident. He was convicted on 24 March 2016 and given a six-month suspended sentence on charges of violence with a weapon.[26][27][28] Lahouaiej-Bouhlel was last arrested less than a month before the attack after a traffic accident in which he had been asleep at the wheel, and he remained subject to judicial supervision. He was, however, not registered as a national security risk (fiche "S") with French authorities.[6]

Reports say that Lahouaiej-Bouhlel often visited Tunisia, saying the last time he did so was eight months prior to the attack.[8]

Suspected affiliations[edit]

The newspaper Nice-Matin published an interview with an eyewitness who recounted hearing "Allahu Akbar" during the attack from his balcony,[29] with similar reports being circulated by other news organizations[30] and on social media.[31][32] Officials have not confirmed these reports, while the BBC has characterised the claim that this can be heard on a video, as a false social media rumour.[31]

A French prosecutor claimed that the attack "bore the hallmarks of jihadist terrorism."[33] However, a preliminary investigation by French officials has not connected Lahouaiej-Bouhlel to any international terror groups.[34] Amaq News Agency, an online presence said to be affiliated with the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), called Lahouaiej-Bouhlel "one of the soldiers of Islamic State." It cited a "security source" which said Lahouaiej-Bouhlel "carried out the operation in response to calls to target nationals of states that are part of the coalition fighting Islamic State".[35]

Lahouaiej-Bouhlel was not known by Tunisian authorities to have been involved in any terrorism activities on Tunisian soil.[8] His name was not in the French database of suspected Islamic militants.[36] According to a cousin of Lahouaiej-Bouhlel's wife, Lahouaiej-Bouhlel was not a religious person and did not attend a mosque.[28] The Guardian noted that his lack of religious piety is typical for the French and Belgian subjects involved in terrorist rampages earlier in 2016.[37]

French Prime Minister Manuel Valls proclaimed that Lahouaiej-Bouhlel was "probably linked to radical Islam in one way or another", and put the attack in the context of a "war" against terrorism and "extremist" Islam both outside and within France.[38] This allegation was initially cautioned by the French Interior Minister Bernard Cazeneuve, who said "We have an individual who was not known to intelligence services for activities linked to radical Islam" and who could not confirm Lahouaiej-Bouhlel's motives were linked to radical jihadism.[33] The next day, Cazeneuve said "It seems that he [Lahouaiej-Bouhlel] radicalized himself very quickly," early investigations had found.[39]

Bouhlel's uncle, Sadok Bouhlel, stated his nephew was indoctrinated about two weeks prior to the attack by an Algerian member of the Islamic State group in Nice.[40] According to authorities, Bouhlel watched many ISIS beheading videos and researched in depth Omar Mateen, perpetrator of the 2016 Orlando nightclub shooting.[41]

After the attack, newspapers reported, on the authority of unspecified investigators, that evidence found on Lahouaiej-Bouhlel's cellphone showed he may have been in contact[42][43] with individuals in his neighborhood, who were known to the French intelligence agencies as Islamic radicals. However, an intelligence source cautioned this "could just be a coincidence, given the neighbourhood where he lived. Everyone knows everyone there. He seems to have known people who knew Omar Diaby", a known local Islamist believed to be linked with Al-Nusra Front.[42]

2016 attack in Nice and death[edit]

Lahouaiej-Bouhlel's mobile phone, discovered in the truck after he was shot by police, delivered information to the police about his preparations.[44] On 12 and 13 July 2016, Bouhlel returned several times to the Promenade des Anglais, the site of the attack, surveying the area in the rented truck. On 12 July, he took some selfies on the Promenade, as Molins confirmed on 18 July.[22][45][46] Lahouaiej-Bouhlel's brother said he received images of Lahouaiej-Bouhlel laughing among the holiday crowds in Nice hours before the attack.[47]

Lahouaiej-Bouhlel was shot dead by French police officers who were attempting to force him to stop the truck.[48] The French prosecutor said the attack "bore the hallmarks of jihadist terrorism" but that no group had claimed responsibility for the attack,[33] and a preliminary investigation by French officials has not connected Lahouaiej-Bouhlel to any international terror groups.[49]

