Mycoremediation

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Mycoremediation (from ancient Greek μύκης (mukēs), meaning "fungus" and the suffix -remedium, in Latin meaning 'restoring balance') is a form of bioremediation in which fungi-based technology is used to decontaminate the environment. Fungi have been proven to be a very cheap, effective and environmentally sound way for helping to remove a wide array of toxins from damaged environments or wastewater. The toxins include heavy metals, persistent organic pollutants, textile dyes, leather tanning industry chemicals and wastewater, petroleum fuels, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, pesticides and herbicide,[1] in land, fresh water and marine environments. The byproducts of the remediation can be valuable materials themselves, such as enzymes (like laccase[2]), edible or medicinal mushrooms,[3] making the remediation process even profitable.

Pollutants[edit]

Fungi, thanks to their non-specific enzymes, are able to break down many kinds of substances. They are used for pharmaceuticals and fragrances that normally are recalcitant to bacteria degradation,[4] such as paracetamol, the breakdown products of which are toxic in traditional water treatment, using Mucor hiemalis,[5] but also the phenols and pigments of wine distillery wastewater,[6] X-ray contrast agents and ingredients of personal care products.[7]

Mycoremediation is one of the cheaper solutions to remediation, and it doesn't usually require expensive equipment. For this reasons it is often used also in small scale applications, such as mycofiltration of domestic wastewater,[8] and to help with the decomposition process of a compost toilet.

Metals[edit]

Pollution from metals is very common, as they are used in many industrial processes such as electroplating, paint and leather. The wastewater from these industries is often used for agricultural purposes, so besides the immediate damage to the ecosystem it is spilled into, the metals can enter far away creatures and humans through the food chain. Mycoremediation is one of the cheapest, most effective and environmental-friendly solutions to this problem.[9] Many fungi are hyperaccumulators, that means they are able to concentrate toxins in their fruiting bodies for later removal. This is usually true for populations that have been exposed to contaminants for long time, and have developed a high tolerance, and happens via biosorption on the cellular surface, which means that the metals enter the mycelium in a passive way with very little intracellular uptake.[10] A variety of fungi, such as Pleurotus, Aspergillus, Trichoderma has proven to be effective in the removal of lead,[11][12] cadmium,[13] nickel,[14][15] chromium,[16] mercury,[17] arsenic,[18] copper,[19][20] boron,[21] iron and zinc[22] in marine environment, wastewater and on land.

Not all the individuals of a species are effective in the same way in the accumulation of toxins. The single individuals are usually selected from an old-time polluted environment, such as sludge or wastewater, where they had time to adapt to the circumstances, and the selection is carried on in the laboratory. A diluition of the water can drastically improve the ability of biosorption of the fungi.[23]

The capacity of certain fungi to extract metals from the ground also can be useful for bioindicator purposes, and can be a problem when the mushroom is an edible one. For example, the shaggy ink cap (Coprinus comatus), a common edible north-hemisphere mushroom, can be a very good bioindicator of mercury, and accumulate it in its body, which can also be toxic to the consumer.[24]

The capacity of metals uptake of mushroom has also been used to recover precious metals from medium. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland reported an 80% recovery of gold from electronic waste using mycofiltration techniques.[25][better source needed]

Organic pollutants[edit]

Fungi are amongst the primary saprotrophic organisms in an ecosystem, as they are efficient in the decomposition of matter. Wood-decay fungi, especially white rot, secretes extracellular enzymes and acids that break down lignin and cellulose, the two main building blocks of plant fiber. These are long-chain organic (carbon-based) compounds, structurally similar to many organic pollutants. They do so using a wide array of enzymes. In the case of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), complex organic compounds with fused, highly stable, polycyclic aromatic rings, fungi are very effective[26] also in marine environments.[27] The enzymes involved in this degradation are ligninolytic and include lignin peroxidase, versatile peroxidase, manganese peroxidase, general lipase, laccase and sometimes intracellular enzymes, especially the cytochrome P450.[28][29]

Other toxins fungi are able to degrade into harmless compounds include petroleum fuels,[30] phenols in wastewater,[31] polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) in contaminated soils using Pleurotus ostreatus,[32] polyurethane in aerobic and anaerobic conditions such as found at the bottom of landfills using two species of the Ecuadorian fungus Pestalotiopsis,[33] and more.[34]

The mechanisms of degradation are not always clear,[35] as the mushroom may be a precursor to subsequent microbial activity rather than individually effective in the removal of pollutants.[36]

Pesticides[edit]

Pesticide contamination can be long-term and have a significant impact on decomposition processes and thus nutrient cycling[37] and their degradation can be expensive and difficult. The most used fungi for helping in the degradation of such substances are white rot ones which, thanks to their extracellular ligninolytic enzymes like laccase and manganese peroxidase, are able to degrade high quantity of such components. Examples includes the insecticide endosulfan,[38] imazalil, thiophanate methyl, ortho-phenylphenol, diphenylamine, chlorpyrifos[39] in wastewater, and atrazine in clay-loamy soils.[40]

Dyes[edit]

Dyes are used in many industries, like paper printing or textile. They are often recalcitant to degradation and in some cases, like some azo dyes, cancerogenic or otherwise toxic.

