Ngāpuhi

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Ngāpuhi
Iwi (tribe) in Māoridom
The Northland Peninsula
Rohe (region)Northland
Waka (canoe)Māmari, Ngātokimatawhaorua, Māhūhū, Ruakaramea, Tainui, Matawhaorua
Population165,201[1]
Websitehttp://www.ngapuhi.iwi.nz/

Ngāpuhi (or Ngā Puhi) is a Māori iwi associated with the Northland regions of New Zealand centred in the Hokianga, the Bay of Islands, and Whangārei.[2][3]

According to the 2018 New Zealand census, the estimated population of Ngāpuhi is 165,201.[1] This compares to 125,601 in 2001,[4] 102,981 in 2006,[5] and 122,214 in 2013.[6] It is formed from 150 hapū or subtribes, with 55 marae.[3]

Despite such diversity, the people of Ngāpuhi maintain their shared history and self-identity.[citation needed] Te Rūnanga ā Iwi o Ngāpuhi, based in Kaikohe, administers the iwi. The Rūnanga acts on behalf of the iwi in consultations with the New Zealand government.[7] It also ensures the equitable distribution of benefits from the 1992 fisheries settlement[citation needed][8] with the government, and undertakes resource management and education initiatives.

History[edit]

Foundations[edit]

The founding ancestor of Ngāpuhi is Rāhiri, the son of Tauramoko and Te Hauangiangi. Tauramoko was a descendant of Kupe, from Matawhaorua, and Nukutawhiti, of the Ngātokimatawhaorua canoe. Te Hauangiangi was the daughter of Puhi, who captained the Mataatua canoe northwards from the Bay of Plenty. Rāhiri was born at Whiria pā, near Opononi in the Hokianga.[9] The early tribes led by Rāhiri's descendants lived in the Hokianga, Kaikohe, and Pouerua areas.[10]

Through intermarriage with other iwi and expansionist land migration, the descendants of Rāhiri formed tribes across the Northland peninsula. These actions also fostered ties with neighbouring iwi. Auha and Whakaaria, for example, led expansion eastward from Kaikohe and Pouērua into the Bay of Islands area, overrunning and often intermarrying with Ngāi Tāhuhu, Ngāti Manaia, Te Wahineiti and Ngāti Miru. These tribes in the east were the first to use the name Ngāpuhi. As the eastern and western groups merged, the name came to describe all the tribes settled in the Hokianga and Bay of Islands. In the late 1700s and early 1800s, the Ngāpuhi tribes pushed further east through the southern Bay of Islands to the open coast, absorbing tribes such as Ngāti Manu, Te Kapotai, Te Uri o Rata, Ngare Raumati, and Ngātiwai.[10]

Hosting the first Christian mission[edit]

Ruatara was chief of the Ngāpuhi from 1812 to his death in 1815. In 1814, he invited the Rev. Samuel Marsden to set up the first ever Christian mission in New Zealand on Ngāpuhi land. The presence of these influential Pākehā secured Ruatara's access to European plants, technology and knowledge, which he distributed to other Māori, thus increasing his mana. After the death of Ruatara, his uncle Hongi Hika became protector of the mission.

Thomas Kendall, John King, and William Hall, missionaries of the Church Missionary Society, founded the first mission station in Oihi Bay (a small cove in the north-east of Rangihoua Bay) in the Bay of Islands in 1814 and over the next decades established farms and schools in the area.[11] In 1823 Rev. Henry Williams and his wife Marianne established a mission station at Paihia on land owned by Ana Hamu, the wife of Te Koki.[12][13][14][11] In 1826, Henry's brother William and his wife Jane joined the CMS mission at Paihia. Marianne and Jane Williams established schools for the Ngāpuhi. William Williams lead the CMS missionaries in the translation of the Bible and other Christian literature; with the first chapters of the Māori Bible being printed at Paihia by William Colenso in 1827. The missionaries did not succeed in converting a single Māori until 1830 when Rawiri Taiwhanga (1818–1874), a Ngāpuhi chief, was baptised.[15][16] Ruatara and Hongi Hika themselves welcomed the missionaries' presence, but did not convert.[17] Hōne Heke attended the CMS mission school at Kerikeri and Heke and his wife Ono, were baptised in 1835.[11]

Musket Wars[edit]