However, on 16 July 2016, the Amaq News Agency, called Lahouaiej-Bouhlel "a soldier of the Islamic State." It cited an "insider source", which said Lahouaiej-Bouhlel "executed the operation in response to calls to target citizens of coalition nations, which fight the Islamic State".[50][51] Later that same day, ISIL's official al-Bayan radio station said Lahouaiej-Bouhlel executed a "new, special operation using a truck" and "the crusader countries know that no matter how much they enforce their security measures and procedures, it will not stop the mujahideen from striking."[52][53]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Malval, Aurore (15 July 2016). "Ce que l'on sait de l'auteur présumé de l'attentat [mis à jour]". Nice-Matin. Retrieved 15 July 2016.
  2. ^ "France Blames ISIS for Inspiring Terrorist Attack in Nice". The New York Times. 16 July 2016.
  3. ^ "Attentat à Nice : le suspect a été formellement identifié" (in French). Europe1. Retrieved 15 July 2016.
  4. ^ Breeden, Aurelien (15 July 2016). "Live: News on the Attack in Nice, France". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 July 2016.
  5. ^ Charlton, Angela (24 July 2016). "Dancing, drugs, extremism _ multiple lives of Nice". The Big Story. Retrieved 25 July 2016.
  6. ^ a b "Attentat de Nice : ce que l'on sait du tueur du 14 juillet". Atlantico (in French). 15 July 2016. Retrieved 15 July 2016.
  7. ^ Stephen, Chris (16 July 2016). "Nice attack bewilders Mohamed Lahouaiej-Bouhlel's relatives". The Guardian. Bastille Day truck attack. Retrieved 16 July 2016.
  8. ^ a b c "Nice attack: Dozens killed during Bastille Day celebrations". BBC. Retrieved 15 July 2016.
  9. ^ Beaumont, Peter; Fischer, Sofia (15 July 2016). "Mohamed Lahouaiej-Bouhlel: who was the Bastille Day truck attacker?". The Guardian. Bastille Day truck attack. Retrieved 16 July 2016.
  10. ^ "Nice attacker treated for psychological issues before leaving Tunisia: sister". Reuters. 16 July 2016. Retrieved 16 July 2016.
  11. ^ "Live Nice terror attack: Police vans blocking promenade withdrawn hours before as Isil claims responsibility for Bastille Day carnage which killed 84 people". Telegraph. Retrieved 17 July 2016.
  12. ^ "Nice: les auditions des amants et maîtresses de Mohamed Lahouaiej-Bouhlel émergent". Huffington Post-Le Monde. AFP. Retrieved 21 July 2016.[permanent dead link]
  13. ^ "How Nice attack butcher Bouhlel 'took drugs and used dating sites to pick up men and women' : FYI, News - India Today". Indiatoday.intoday.in. 2016-07-14. Retrieved 2016-07-18.
  14. ^ "Lorry Killer's String Of Lovers In Spotlight". Sky News. 5 July 2016. Retrieved 18 July 2016.
  15. ^ Rubin, Alissa J.; Breeden, Aurelien. "Moment of Silence Turns Into Outcry Against Government After Nice Attack". The New York Times. Retrieved 19 July 2016. Mr. Lahouaiej Bouhlel had recently begun to grow a beard, evidently for religious reasons
  16. ^ "Prosecutor: Truck attack on Nice was 'premeditated'". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 19 July 2016. Investigations also showed Bouhlel had grown a beard eight days before the atrocity, telling people "the meaning of this beard is religious". But authorities believe he must have been radicalized very quickly, as he had not shown a passion for religion until recently.
  17. ^ Erik Kirschbaum; Sarah Harvey. "In France, a moment of silence for Nice victims and outbursts of anger at officials". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 19 July 2016. Bouhlel had told people recently that he started growing his beard for religious reasons
  18. ^ Tom Morgan; David Chazan; Camilla Turner (17 July 2016). "Nice killer Mohamed Lahouaiej Bouhlel 'only started going to mosque this April'". The Sidney Morning Herald. Retrieved 19 July 2016. Bernard Cazeneuve, the French interior minister, said the attacker "appears to have become radicalised very quickly", as one neighbour of his estranged wife added: "Mohamed only started visiting a mosque in April."
  19. ^ "Nice, France attacker reportedly recruited by Algerian ISIS fighter, researched Orlando massacre". Fox News. Associated Press. Retrieved 19 July 2016. Paris prosecutor Francois Molins, who oversees terrorism investigations, said Bouhlel had expressed support for the Islamic State
  20. ^ Elena Berton; Kim Hjelmgaard. "Paris prosecutor: Nice attacker searched online for Islamic State". USA Today. Paris prosecutor François Molins said Monday that the truck driver who killed 84 people here last week had expressed support for the Islamic State
  21. ^ "Attack on Nice: Who was Mohamed Lahouaiej-Bouhlel?". BBC. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 16 November 2016.
  22. ^ a b c d (in French) ""Un attentat prémédité influencé par l'islamisme radical" Attentat du 14-Juillet à Nice". La Depeche. 19 July 2016. Retrieved 5 October 2016.