The mechanism the fungi degrade this dyes is their lignolytic enzymes, especially laccase, so white rot mushrooms are the most commonly used.

Mycoremediation has proven to be a cheap and effective remediation technology for dyes such as malachite green, nigrosin and basic fuchsin with Aspergillus niger and Phanerochaete chrysosporium[41] and Congo red, a carcinogenic dye recalcitrant to biodegradative processes,[42] direct blue 14 (using Pleurotus).[43]

Synergy with phytoremediation[edit]

Phytoremediation is the use of plant-based technologies to decontamination an area. Most of the plants can form a symbiosis with fungi, from which both the organisms get an advantage. This relationship is called mycorrhiza.

Mycorrhizal fungi, especially arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), can greatly improve the phytoremediation capacity of some plants. This is mostly because the stress the plants suffer because of the pollutants is greatly reduced in presence of AMF, so they can grow more and produce more biomass.[44] The fungi also provide more nutrition, especially phosphorus, and promotes the overall health of the plant. The mycelium quick expansion also can greatly extend the rhizosphere influenze zone (hyphosphere), providing the plant with access to more nutrients and contaminants.[45] Increasing the rhizosphere overall health also means a rise in the bacteria population, which can also contribute to the bioremediation process.[46]

This relationship has been proven useful with many pollutants, such as Rhizophagus intraradices and Robinia pseudoacacia in lead contaminated soil,[47] Rhizophagus intraradices with Glomus versiforme incoulated into vetiver grass for lead removal,[48] AMF and Calendula officinalis in cadmium and lead contaminated soil,[49] and in general was effective in increasing the plant bioremediation capacity for metals,[50][51] petroleum fuels,[52][53] and PAHs.[54] In wetlands AMF greatly promote the biodegradation of organic pollutants like benzene-, methyl tert-butyl ether- and ammonia from groundwater when inoculated into Phragmites australis.[55]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Deshmukh, Radhika; Khardenavis, Anshuman A.; Purohit, Hemant J. (2016). "Diverse Metabolic Capacities of Fungi for Bioremediation". Indian Journal of Microbiology. 56 (3): 247–264. doi:10.1007/s12088-016-0584-6. ISSN 0046-8991. PMC 4920763. PMID 27407289.
  2. ^ Strong, P. J.; Burgess, J. E. (2007). "Bioremediation of a wine distillery wastewater using white rot fungi and the subsequent production of laccase". Water Science and Technology: A Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research. 56 (2): 179–186. doi:10.2166/wst.2007.487. ISSN 0273-1223. PMID 17849993. Trametes pubescens MB 89 greatly improved the quality of a wastewater known for toxicity towards biological treatment systems, while simultaneously producing an industrially relevant enzyme.
  3. ^ Kulshreshtha, Shweta; Mathur, Nupur; Bhatnagar, Pradeep (1 April 2014). "Mushroom as a product and their role in mycoremediation". AMB Express. 4: 29. doi:10.1186/s13568-014-0029-8. ISSN 2191-0855. PMC 4052754. PMID 24949264. The cultivation of edible mushroom on agricultural and industrial wastes may thus be a value added process capable of converting these discharges, which are otherwise considered to be wastes, into foods and feeds
  4. ^ Harms, Hauke; Schlosser, Dietmar; Wick, Lukas Y. (2011). "Untapped potential: exploiting fungi in bioremediation of hazardous chemicals". Nature Reviews Microbiology. 9 (3): 188. doi:10.1038/nrmicro2519. ISSN 1740-1526. Retrieved 26 September 2017. municipal wastewater contains small concentrations of the ingredients of many consumer products and drugs. Many of these contaminants do not lend themselves to bacterial degradation because of distinctly xenobiotic structures.
  5. ^ Esterhuizen-Londt, Maranda; Schwartz, Katrin; Pflugmacher, Stephan (2016). "Using aquatic fungi for pharmaceutical bioremediation: Uptake of acetaminophen by Mucor hiemalis does not result in an enzymatic oxidative stress response". Fungal Biology. 120 (10): 1249–1257. doi:10.1016/j.funbio.2016.07.009. ISSN 1878-6146. PMID 27647241.