By the early 19th century, the Bay of Islands had become a prominent shipping port in New Zealand. Through increased trade with Europeans, initiated by Ruatara, Ngāpuhi gained greater access to European weapons, including muskets. Armed with European firearms, Ngāpuhi, led by Hongi Hika, launched a series of expansionist campaigns, with resounding slaughters across Northland and in the Waikato and Bay of Plenty.[18]

United Tribes of New Zealand and the Declaration of Independence[edit]

On 28 October 1835, various Northland chiefs, primarily from the Ngāpuhi tribe, met at Waitangi with British resident James Busby and signed the Declaration of the Independence of New Zealand, proclaiming the United Tribes of New Zealand. In 1836, the Crown received and recognized the United Tribes' independence under King William IV. By 1839, 52 chiefs from around Northland and central North Island had signed the Declaration, including most Ngāpuhi chiefs and Pōtatau Te Wherowhero, ariki of the Tainui tribes of the Waikato (iwi).[19]

Flagstaff War and re-erection of the flagstaff[edit]

In 1840, the Ngāpuhi chiefs were all signatories to the Treaty of Waitangi. However, from 1845 to 1846, Ngāpuhi fought against the British Crown over treaty disputes and European encroachment and interference. The Māori forces were led by Te Ruki Kawiti and Hōne Heke, who instigated the war when he chopped down the flagpole at Kororāreka to commence what is sometimes called the Flagstaff War. The British did not fight alone but had Ngāpuhi allies; Tāmati Wāka Nene had given the government assurances of the good behaviour of the Ngāpuhi and he felt that Hōne Heke had betrayed his trust in instigating the Flagstaff War.

The outcome of the Flagstaff War is a matter of some debate. Although the war was widely lauded as a British victory,[20] it is clear that the outcome was somewhat more complex, even contentious. The flagstaff which had proved so controversial was not re-erected by the colonial government. Whilst the Bay of Islands and Hokianga was still nominally under British influence, the fact that the Government's flag was not re-erected was symbolically very significant. Such significance was not lost on Henry Williams, who, writing to E. G. Marsh on 28 May 1846, stating that "the flag-staff in the Bay is still prostrate, and the natives here rule. These are humiliating facts to the proud Englishman, many of whom thought they could govern by a mere name."[21][22]

The legacy of Kawiti's rebellion during the Flagstaff War was that during the time of Governor Grey and Governor Thomas Gore Browne, the colonial administrators were obliged to take account of opinions of the Ngāpuhi before taking action in the Hokianga and Bay of Islands.

The Waitangi Tribunal in The Te Roroa Report 1992 (Wai 38) state that "[a]fter the war in the north, government policy was to place a buffer zone of European settlement between Ngāpuhi and Auckland. This matched Ngati Whatua's desire to have more settlers and townships, a greater abundance of trade goods and protection from Ngāpuhi, their traditional foe."[23]

The flagstaff that now stands at Kororareka was erected in January 1858 at the direction of Kawiti's son Maihi Paraone Kawiti, as a signal to Governor Thomas Gore Browne, that Maihi did not follow his father's path. In a symbolic act, the 400 Ngāpuhi warriors involved in preparing and erecting the flagpole were selected from the "rebel" forces of Kawiti and Heke – that is, Ngāpuhi from the hapū of Tāmati Wāka Nene (who had fought as allies of the British forces during the Flagstaff War), observed, but did not participate in the erection of the fifth flagpole. The restoration of the flagpole was presented by Maihi Paraone Kawiti was a voluntary act on the part of the Ngāpuhi that had cut it down on 11 March 1845, and they would not allow any other to render any assistance in this work.[24] The erection of the fifth flagstaff at Kororareka by the Ngāpuhi warriors who had conducted the Flagstaff War, and not by government decree, indicates the colonial government did not want to risk any further confrontation with the Ngāpuhi. The continuing symbolism of the fifth flagpole at Kororareka is that it exists because of the goodwill of the Ngāpuhi.