  23. ^ a b c d "Nice attacker grew beard in week before truck rampage – prosecutor". The Guardian. 18 July 2016. Retrieved 23 August 2016.
  24. ^ a b c 'Strategisch, nicht spontan'. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, 22 July 2016. Retrieved 10 October 2016
  25. ^ "Attaque de Nice: un projet "mûri depuis plusieurs mois" avec des complices". Le Monde. 21 July 2016. Retrieved 22 July 2016.
  26. ^ Payton, Matt (15 July 2016). "Nice terror attack: Police arrest killer Mohamed Lahouaiej Bouhlel's wife". The Independent. Retrieved 15 July 2016.
  27. ^ La Rédaction (15 July 2016). "Attentat de Nice: le terroriste présumé, Mohamed Lahouaiej, était connu de la police". Loractu.fr. Archived from the original on 12 August 2016. Retrieved 15 July 2016.
  28. ^ a b Payton, Matt (15 July 2016). "Nice terror attack: Police arrest killer Mohamed Lahouaiej Bouhlel's wife". The Independent. Retrieved 15 July 2016.
  29. ^ "'On a entendu plusieurs fois Allah akbar', les témoins racontent après l'attentat de Nice". Nice-Matin (in French). Archived from the original on 18 July 2016. Retrieved 18 July 2016.
  30. ^ Henderson, Barney; Graham, Chris; Gurney-Read, Josie (14 July 2016). "84 killed in Nice by lorry during Bastille Day celebrations – how the attack unfolded". The Telegraph. Retrieved 15 July 2016. 2:19 am 'Driver was 31-year-old from Nice' The local newspaper, Nice-Matin, said the man driving the truck was a 31-year-old Nice resident of Tunisian origin. The truck driver was said to have shouted 'Allahu Akbar' – God is greatest – before being shot dead by police.
  31. ^ a b Sini, Rozina (15 July 2016). "Nice lorry attack sparks false rumours on social media". BBC News. Retrieved 15 July 2016. This tweeter suggests he can hear Allahu Akbar in the seventh second of this video of the Nice attack [the BBC reported in reference to a tweet sent out shortly after the attack]
  32. ^ "#Nice06 On entend clairement le terroriste qui conduit le camion crier "#Allah Akbar" à la 7ème seconde de la vidéo.pic.twitter.com/7H6XbPATD8". Twitter. 14 July 2016.
  33. ^ a b c "Bastille Day attack in Nice". BBC. Retrieved 15 July 2016.
  34. ^ "Here's What We Know About The Suspect In The Nice Attack". BuzzFeed. Retrieved 15 July 2016.
  35. ^ Williams, Richard A. L. (16 July 2016). "Nice terror attack: Isis claims responsibility for lorry massacre in French coastal city". The Independent. Retrieved 16 July 2016.
  36. ^ J. Rubin, Alissa; Nossiter, Adam; Breeden, Aurelien; Blaise, Lilia (15 July 2016). "Death Toll From Terrorist Attack in Nice, France, Rises to 84". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 July 2016.
  37. ^ Burke, Jason (17 July 2016). "Police and academics search Nice attacker's history for a motive". The Guardian. Bastille Day truck attack. Retrieved 17 July 2016.
  38. ^ "France's Valls says Nice attacker linked 'one way or another' to radical Islam". Reuters. 15 July 2016.
  39. ^ "ISIS Claims Responsibility for Attack in Nice, France". The New York Times. 16 July 2016.
  40. ^ "Nice attacker recruited by Algerian IS member, uncle says". News-Gazette.com. Retrieved 2016-07-18.
  41. ^ Matt Payton. "Nice attacker Mohamed Lahouaiej-Bouhlel watched Isis beheading videos and dated 73-year-old man | Europe | News". The Independent. Retrieved 2016-07-18.
  42. ^ a b "Bastille Day terrorist was radicalised within months and sent £84,000 to his Tunisian family days before attack". The Telegraph. 17 July 2016. Retrieved 23 August 2016.
  43. ^ "Perpetrator of Nice terror attack asked for 'more weapons' before rampage began, authorities say". Los Angeles Times. 17 July 2016.
  44. ^ (in French) "Ce que les enquêteurs ont trouvé dans le portable de Mohamed Lahouaiej-Bouhlel". BFMTV. Retrieved 10 October 2016.
  45. ^ "L'auteur de l'attentat de Nice avait effectué des repérages sur la Promenade des Anglais quelques jours avant l'attentat" (in French). Europe1. Retrieved 17 July 2016.
  46. ^ "Nice attack: Driver 'researched route' earlier in week". BBC News. Retrieved 17 July 2016.
  47. ^ "Exclusive: Brother of Nice attacker says he sent 'laughing' photo amid crowds". Reuters. Retrieved 17 July 2016.
  48. ^ "Latest updates on France lorry attack". BBC News. 15 July 2016. Retrieved 15 July 2016.
  49. ^ "Here's What We Know About The Suspect In The Nice Attack". BuzzFeed. 15 July 2016. Retrieved 15 July 2016.
  50. ^ Williams, Richard A. L. (16 July 2016). "Nice terror attack: Isis claims responsibility for lorry massacre in French coastal city". The Independent. Retrieved 23 August 2016.
  51. ^ "En direct: l'EI revendique l'attentat de Nice via son agence Amaq" (in French). France 24. Retrieved 16 July 2016.
  52. ^ "Attacker in Nice is said to have radicalized 'very rapidly'". The Washington Post. 16 July 2016.
  53. ^ "Isis claims responsibility for Nice attack". The Local/AFP. 16 July 2016.