  6. ^ Strong, P. J.; Burgess, J. E. (2007). "Bioremediation of a wine distillery wastewater using white rot fungi and the subsequent production of laccase". Water Science and Technology: A Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research. 56 (2): 179–186. doi:10.2166/wst.2007.487. ISSN 0273-1223. PMID 17849993. Trametes pubescens MB 89 greatly improved the quality of a wastewater known for toxicity towards biological treatment systems
  7. ^ Harms, Hauke; Schlosser, Dietmar; Wick, Lukas Y. (2011). "Untapped potential: exploiting fungi in bioremediation of hazardous chemicals". Nature Reviews Microbiology. 9 (3): 184. doi:10.1038/nrmicro2519. ISSN 1740-1526. ligninolytic basidiomycetes and mitosporic ascomycetes, including aquatic fungi, are known to degrade EDCs (nonylphenol, bisphenol A and 17α-ethinylestradiol); analgesic, anti-epileptic and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; X-ray contrast agents; polycyclic musk fragrances; and ingredients of personal care products
  8. ^ Molla, Abul Hossain; Fakhru'l-Razi, Ahmadun (2012). "Mycoremediation--a prospective environmental friendly technique of bioseparation and dewatering of domestic wastewater sludge". Environmental Science and Pollution Research International. 19 (5): 1612–1619. doi:10.1007/s11356-011-0676-0. ISSN 1614-7499. PMID 22134862. Within 2-3 days of treatment application, encouraging results were achieved in total dry solids (TDS), total suspended solid (TSS), turbidity, chemical oxygen demand (COD), specific resistance to filtration (SRF), and pH due to fungal treatment in recognition of bioseparation and dewaterability of wastewater sludge compared to control.
  9. ^ Joshi, P. K.; Swarup, Anand; Maheshwari, Sonu; Kumar, Raman; Singh, Namita (October 2011). "Bioremediation of Heavy Metals in Liquid Media Through Fungi Isolated from Contaminated Sources". Indian Journal of Microbiology. 51 (4): 482–487. doi:10.1007/s12088-011-0110-9. ISSN 0046-8991. PMC 3209935. PMID 23024411. Wastewater particularly from electroplating, paint, leather, metal and tanning industries contain enormous amount of heavy metals. Microorganisms including fungi have been reported to exclude heavy metals from wastewater through bioaccumulation and biosorption at low cost and in eco-friendly way.
  10. ^ Gazem, MufedaA.H.; Nazareth, Sarita (1 June 2013). "Sorption of lead and copper from an aqueous phase system by marine-derived Aspergillus species". Annals of Microbiology. 63 (2): 503–511. doi:10.1007/s13213-012-0495-7. ISSN 1590-4261. Retrieved 25 September 2017. The sequestration of the metal occurred mainly by sorption to the cell-surface with very little intracellular uptake.
  11. ^ Gazem, MufedaA.H.; Nazareth, Sarita (1 June 2013). "Sorption of lead and copper from an aqueous phase system by marine-derived Aspergillus species". Annals of Microbiology. 63 (2): 503–511. doi:10.1007/s13213-012-0495-7. ISSN 1590-4261. Retrieved 25 September 2017. Selected cultures displayed a good sorption capacity of 32 - 41 mg Pb2+ and 3.5 - 6.5 mg Cu2+ g-1 dry weight of mycelia
  12. ^ Joshi, P. K.; Swarup, Anand; Maheshwari, Sonu; Kumar, Raman; Singh, Namita (October 2011). "Bioremediation of Heavy Metals in Liquid Media Through Fungi Isolated from Contaminated Sources". Indian Journal of Microbiology. 51 (4): 482–487. doi:10.1007/s12088-011-0110-9. ISSN 0046-8991. PMC 3209935. PMID 23024411.
  13. ^ Joshi, P. K.; Swarup, Anand; Maheshwari, Sonu; Kumar, Raman; Singh, Namita (October 2011). "Bioremediation of Heavy Metals in Liquid Media Through Fungi Isolated from Contaminated Sources". Indian Journal of Microbiology. 51 (4): 482–487. doi:10.1007/s12088-011-0110-9. ISSN 0046-8991. PMC 3209935. PMID 23024411.
  14. ^ Cecchi, Grazia; Roccotiello, Enrica; Di Piazza, Simone; Riggi, Alex; Mariotti, Mauro Giorgio; Zotti, Mirca (4 March 2017). "Assessment of Ni accumulation capability by fungi for a possible approach to remove metals from soils and waters". Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes. 52 (3): 166–170. doi:10.1080/03601234.2017.1261539. ISSN 1532-4109. PMID 28121266. This latter [Trichoderma harzianum strain] hyperaccumulates up to 11,000 mg Ni kg-1, suggesting its possible use in a bioremediation protocol able to provide a sustainable reclamation of broad contaminated areas.
  15. ^ Joshi, P. K.; Swarup, Anand; Maheshwari, Sonu; Kumar, Raman; Singh, Namita (October 2011). "Bioremediation of Heavy Metals in Liquid Media Through Fungi Isolated from Contaminated Sources". Indian Journal of Microbiology. 51 (4): 482–487. doi:10.1007/s12088-011-0110-9. ISSN 0046-8991. PMC 3209935. PMID 23024411.