Notwithstanding the achievements of Te Ruki Kawiti and Hōne Heke in pushing back colonial government control over the Ngāpuhi, in the years after the Flagstaff War over 2,000 km2 of Ngāpuhi land was alienated from Māori control. As part of Maihi Paraone Kawiti's erection of the fifth flagpole at Kororareka, he offered the Governor all the lands between Karetu and Moerewa to north of Waiomio and as far south as the Ruapekapeka Pa. Tawai Kawiti described this offer of land as being "a whariki" (or mat) for the flag to repose on. The offer was accepted but was paid for at half the land's value.[25]

20th and 21st centuries[edit]

Amidst cultural and economic decline, the twentieth century saw a steady migration of Ngāpuhi Māori from Northland into other regions of the North Island, mainly Auckland, Waikato and the Bay of Plenty. In part, this has seen the organisation of Ngāpuhi into large geographic and urban divisions.[26]

Kia tū tika ai te whare tapu o Ngāpuhi.
(May the sacred house of Ngāpuhi always stand firm.)

— Ngāpuhi motto

The whārenui of Ōkorihi marae burned down in 2003.[2]

Waitangi Tribunal – Te Paparahi o te Raki (Wai 1040)[edit]

In 2010, the Waitangi Tribunal began hearings into the Ngāpuhi's claim that sovereignty was not given up in their signing of the Treaty of Waitangi.[27] The Tribunal, in Te Paparahi o te Raki inquiry (Wai 1040),[28] considered the Māori and Crown understandings of He Whakaputanga o te Rangatiratanga / The Declaration of Independence 1835 and Te Tiriti o Waitangi / the Treaty of Waitangi 1840.

Many of the arguments used were outlined in Paul Moon's 2002 book Te Ara Ki Te Tiriti: The Path to the Treaty of Waitangi, which argued that not only did the Māori signatories have no intention of transferring sovereignty, but that at the time the British government and James Busby did not wish to acquire it and that the developments and justifications leading to the present state were later developments.[29] A common Ngāpuhi interpretation of the Declaration of the United Tribes is that the British government was simply recognizing Māori independence and putting the world on check, merely re-asserting sovereignty that had existed from "time immemorial".[30]

The Te Paparahi o Te Raki stage 1 inquiry hearings phase was intended to reach conclusions as to the meaning and effect of the treaty for the Crown and Te Raki Māori in 1840.[31] Hearings began in May 2010 and on 14 November 2014, the Te Raki stage 1 report handover took place at Te Tii Marae, Waitangi.

The key conclusion of the stage 1 report was that the treaty signatories did not cede sovereignty in February 1840.[32][33] "That is, they did not cede authority to make and enforce law over their people or their territories." The rangatira did, however, agree "to share power and authority with Britain".[34]

The consequences of the findings in the stage 1 report were considered in the Te Raki stage 2 inquiry, with the Tribunal hearings considering issues including the immediate aftermath of the Treaty of Waitangi, the Flagstaff War and Crown pre-emption (the right of the Crown to acquire Māori land that is addressed in the treaty).

Hapū and marae[edit]

