Nenana train station and Parks Highway bridge
|Incorporated||November 17, 1921|
|• Mayor||Joshua K. Verhagen|
|• State senator||Click Bishop (R)|
|• State rep.||Dave Talerico (R)|
|• Total||5.95 sq mi (15.42 km2)|
|• Land||5.89 sq mi (15.27 km2)|
|• Water||0.06 sq mi (0.15 km2)|
|Elevation||351 ft (107 m)|
| • Estimate |
|• Density||63.17/sq mi (24.39/km2)|
|Time zone||UTC-9 (Alaska (AKST))|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC-8 (AKDT)|
Nenana // (Toghotili in Lower Tanana language) is a Home Rule City in the Yukon-Koyukuk Census Area of the Unorganized Borough in the Interior of the U.S. state of Alaska. Nenana developed as a Lower Tanana community at the confluence where the tributary Nenana River enters the Tanana. The population was 378 at the 2010 census, down from 402 in 2000.
History and culture
Nenana is in the westernmost portion of Tanana territory. (The Tanana are among the large Dené language family, also known as Athabascan.) The town was first known by European Americans as Tortella, a transliteration of the Indian word Toghotthele (TOG-uh-TEE-lee), which means "mountain that parallels the river." It was later named for the river and the Nenana people who live nearby. The Nenana people became accustomed to contact with Europeans, due to trading journeys to the Village of Tanana, where Russians bartered Western goods for furs from 1838.
The United States purchased Alaska from Russia in 1867. Early American explorers and traders, such as Henry Tureman Allen, Arthur Harper and Bates, first entered the Tanana Valley in 1874 and 1885.
In 1902 the discovery of gold in Fairbanks brought intense activity to the region. The next year, Jim Duke built a trading post/roadhouse to supply river travelers and trade with the Nenana community.
In 1905 the Episcopal Church, which had missionaries in Alaska, built the St. Mark's Episcopal mission and Tortella School a short distance upriver. The boarding school taught about 28 children of various ages at a time. Hudson Stuck, the Archdeacon of the Yukon, regularly visited the settlement, part of the 250,000 square-acre territory of the Interior he administered. Native children from other communities, such as Minto, also attended school in Nenana.
A post office opened in 1908. In 1915, construction of the Alaska Railroad brought new settlers, who doubled Nenana's population. The railroad connected Nenana to the southern port city of Anchorage. The community incorporated as a city in 1921.
The Railroad Depot was completed in 1923. That year, United States President Warren Harding arrived to drive the final, golden spike at the north end of the 700-foot-long (210 m) Mears Memorial Bridge built over the Tanana River as part of the state's railroad project.
This railroad truss bridge, the longest in the United States and its territories when completed, gave Nenana a rail transportation link north to Fairbanks and Seward, Alaska. The bridge still ranks as the longest span in Alaska and the third-longest truss bridge in the United States.
The construction had encouraged businesses and settlement in town. According to local records, 5,000 residents lived in Nenana by the early 1920s. After the railroad was completed, however, contractors and construction workers left the area. The city suffered an economic slump, and most of the residents migrated to seek work in other places. By 1930, the population had dropped to 291.
Nenana was the starting point for the 1925 serum run to Nome, after diphtheria antitoxin had been transported by rail from Anchorage. It was carried by dog sled to Nome to treat people in an epidemic.
In 1961, Clear Air Force Station was constructed 21 miles southwest. During this construction, many civilian contractors commuted from Nenana. A road was constructed south to Clear, but northbound vehicles had to be ferried across the Tanana River.
In 1967 the community was devastated by one of the largest floods ever recorded in the valley. In 1968 a $6 million bridge for vehicles was completed across the Tanana River, which gave the town a modern road link to Fairbanks and replaced the river ferry. The George Parks Highway was completed in 1971, providing a shorter, direct route to Anchorage.
The federally recognized tribe in the community is the Nenana Native Association, who traditionally spoke the Lower Tanana language. Under the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act of 1971, they have rights of self-government and managing some of their traditional territory. According to the 2000 Census, 41% of the city residents were Native American (or Alaska Natives).
Residents of Nenana sponsor the Nenana Ice Classic, a nature-based lottery. Entrants buy a ticket and pick a date in April or May and a time, to the closest minute, when they think the winter ice on the Tanana River will break up. This lottery began in 1917 among a group of surveyors working for the Alaska Railroad. They formed a betting pool as they waited for the river to open and boats to arrive with needed supplies.
The competition is run as follows: a large striped tripod is placed on the frozen Tanana River and connected to a clock. The winner is whoever comes closest to guessing the precise time when the ice beneath weakens to the point that the tripod moves and stops the clock. Interest in the pool has increased and attracts bettors statewide. This lottery has paid out nearly $10 million in prize money, with the winning pool in recent years being near $300,000.
In the summer of 2008, Nenana suffered heavy damage due to flooding. The Tanana River reached its second-highest level since written record keeping began.
Geography and climate
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 6.1 square miles (16 km2), of which, 6.0 square miles (16 km2) of it is land and 0.1 square miles (0.26 km2) of it (0.99%) is water.
Nenana is located 55 road miles southwest of Fairbanks on the George Parks Highway and 304 road miles north of Anchorage. It is at mile 412 of the Alaska Railroad. The river is ice-free from early May to late October.
|Climate data for Nenana|
|Record high °F (°C)||45
|Average high °F (°C)||−0.4
|Average low °F (°C)||−19.0
|Record low °F (°C)||−67
|Average precipitation inches (mm)||0.54
|Average snowfall inches (cm)||7.7
|Average precipitation days||6||5||4||3||5||8||10||11||8||8||7||7||82|
|U.S. Decennial Census|
Nenana first reported on the 1910 U.S. Census as an unincorporated village. It formally incorporated in 1921.