  16. ^ Joshi, P. K.; Swarup, Anand; Maheshwari, Sonu; Kumar, Raman; Singh, Namita (October 2011). "Bioremediation of Heavy Metals in Liquid Media Through Fungi Isolated from Contaminated Sources". Indian Journal of Microbiology. 51 (4): 482–487. doi:10.1007/s12088-011-0110-9. ISSN 0046-8991. PMC 3209935. PMID 23024411.
  17. ^ Kurniati, Evi; Arfarita, Novi; Imai, Tsuyoshi; Higuchi, Takaya; Kanno, Ariyo; Yamamoto, Koichi; Sekine, Masahiko (1 June 2014). "Potential bioremediation of mercury-contaminated substrate using filamentous fungi isolated from forest soil". Journal of Environmental Sciences (China). 26 (6): 1223–1231. doi:10.1016/S1001-0742(13)60592-6. ISSN 1001-0742. PMID 25079829. The strain was able to remove 97.50% and 98.73% mercury from shaken and static systems respectively. A. flavus strain KRP1 seems to have potential use in bioremediation of aqueous substrates containing mercury(II) through a biosorption mechanism.
  18. ^ Singh, M.; Srivastava, P. K.; Verma, P. C.; Kharwar, R. N.; Singh, N.; Tripathi, R. D. (2015). "Soil fungi for mycoremediation of arsenic pollution in agriculture soils". Journal of Applied Microbiology. 119 (5): 1278–1290. doi:10.1111/jam.12948. ISSN 1365-2672. PMID 26348882. These fungal strains [Aspergillus oryzae FNBR_L35; Fusarium sp. FNBR_B7, FNBR_LK5 and FNBR_B3; Aspergillus nidulans FNBR_LK1; Rhizomucor variabilis sp. FNBR_B9; and Emericella sp. FNBR_BA5] can be used for As remediation in As-contaminated agricultural soils.
  19. ^ Gazem, MufedaA.H.; Nazareth, Sarita (1 June 2013). "Sorption of lead and copper from an aqueous phase system by marine-derived Aspergillus species". Annals of Microbiology. 63 (2): 503–511. doi:10.1007/s13213-012-0495-7. ISSN 1590-4261. Retrieved 25 September 2017. Selected cultures displayed a good sorption capacity of 32 - 41 mg Pb2+ and 3.5 - 6.5 mg Cu2+ g-1 dry weight of mycelia
  20. ^ Zotti, Mirca; Di Piazza, Simone; Roccotiello, Enrica; Lucchetti, Gabriella; Mariotti, Mauro Giorgio; Marescotti, Pietro (2014). "Microfungi in highly copper-contaminated soils from an abandoned Fe-Cu sulphide mine: growth responses, tolerance and bioaccumulation". Chemosphere. 117: 471–476. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.08.057. ISSN 1879-1298. PMID 25240213.
  21. ^ Taştan, Burcu Ertit; Çakir, Dilara Nur; Dönmez, Gönül (2016). "A new and effective approach to boron removal by using novel boron-specific fungi isolated from boron mining wastewater". Water Science and Technology: A Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research. 73 (3): 543–549. doi:10.2166/wst.2015.519. ISSN 0273-1223. PMID 26877036. The maximum boron removal yield by P. crustosum was 45.68% at 33.95 mg l(-1) initial boron concentration in MSM, and was 38.97% at 42.76 mg l(-1) boron for R. mucilaginosa, which seemed to offer an economically feasible method of removing boron from the effluents.
  22. ^ Vaseem, Huma; Singh, V. K.; Singh, M. P. (2017). "Heavy metal pollution due to coal washery effluent and its decontamination using a macrofungus, Pleurotus ostreatus". Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 145: 42–49. doi:10.1016/j.ecoenv.2017.07.001. ISSN 1090-2414. PMID 28704692. Efficiency of Pleurotus for remediation of heavy metals was found to be highest in the 50% diluted effluent (57.2% Mn, 82.6% Zn, 98.0% Ni, 99.9% Cu, 99.3% Co, 99.1% Cr, 89.2% Fe and 35.6% Pb
  23. ^ Vaseem, Huma; Singh, V. K.; Singh, M. P. (2017). "Heavy metal pollution due to coal washery effluent and its decontamination using a macrofungus, Pleurotus ostreatus". Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 145: 42–49. doi:10.1016/j.ecoenv.2017.07.001. ISSN 1090-2414. PMID 28704692.
  24. ^ Falandysz, Jerzy (2016). "Mercury bio-extraction by fungus Coprinus comatus: a possible bioindicator and mycoremediator of polluted soils?". Environmental Science and Pollution Research International. 23 (8): 7444–7451. doi:10.1007/s11356-015-5971-8. ISSN 1614-7499. PMC 4846694. PMID 26705753. Eating them when foraged from the urban places can provide to a consumer Hg at relatively high dose, while unresolved question is absorption rate of Hg compounds contained in ingested mushroom meal.
  25. ^ [1]