Name[2] Takiwā[2] Marae (meeting grounds)[2]
Kōhatutaka Ngāpuhi Hokianga ki te Raki Mangamuka Marae, Te Arohanui / Mangataipa
Māhurehure Ngā Ngaru o Hokianga Māhuri Marae, Moehau Marae, Arohamauora, Ōtātara, Tāheke, Tuhirangi Marae
Ngā Uri o Puhatahi Te Takiwā o Ngāpuhi ki Whangārei Omauri
Ngāi Tāwake Ngāpuhi ki te Hauāuru, Te Rūnanga o Taumārere ki Rākaumangamanga Pukerātā Marae, Tauwhara
Ngāi Tāwake ki te Moana Ngāpuhi Hokianga ki te Raki Mokonuiārangi Marae, Puketawa, Tauratumaru
Ngāi Tāwake ki te Tuawhenua Ngāpuhi Hokianga ki te Raki Piki te Aroha / Rāhiri
Ngāi Tāwake ki te Waoku Ngāpuhi ki te Hauāuru Kaingahoa Mataraua, Ngāi Tāwake Marae, Paripari Marae, Te Huehue Marae
Ngāi Tū Te Auru Ngāpuhi ki te Hauāuru, west coast Pukerātā Marae
Ngāti Hao Ngāpuhi Hokianga ki te Raki, Te Takiwā o Ngāpuhi ki Whangārei Paremata Marae, Piki te Aroha / Rāhiri, Puketawa, Tauratumaru, Pehiaweri, Whakapara
Ngāti Hau Te Takiwā o Ngāpuhi ki Whangārei, Ngā Ngaru o Hokianga Akerama, Ngāraratunua Marae, Pehiaweri, Whakapara, Te Pīti / Ōmanaia
Ngāti Hine Te Takiwā o Ngāti Hine, Ngāpuhi ki te Hauāuru, Te Takiwā o Ngāpuhi ki Whangārei Horomanga Marae, Kaikou, Kawiti Marae, Matawaia, Maungārongo, Miria Marae, Mohinui, Mōtatau, Ōtiria, Parakao Marae, Tau Henare Marae, Te Rito Marae, Ngāti Kahu o Torongare, Ngāti Kōpaki, Ngāti Ngāherehere, Ngāti Te Ara, Ngāti Te Tāwera, Te Kau i Mua, Te Orewai, Ngāraratunua Marae, Te Hūruhi, Tereawatea Marae[35]
Ngāti Hineira Te Rūnanga o Taumārere ki Rākaumangamanga Parawhenua Marae, Rāwhitiroa / Te Ahuahu Marae, Tauwhara
Ngāti Hinemutu Ngāpuhi ki te Hauāuru Parihaka, Ōkorihi
Ngāti Horahia Pākotai Parahaki, Parakao Marae, Te Oruoru Marae, Te Tārai o Rāhiri
Ngāti Kahu o Torongare Te Takiwā o Ngāpuhi ki Whangārei, Te Takiwā o Ngāti Hine Ngāraratunua, Mohinui
Ngāti Kairewa Ngā Ngaru o Hokianga Mātai Aranui Marae, Mōria, Pā te Aroha Marae
Ngāti Kawa Te Rūnanga o Taumārere ki Rākaumangamanga Oromāhoe Marae, Te Tii Waitangi, Waitangi Upper Marae
Ngāti Kerewheti Ngā Ngaru o Hokianga Mātai Aranui Marae, Mōria, Pā te Aroha Marae
Ngāti Kiriahi Te Rūnanga o Taumārere ki Rākaumangamanga Ngāwhā Marae
Ngāti Kōpaki Te Takiwā o Ngāti Hine Ōtiria
Ngāti Korohue Te Rūnanga o Taumārere ki Rākaumangamanga Parawhenua Marae
Ngāti Korokoro Ngā Ngaru o Hokianga Kōkōhuia / Ōmāpere, Pākanae, Te Whakamaharatanga / Waimamaku, Waiwhatawhata / Aotea
Ngāti Kura Ngāpuhi ki te Hauāuru, Te Rūnanga o Taumārere ki Rākaumangamanga Kohewhata, Te Kotahitanga Marae, Matuari / Te Tāpui
Ngāti Kuta Taiāmai ki te Marangai Te Rāwhiti / Omakiwi
Ngāti Māhia Ngāpuhi ki te Hauāuru Te Hūruhi, Ururangi Marae
Ngāti Manu Taiāmai ki te Marangai Kāretu Marae
Ngāti Mau Te Rūnanga o Taumārere ki Rākaumangamanga Ngāwhā Marae, Wharengaere
Ngāti Miru Te Rūnanga o Taumārere ki Rākaumangamanga Matuari / Te Tāpui
Ngāti Moe Pākotai Parakao Marae, Te Oruoru Marae, Te Tārai o Rāhiri
Ngāti Moerewa Ngāpuhi ki te Hauāuru Te Hungāiti, Te Maata, Te Rīngi, Māhūhū ki te Rangi Marae
Ngāti Moko Te Rūnanga o Taumārere ki Rākaumangamanga Waitangi Upper Marae
Ngāti Ngāherehere Te Takiwā o Ngāti Hine Matawaia
Ngāti Pākau Ngā Ngaru o Hokianga Māhuri Marae, Tāheke Marae
Ngāti Pare Taiāmai ki te Marangai Waikare / Te Tūruki
Ngāti Rāhiri Te Rūnanga o Taumārere ki Rākaumangamanga Te Tii Waitangi, Oromāhoe Marae
Ngāti Rangi Ngāpuhi ki te Hauāuru, Te Rūnanga o Taumārere ki Rākaumangamanga Kaingahoa Mataraua, Te Hungāiti, Te Maata, Ngāwhā Marae
Ngāti Rauwawe Ngā Ngaru o Hokianga Tāheke Marae
Ngāti Rēhia Te Rūnanga o Taumārere ki Rākaumangamanga Hiruhārama Hou Marae, Korokota, Mātoa, Maungārongo, Tākou Marae, Tauwhara, Whitiora Marae
