Nasheed

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A nasheed (Arabic: singular نشيد nashīd, plural أناشيد anāshīd, meaning: "chants") is a work of vocal music that is either sung a cappella or with instruments, according to a particular style or tradition within Islam.

Nasheeds are popular throughout the Islamic world. The material and lyrics of a nasheed usually make reference to Islamic beliefs, history, and religion, as well as current events.[1]

Scholars on instruments[edit]

Some ulama argue that the use of musical instruments is implicitly prohibited in the ahadith. The founders of all four of the major madhabs – Islamic schools of thought – as well as many other prominent scholars, have debated the legitimacy and use of musical instruments. For instance, according to the Hanafi school of thought, associated with the scholar Abu Hanifa, if a person is known to play musical instruments to divert people from god, their testimony is not to be accepted. A majority of Muslim scholars traditionally have held that musical instruments are permissible as long as they are not being used to distract people from worship and push them away from god. Although a minority opposes this view.[citation needed]

According to the widely acknowledged book of authentic hadiths Sahih al-Bukhari of Sunni scholarship, Muhammad taught that musical instruments are sinful:

"Narrated Abu 'Amir or Abu Malik Al-Ash'ari [a companion of Muhammad] that he heard the Prophet saying, "From among my followers there will be some people who will consider illegal sexual intercourse, the wearing of silk, the drinking of alcoholic drinks and the use of musical instruments, as lawful. And there will be some people who will stay near the side of a mountain and in the evening their shepherd will come to them with their sheep and ask them for something, but they will say to him, 'Return to us tomorrow.' Allah will destroy them during the night and will let the mountain fall on them, and He will transform the rest of them into monkeys and pigs and they will remain so till the Day of Resurrection.".[2]

However, there is also evidence for music being permitted: "Narrated Aisha:

Abu Bakr came to my house while two small Ansari girls were singing beside me the stories of the Ansar concerning the Day of Buath. And they were not singers. Abu Bakr said protestingly, "Musical instruments of Satan in the house of Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) !" It happened on the `Id day and Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) said, "O Abu Bakr! There is an `Id for every nation and this is our `Id."[3]

Numerous historical Islamic scholars such as Imam Al-Ghazali and Ibn Sina have also said that musical instruments may be used as long as the songs are not promoting that which is Haraam.[4]

Modern interpretations[edit]

A new generation of nasheed artists use a wide variety of musical instruments in their art. Many new nasheed artists are non-Arabs and sing in different languages, like English, German, Bengali, Urdu, Hindi, Pashto, or Turkish. Some nasheed bands are Native Deen, Outlandish, and Raihan. Other well-known artists are Ahmed Bukhatir, Yusuf Islam (formerly known as Cat Stevens), Sami Yusuf, Junaid Jamshed, Maher Zain, Harris J, Humood AlKhudher, Hamza Namira, Atif Aslam, Raef, Mesut Kurtis, Dawud Wharnsby, and Zain Bhikha.

In the Indian subcontinent, Qawali is famous for the Islamic relationship with spirituality in the national language of Pakistan, Urdu. It is said that many spiritual men like Bhullay Shah, Kabir Singh, Baba Fareed and others spread the message of Islam in Punjabi, Saraiki, and Urdu.

The Grand Masters Of Qawali are said to be Ustad (Teacher like Father) the most famous are Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan and Rahat Fateh Ali Khan.[citation needed]

Appealing to a significant Muslim audience and also leading to performance of such artists at Islamic oriented festivals (such as Mawlid), conferences, concerts and shows, including ISNA.[5] Other artists and organisations such as Nasheed Bay promote an instrument-free stance with anasheed, differing from the current trends of the increasing usage of instruments in anasheed.

The Islamic State (ISIS) is known for the use of nasheeds in their videos and propaganda, notable examples being the chant "Dawlat al-Islam Qamat", which came to be viewed as an unofficial anthem of ISIL,[6] and "Salil al-sawarim".[7] ISIS has also produced nasheeds in French.[8] The 2016 nasheed "Ma vengeance" contains praise of the January 2015 Paris attacks, the November 2015 Paris attacks, and the 2016 Brussels bombings.[9] The 2016 chant "Par Amour" glorifies martyrdom.[10]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Raudvere, Catharina; Stenberg, Leif (15 January 2009). Sufism Today: Heritage and Tradition in the Global Community. I. B. Tauris. p. 76. ISBN 9781845117627. Retrieved 6 January 2014.
  2. ^ Shahih al-Bukhari Volume 7, Book 69, Number 494v: English translation of this hadith here: [1].
  3. ^ Sahih al-Bukhari 952
  4. ^ "What is the ruling concerning Music?". Dar al-Ifta al-Misriyyah. Archived from the original on 2021-06-29. Retrieved 2021-06-29.
  5. ^ "Islamic Music For the New Generation". Ahmed Bukhatir.com. 4 July 2017. Retrieved 17 March 2019. Young Muslim singers are doing just that with Islamic songs called “Nasheeds”
  6. ^ Marshall, Alex (9 November 2014). "How Isis got its anthem". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 29 August 2020. Retrieved 8 September 2020.
  7. ^ Schatz, Bryan. "Inside the world of jihadi propaganda music". Mother Jones. Retrieved 2020-09-08.
  8. ^ Heilpern, Will (31 March 2016). "Pro-Trump, Clinton, Sanders campaign ads spotted next to ISIS videos on YouTube". Business Insider. Insider Inc. Retrieved 3 May 2019.
  9. ^ "Le nouveau chant en français de l'EI « Ma vengeance » justifie le terrorisme en Europe et fait l'éloge des attentats de Paris et de Bruxelles". Memri (in French). 7 July 2016. Retrieved 12 March 2019.
  10. ^ "Un nouveau chant de l'EI en français glorifie le martyre". Memri (in French). 9 February 2016. Retrieved 12 March 2019.

Further reading[edit]

  • Thibon, Jean-Jacques, Inshad, in Muhammad in History, Thought, and Culture: An Encyclopedia of the Prophet of God (2 vols.), Edited by C. Fitzpatrick and A. Walker, Santa Barbara, ABC-CLIO, 2014, Vol. I, pp. 294–298. ISBN 1610691776