  26. ^ Batista-García, Ramón Alberto; Kumar, Vaidyanathan Vinoth; Ariste, Arielle; Tovar-Herrera, Omar Eduardo; Savary, Olivier; Peidro-Guzmán, Heidy; González-Abradelo, Deborah; Jackson, Stephen A.; Dobson, Alan D. W.; Sánchez-Carbente, María Del Rayo; Folch-Mallol, Jorge Luis; Leduc, Roland; Cabana, Hubert (1 August 2017). "Simple screening protocol for identification of potential mycoremediation tools for the elimination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and phenols from hyperalkalophile industrial effluents". Journal of Environmental Management. 198 (Pt 2): 1–11. doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2017.05.010. ISSN 1095-8630. PMID 28499155. The levels of adsorption of the phenolic and PAHs were negligible with 99% biodegradation being observed in the case of benzo-α-pyrene, phenol and p-chlorophenol
  27. ^ Passarini, Michel R. Z.; Rodrigues, Marili V. N.; da Silva, Manuela; Sette, Lara D. (2011). "Marine-derived filamentous fungi and their potential application for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon bioremediation". Marine Pollution Bulletin. 62 (2): 364–370. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2010.10.003. ISSN 1879-3363. PMID 21040933. The fungus Aspergillus sclerotiorum CBMAI 849 showed the best performance with regard to pyrene (99.7%) and benzo[a]pyrene (76.6%) depletion after 8 and 16 days, respectively. [...] Because these fungi were adapted to the marine environment, the strains that were used in the present study are considered to be attractive targets for the bioremediation of saline environments, such as ocean and marine sediments that are contaminated by PAHs.
  28. ^ Deshmukh, Radhika; Khardenavis, Anshuman A.; Purohit, Hemant J. (2016). "Diverse Metabolic Capacities of Fungi for Bioremediation". Indian Journal of Microbiology. 56 (3): 247–264. doi:10.1007/s12088-016-0584-6. ISSN 0046-8991. PMC 4920763. PMID 27407289. certain fungi possess intracellular networks which constitute the xenome, consisting of cytochrome (CYP) P450 monooxygenases and the glutathione transferases for dealing with diverse range of pollutants.
  29. ^ Pozdnyakova, Natalia N. (2012). "Involvement of the ligninolytic system of white-rot and litter-decomposing fungi in the degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons". Biotechnology Research International. 2012: 243217. doi:10.1155/2012/243217. ISSN 2090-3146. PMC 3398574. PMID 22830035. Ligninolytic fungi, such as Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Bjerkandera adusta, and Pleurotus ostreatus, have the capacity of PAH degradation. The enzymes involved in the degradation of PAHs are ligninolytic and include lignin peroxidase, versatile peroxidase, Mn-peroxidase, and laccase.
  30. ^ Young, Darcy; Rice, James; Martin, Rachael; Lindquist, Erika; Lipzen, Anna; Grigoriev, Igor; Hibbett, David (25 June 2015). "Degradation of Bunker C Fuel Oil by White-Rot Fungi in Sawdust Cultures Suggests Potential Applications in Bioremediation". PLoS ONE. 10 (6): e0130381. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0130381. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 4482389. PMID 26111162. Averaging across all studied species, 98.1%, 48.6%, and 76.4% of the initial Bunker C C10 alkane, C14 alkane, and phenanthrene, respectively were degraded after 180 days of fungal growth on pine media.
  31. ^ Batista-García, Ramón Alberto; Kumar, Vaidyanathan Vinoth; Ariste, Arielle; Tovar-Herrera, Omar Eduardo; Savary, Olivier; Peidro-Guzmán, Heidy; González-Abradelo, Deborah; Jackson, Stephen A.; Dobson, Alan D. W.; Sánchez-Carbente, María Del Rayo; Folch-Mallol, Jorge Luis; Leduc, Roland; Cabana, Hubert (1 August 2017). "Simple screening protocol for identification of potential mycoremediation tools for the elimination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and phenols from hyperalkalophile industrial effluents". Journal of Environmental Management. 198 (Pt 2): 1–11. doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2017.05.010. ISSN 1095-8630. PMID 28499155. When this wastewater was supplemented with 0.1 mM glucose, all of the tested fungi, apart from A. caesiellus, displayed the capacity to remove both the phenolic and PAH compounds