Ngāti Ruamahue Te Rūnanga o Taumārere ki Rākaumangamanga Various
Ngāti Tautahi Ngāpuhi ki te Hauāuru, Te Rūnanga o Taumārere ki Rākaumangamanga Parihaka, Te Kotahitanga Marae, Ōkorihi, Tākou Marae, Te Whetū Marama
Ngāti Tawake ki te Tuawhenua Te Rūnanga o Taumārere ki Rākaumangamanga Tauwhara
Ngāti Te Ara Te Takiwā o Ngāti Hine Ōtiria
Ngāti Te Pou Ngā Ngaru o Hokianga Kōkōhuia / Ōmāpere, Mātai Aranui Marae, Mōria, Pā te Aroha Marae, Te Pīti / Ōmanaia, Te Whakamaharatanga / Waimamaku
Ngāti Te Rēinga Ngāpuhi Hokianga ki te Raki Waihou / Waimirirangi
Ngāti Te Rino Pākotai Maungārongo, Parahaki Marae, Parakao Marae, Te Oruoru Marae, Te Tārai o Rāhiri
Ngāti Te Tāwera Te Takiwā o Ngāti Hine Mōtatau
Ngāti Toki Pākotai Parahaki Marae, Parakao Marae, Te Oruoru Marae, Te Tārai o Rāhiri
Ngāti Torehina Te Rūnanga o Taumārere ki Rākaumangamanga Wharengaere
Ngāti Toro Ngāpuhi Hokianga ki te Raki, Ngā Ngaru o Hokianga Mataitaua, Mokonuiārangi Marae, Paremata Marae, Piki te Aroha / Rāhiri, Puketawa, Rangatahi Marae, Motukiore, Tauratumaru Marae
Ngāti Tuapango Ngā Ngaru o Hokianga, Te Rūnanga o Taumārere ki Rākaumangamanga Matahuru Papakainga, Mōria, Pā te Aroha Marae, Tākou
Ngāti Ueoneone Ngāpuhi ki te Hauāuru Ōkorihi
Ngāti Wai Ngā Ngaru o Hokianga Various
Ngāti Whakaeke Ngāpuhi ki te Hauāuru, Te Takiwā o Ngāti Hine, Te Rūnanga o Taumārere ki Rākaumangamanga Te Kotahitanga Marae, Mātoa, Tākou, Parahaki Marae
Ngāti Whakaminenga Pākotai Te Kiore
Ngāti Whārara Ngā Ngaru o Hokianga Kōkōhuia / Ōmāpere, Pākanae, Waiwhatawhata / Aotea
Patukeha Taiāmai ki te Marangai Kaingahoa Rāwhiti, Te Rāwhiti / Omakiwi
Takoto Kē Ngāpuhi ki te Hauāuru Kohewhata, Te Kotahitanga Marae
Te Hikutu Ngā Ngaru o Hokianga Mātai Aranui Marae, Mōria, Pā te Aroha Marae
Te Honihoni Ngāpuhi Hokianga ki te Raki Puketawa, Tauratumaru Marae
Te Kapotai Bay of Islands Kororareka, Waikare / Te Tūruki, Rāwhitiroa / Te Ahuahu Marae, Waikare / Te Tūruki
Te Kau i Mua Te Takiwā o Ngāti Hine Matawaia
Te Kumutu Pākotai Parahaki Marae, Te Oruoru Marae
Te Māhurehure Te Rūnanga o Taumārere ki Rākaumangamanga Te Raukura Marae
Te Ngahengahe Ngāpuhi Hokianga ki te Raki Mokonuiārangi Marae, Rangatahi Marae
Te Orewai Te Takiwā o Ngāti Hine Tau Henare Marae
Te Parawhau Te Takiwā o Ngāpuhi ki Whangārei, Te Takiwā o Ngāti Hine Ngāraratunua, Pehiaweri, Toetoe Marae, Korokota, Maungārongo, Parakao Marae, Tangiterōria Marae
Te Patuharakeke Te Takiwā o Ngāpuhi ki Whangārei Takahiwai
Te Popoto Ngāpuhi Hokianga ki te Raki, Te Rūnanga o Taumārere ki Rākaumangamanga Rangatahi Marae, Tauratumaru Marae, Rāwhitiroa / Te Ahuahu Marae
Te Poukā Ngā Ngaru o Hokianga Kōkōhuia / Ōmāpere, Pākanae, Waiwhatawhata / Aotea
Te Rauwera Taiāmai ki te Marangai Te Rauwera
Te Uri Karaka Taiāmai ki te Marangai Kāretu
Te Uri Māhoe Ngāpuhi Hokianga ki te Raki Mangamuka Marae, Te Arohanui / Mangataipa
Te Uri o Hawato Te Rūnanga o Taumārere ki Rākaumangamanga Ngāwhā Marae, Kaikou
Te Uri o Hua Ngāpuhi ki te Hauāuru Kohewhata, Te Kotahitanga Marae
Te Uri Ongaonga Taiāmai ki te Marangai Waimangaro
Te Uri Taniwha Te Rūnanga o Taumārere ki Rākaumangamanga Ngāwhā Marae, Parawhenua Marae, Rāwhitiroa / Te Ahuahu Marae
Te Uriroroi Te Takiwā o Ngāpuhi ki Whangārei, Te Takiwā o Ngāti Hine Pehiaweri, Toetoe Marae, Maungārongo Marae, Tangiterōria
Te Whānau Whero Ngā Ngaru o Hokianga Mātai Aranui Marae, Mōria, Pā te Aroha Marae
Te Whanauwhero Te Rūnanga o Taumārere ki Rākaumangamanga Parawhenua Marae
Uri o Te Tangata Te Takiwā o Ngāpuhi ki Whangārei Te Kotahitanga Marae o Otangarei, Terenga Parāoa
Whānautara Te Rūnanga o Taumārere ki Rākaumangamanga Tauwhara