The Nenana native village reported separately on the 1920, 1940 and 1960 U.S. Censuses with 172, 86 & 33 residents respectively.
As of the census of 2000, there were 402 people, 171 households, and 87 families residing in the city. The population density was 66.6 people per square mile (25.7/km²). There were 210 housing units at an average density of 34.8 per square mile (13.4/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 50.75% White, 0.25% Black or African American, 41.04% Native American, 0.50% Asian, and 7.46% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.49% of the population.
There were 171 households out of which 24.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 31.0% were married couples living together, 12.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 49.1% were non-families. 42.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 3.30.
In the city, the population was spread out with 27.6% under the age of 18, 7.7% from 18 to 24, 22.6% from 25 to 44, 28.9% from 45 to 64, and 13.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 112.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 118.8 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $33,333, and the median income for a family was $40,938. Males had a median income of $46,125 versus $26,094 for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,334. About 13.4% of families and 17.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.9% of those under age 18 and 19.4% of those age 65 or over.
Water is drawn from wells, then treated and distributed via circulating loops. A piped gravity system collects sewage, which is treated at a secondary treatment plant. Most of the City is connected to the piped water and sewer system: 215 homes and the school are served. The remaining homes have individual wells and septic systems.
Refuse is collected by a private firm and hauled to the new Denali Borough regional landfill, located south of Anderson. Electricity is provided by Golden Valley Electric Association. A school provides education for grades kindergarten through 12 (200 students). The Nenana Student Living Center, one of three statewide boarding schools for high school students, attracts students from around the state to attend the local school. The school has an extensive arts program (music, artistic and performing programs), strong academic quality, and vocational studies.
The City has a library with a full-time librarian, internet access and full library services, including inter-library loans. Health clinic services are provided by the Nenana Native Clinic. A regional hospital is located in Fairbanks, 55 miles away. Specialized services include the Railbelt Mental Health & Addiction Services.
Emergency Services have highway, river and airport access. 911 emergency service is available in Nenana; auxiliary health care is provided by Nenana Volunteer Fire/EMS or Fairbanks hospitals. Police service is provide by the Alaska State Troopers.
Economy and transport
Over 40% of the year-round jobs are with government, including the City, Tribe, Nenana School District, Yukon–Koyukuk School District, and highway maintenance by the Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities. Golden Valley Electric Association has a regional office in Nenana. Nenana has a rural lifestyle but has good access to Fairbanks on the major north-south George Parks Highway.
Nenana has affordable housing and low rents. The private sector economy is based on its role as the center of rail-to-river barge transportation for the Interior. Crowley Marine is a major private employer, supplying villages along the Tanana and Yukon rivers each summer with cargo and fuel.
The City also attracts independent travelers with such attractions as the Alaska Railroad Museum, the Golden Railroad Spike Historic Park and Interpretive Center, the historical St. Mark's Episcopal Church (built in 1905), Iditarod dog kennels, and a replica of the sternwheeler Nenana. A heritage center features displays of local culture and history, and is open during the summer tourist season from May to September.
Nenana is a center of dog mushing; a number of world-class teams train in the area. It is also home to a number of artists whose works reflect the local frontier lifestyle. A number of large farms produce quality and specialized crops in some of the best growing conditions in Alaska. The Nenana Ice Classic administration provides employment for nearly 100 locals during the counting and tabulation of entries for the Tanana River ice breakup. Twenty-seven residents hold commercial fishing permits. Numerous Native and non-Native households rely on traditional subsistence foods, such as salmon, moose, caribou, bear, waterfowl and berries.
Taxes: Sales: 4%, Property: 12.0 mills, Special: None
Nenana has air, river, road and railroad access. The George Parks Highway provides road access to Fairbanks and Anchorage. A boat landing at the end of 10th street turning west off the George Parks Highway provides free boat access to the Nenana River. A short distance north of the landing is the confluence of the Nenana and Tanana rivers, so boaters have easy access to the river system of the Tanana River and Minto Flats. The boat landing is used by hundreds of hunters and outdoor enthusiasts each year.
The railroad provides daily freight service. The Nenana Municipal Airport offers two landing areas: a lighted, asphalt runway 5,000 feet long by 100 feet wide, and an airstrip, turf, 2,520 feet long by 80 feet wide. The airport also has landing areas for float planes and ski planes. The Nenana Port Authority operates the dry cargo loading and unloading facilities, dock, bulkhead, and warehouse. The Tanana River is shallow, with a maximum draft for loaded river barges of 4.5 feet; by comparison, the Yukon River has few shallow areas.
It was also featured in the BBC World Series Alaska.
- 1996 Alaska Municipal Officials Directory. Juneau: Alaska Municipal League/Alaska Department of Community and Regional Affairs. January 1996. p. 101.
- "2016 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved Jun 22, 2017.
- "Annual Estimates of the Population for Incorporated Places in Alaska". United States Census Bureau. 2008-07-10. Archived from the original on 2008-09-12. Retrieved 2008-07-14.
- "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved June 9, 2017.
- UAF: Alaska Native Place Names
- Guide to Collection: St. Mark's Mission, Nenana, Alaska; "Biographical/Historical Note" Archived 2016-01-29 at the Wayback Machine., 2010, State of Alaska Library, accessed 22 September 2013
- "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
- "NENANA MUNI AP, AK (506309)". Western Regional Climate Center. Retrieved November 19, 2015.
- "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Archived from the original on May 12, 2015. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 2013-09-11. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
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