  32. ^ Stella, Tatiana; Covino, Stefano; Čvančarová, Monika; Filipová, Alena; Petruccioli, Maurizio; D'Annibale, Alessandro; Cajthaml, Tomáš (15 February 2017). "Bioremediation of long-term PCB-contaminated soil by white-rot fungi". Journal of Hazardous Materials. 324 (Pt B): 701–710. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2016.11.044. ISSN 1873-3336. PMID 27894756. The best results were obtained with P. ostreatus, which resulted in PCB removals of 18.5, 41.3 and 50.5% from the bulk, top (surface) and rhizosphere, respectively, of dumpsite soils after 12 weeks of treatment
  33. ^ "Biodegradation of Polyester Polyurethane by Endophytic Fungi". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. July 2011.
  34. ^ Harms, Hauke; Schlosser, Dietmar; Wick, Lukas Y. (2011). "Untapped potential: exploiting fungi in bioremediation of hazardous chemicals". Nature Reviews Microbiology. 9 (3): 179. doi:10.1038/nrmicro2519. ISSN 1740-1526. Retrieved 26 September 2017. species of the genera Cladophialophora and Exophiala (of the order Chaetothyriales) assimilate toluene. Aspergillus and Penicillium spp. (of the order Eurotiales) degrade aliphatic hydrocarbons, chlorophenols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAhs), pesticides, synthetic dyes and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TnT). metabolization of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) is reported for the genera Cordyceps and Fusarium (of the order hypocreales), as well as for Pseudallescheria spp. (of the order microascales). The mitosporic Acremonium spp. degrade PAhs and Royal Demolition Explosive (RDX), and Graphium spp. degrade methyl-tert-butylether (mTBE). outside of the Pezizomycotina, Phoma spp. degrade PAhs, pesticides and synthetic dyes. The subphylum Saccharomycotina mostly consists of yeasts and includes degraders of n-alkanes, n-alkylbenzenes, crude oil, the endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) nonylphenol, PAhs and TnT (in the genera Candida, Kluyveromyces, Neurospora, Pichia, Saccharomyces and Yarrowia
  35. ^ Young, Darcy; Rice, James; Martin, Rachael; Lindquist, Erika; Lipzen, Anna; Grigoriev, Igor; Hibbett, David (25 June 2015). "Degradation of Bunker C Fuel Oil by White-Rot Fungi in Sawdust Cultures Suggests Potential Applications in Bioremediation". PLoS ONE. 10 (6): e0130381. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0130381. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 4482389. PMID 26111162. The mechanisms by which P. strigosozonata may degrade complex oil compounds remain obscure, but degradation results of the 180-day cultures suggest that diverse white-rot fungi have promise for bioremediation of petroleum fuels.
  36. ^ Stella, Tatiana; Covino, Stefano; Čvančarová, Monika; Filipová, Alena; Petruccioli, Maurizio; D'Annibale, Alessandro; Cajthaml, Tomáš (15 February 2017). "Bioremediation of long-term PCB-contaminated soil by white-rot fungi". Journal of Hazardous Materials. 324 (Pt B): 701–710. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2016.11.044. ISSN 1873-3336. PMID 27894756. P. ostreatus efficiently colonized the soil samples and suppressed other fungal genera. However, the same fungus substantially stimulated bacterial taxa that encompass putative PCB degraders.
  37. ^ Magan, Naresh; Fragoeiro, Silvia; Bastos, Catarina (December 2010). "Environmental Factors and Bioremediation of Xenobiotics Using White Rot Fungi". Mycobiology. 38 (4): 238–248. doi:10.4489/MYCO.2010.38.4.238. ISSN 1229-8093. PMC 3741516. PMID 23956663.
  38. ^ Rivero, Anisleidy; Niell, Silvina; Cesio, Verónica; Cerdeiras, M. Pía; Heinzen, Horacio (15 October 2012). "Analytical methodology for the study of endosulfan bioremediation under controlled conditions with white rot fungi". Journal of Chromatography B. 907: 168–172. doi:10.1016/j.jchromb.2012.09.010. ISSN 1873-376X. PMID 23022115. the basidiomycete Bjerkandera adusta was able to degrade 83% of (alpha+beta) endosulfan after 27 days, 6 mg kg(-1) of endosulfan diol were determined; endosulfan ether and endosulfan sulfate were produced below 1 mg kg(-1) (LOQ, limit of quantitation).
  39. ^ Karas, Panagiotis A.; Perruchon, Chiara; Exarhou, Katerina; Ehaliotis, Constantinos; Karpouzas, Dimitrios G. (2011). "Potential for bioremediation of agro-industrial effluents with high loads of pesticides by selected fungi". Biodegradation. 22 (1): 215–228. doi:10.1007/s10532-010-9389-1. ISSN 1572-9729. PMID 20635121.
  40. ^ Chan-Cupul, Wilberth; Heredia-Abarca, Gabriela; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Refugio (2016). "Atrazine degradation by fungal co-culture enzyme extracts under different soil conditions". Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes. 51 (5): 298–308. doi:10.1080/03601234.2015.1128742. ISSN 1532-4109. PMID 26830051. This study demonstrated that both the monoculture extracts of the native strain T. maxima and its co-culture with P. carneus can efficiently and quickly degrade atrazine in clay-loam soils.
  41. ^ Rani, Babita; Kumar, Vivek; Singh, Jagvijay; Bisht, Sandeep; Teotia, Priyanku; Sharma, Shivesh; Kela, Ritu (9 October 2014). "Bioremediation of dyes by fungi isolated from contaminated dye effluent sites for bio-usability". Brazilian Journal of Microbiology. 45 (3): 1055–1063. doi:10.1590/s1517-83822014000300039. ISSN 1517-8382. PMC 4204947. PMID 25477943. Aspergillus niger recorded maximum decolorization of the dye Basic fuchsin (81.85%) followed by Nigrosin (77.47%), Malachite green (72.77%) and dye mixture (33.08%) under shaking condition. Whereas, P. chrysosporium recorded decolorization to the maximum with the Nigrosin (90.15%) followed by Basic fuchsin (89.8%), Malachite green (83.25%) and mixture (78.4%).
  42. ^ Bhattacharya, Sourav; Das, Arijit; G, Mangai; K, Vignesh; J, Sangeetha (2011). "Mycoremediation of congo red dye by filamentous fungi". Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]. 42 (4): 1526–1536. doi:10.1590/S1517-838220110004000040. ISSN 1517-8382. PMC 3768715. PMID 24031787. the decolourisation obtained at optimized conditions varied between 29.25- 97.28% at static condition and 82.1- 100% at shaking condition
  43. ^ Singh, M. P.; Vishwakarma, S. K.; Srivastava, A. K. (2013). "Bioremediation of Direct Blue 14 and Extracellular Ligninolytic Enzyme Production by White Rot Fungi: Pleurotus Spp". BioMed Research International. 2013: 1–4. doi:10.1155/2013/180156. ISSN 2314-6133. PMC 3693104. PMID 23841054.
  44. ^ Rabie, Gamal H. (2005). "Role of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Phytoremediation of Soil Rhizosphere Spiked with Poly Aromatic Hydrocarbons". Mycobiology. 33 (1): 41–50. doi:10.4489/MYCO.2005.33.1.041. ISSN 1229-8093. PMC 3774856. PMID 24049473. As consequence of the treatment with Am [Arbuscolar mycorrhize], the plants provide a greater sink for the contaminants since they are better able to survive and grow.
  45. ^ Rajtor, Monika; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia (2016). "Prospects for arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) to assist in phytoremediation of soil hydrocarbon contaminants". Chemosphere. 162: 105–116. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.07.071. ISSN 1879-1298. PMID 27487095. AMF have been considered to be a tool to enhance phytoremediation, as their mycelium create a widespread underground network that acts as a bridge between plant roots, soil and rhizosphere microorganisms. Abundant extramatrical hyphae extend the rhizosphere thus creating the hyphosphere, which significantly increases the area of a plant's access to nutrients and contaminants.
  46. ^ Rabie, Gamal H. (2005). "Role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in phytoremediation of soil rhizosphere spiked with poly aromatic hydrocarbons". Mycobiology. 33 (1): 41–50. doi:10.4489/MYCO.2005.33.1.041. ISSN 1229-8093. PMC 3774856. PMID 24049473. Highly significant positive correlations were shown between of arbuscular formation in root segments (A)) and plant water content, root lipids, peroxidase, catalase polyphenol oxidase and total microbial count in soil rhizosphere as well as PAH dissipation in spiked soil.
  47. ^ Yang, Yurong; Liang, Yan; Han, Xiaozhen; Chiu, Tsan-Yu; Ghosh, Amit; Chen, Hui; Tang, Ming (4 February 2016). "The roles of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in phytoremediation and tree-herb interactions in Pb contaminated soil". Scientific Reports. 6. doi:10.1038/srep20469. ISSN 2045-2322. PMC 4740888. PMID 26842958. Non-mycorrhizal legumes were more sensitive to Pb addition than that of mycorrhizal legumes [...] The presence of AMF greatly increased the total biomass of legumes in all treatments,
  48. ^ Bahraminia, Mahboobeh; Zarei, Mehdi; Ronaghi, Abdolmajid; Ghasemi-Fasaei, Reza (2016). "Effectiveness of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in phytoremediation of lead- contaminated soil by vetiver grass". International Journal of Phytoremediation. 18 (7): 730–737. doi:10.1080/15226514.2015.1131242. ISSN 1549-7879. PMID 26709443. With mycorrhizal inoculation and increasing Pb levels, Pb uptake of shoot and root increased compared to those of NM control
  49. ^ Tabrizi, Leila; Mohammadi, Siavash; Delshad, Mojtaba; Moteshare Zadeh, Babak (2015). "Effect of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi On Yield and Phytoremediation Performance of Pot Marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) Under Heavy Metals Stress". International Journal of Phytoremediation. 17 (12): 1244–1252. doi:10.1080/15226514.2015.1045131. ISSN 1549-7879. PMID 26237494. However, mycorrhizal fungi alleviated these impacts by improving plant growth and yield. Pot marigold concentrated high amounts of Pb and especially Cd in its roots and shoots; mycorrhizal plants had a greater accumulation of these metals, so that those under 80 mg/kg Cd soil(-1) accumulated 833.3 and 1585.8 mg Cd in their shoots and roots, respectively.
  50. ^ Yang, Yurong; Liang, Yan; Ghosh, Amit; Song, Yingying; Chen, Hui; Tang, Ming (2015). "Assessment of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi status and heavy metal accumulation characteristics of tree species in a lead-zinc mine area: potential applications for phytoremediation". Environmental Science and Pollution Research International. 22 (17): 13179–13193. doi:10.1007/s11356-015-4521-8. ISSN 1614-7499. PMID 25929455. Redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that the efficiency of phytoremediation was enhanced by AM symbioses, and soil pH, Pb, Zn, and Cd levels were the main factors influencing the HM accumulation characteristics of plants.
  51. ^ Li, Shao-Peng; Bi, Yin-Li; Kong, Wei-Ping; Wang, Jin; Yu, Hai-Yang (2013). "[Effects of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on environmental phytoremediation in coal mine areas]". Huan Jing Ke Xue= Huanjing Kexue. 34 (11): 4455–4459. ISSN 0250-3301. PMID 24455959. Population of microorganism increased obviously. All the above results show that their ecological effects are significantly improved. AM would promote rhizosphere soil that will help the sustainability of ecological systems in mining area.
  52. ^ Xun, Feifei; Xie, Baoming; Liu, Shasha; Guo, Changhong (2014). "Effect of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPR) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) inoculation on oats in saline-alkali soil contaminated by petroleum to enhance phytoremediation". Environmental Science and Pollution Research International. 22 (1): 598–608. doi:10.1007/s11356-014-3396-4. ISSN 1614-7499. PMID 25091168. the degradation rate of total petroleum hydrocarbon during treatment with PGPR and AMF in moderately contaminated soil reached a maximum of 49.73%
  53. ^ Hernández-Ortega, Herminia Alejandra; Alarcón, Alejandro; Ferrera-Cerrato, Ronald; Zavaleta-Mancera, Hilda Araceli; López-Delgado, Humberto Antonio; Mendoza-López, Ma Remedios (2012). "Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on growth, nutrient status, and total antioxidant activity of Melilotus albus during phytoremediation of a diesel-contaminated substrate". Journal of Environmental Management. 95 Suppl: S319–324. doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2011.02.015. ISSN 1095-8630. PMID 21420227. AMF-plants significantly contributed in higher degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons when compared to non-AMF-plants.
  54. ^ Rabie, Gamal H. (2005). "Role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in phytoremediation of soil rhizosphere spiked with poly aromatic hydrocarbons". Mycobiology. 33 (1): 41–50. doi:10.4489/MYCO.2005.33.1.041. ISSN 1229-8093. PMC 3774856. PMID 24049473. Highly significant positive correlations were shown between of arbuscular formation in root segments (A)) and plant water content, root lipids, peroxidase, catalase polyphenol oxidase and total microbial count in soil rhizosphere as well as PAH dissipation in spiked soil.
  55. ^ Fester, Thomas (1 January 2013). "Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in a wetland constructed for benzene-, methyl tert-butyl ether- and ammonia-contaminated groundwater bioremediation". Microbial Biotechnology. 6 (1): 80–84. doi:10.1111/j.1751-7915.2012.00357.x. ISSN 1751-7915. Retrieved 26 September 2017.