Media[edit]

Tautoko FM broadcasts to the people of Ngāpuhi-nui-tonu, and began operating on 28 November 1988. It broadcasts on 99.5 FM in Mangamuka.[36] The Tautoko FM building burnt to the ground on 18 May 2015, cutting power to the small Mangamuka community.[37]

Religion[edit]

Most Ngāpuhi, 49.6%, identify as being irreligious, according to data from Te Whata iwi estimates, based on 2018 Census data. 42.2% of Ngāpuhi specify a religious affiliation, larger than the 38.1% of Māori as a whole who specify religious affiliation.[38]

Religious affiliation %
Irreligious 49.6
Christian 33.70
Catholic 8.6
Anglican 6.9
 Christian nfd 6.2
Latter-day Saints 4.5
Pentecostal nfd 1.8
Presbyterian, Congregational, and Reformed 1.5
Methodist nfd 1.4
Jehovah's Witnesses 0.9
Baptist nfd 0.4
Evangelical, Born Again, and Fundamentalist 0.4
Seventh-day Adventist 0.4
 Other Christian 0.4
Māori Religions 8
Rātana 6.8
Ringatū 0.5
 Māori Religions, Beliefs, and Philosophies nfd/nec 0.7
Spiritualism and New Age religions 0.5
Jediism 0.4
Islam 0.2
Buddhism 0.2
Hinduism <0.1
Other 0.6
Object to answering 8.2

Notable Ngāpuhi people[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Iwi affiliation (estimated count), for the Maori descent usually resident population, 2018". stats.govt.nz. Statistics New Zealand.
  2. ^ a b c d e "TKM Ngāpuhi". tkm.govt.nz. Te Puni Kōkiri, New Zealand Government. Retrieved 2 March 2018.
  3. ^ a b "Te Runanga a Iwi o Ngāpuhi". ngapuhi.iwi.nz. Te Runanga a Iwi o Ngāpuhi.
  4. ^ "Iwi (Total Responses) and Sex, for the Maori Descent Census Usually Resident Population Count, 2001". stats.govt.nz. Statistics New Zealand.
  5. ^ "Iwi (Total Responses) and Work and Labour Force Status by Sex, for the Maori Descent Census Usually Resident Population Count Aged 15 Years and Over, 2006". stats.govt.nz. Statistics New Zealand.
  6. ^ "Iwi (total responses) and iwi groupings and languages spoken by age group, for the Maori descent census usually resident population count, 2001, 2006 and 2013 Censuses (RC, TA)". stats.govt.nz. Statistics New Zealand.
  7. ^ Compare: Kake, Jade (1 November 2019). "An insider's guide to the Ngāpuhi settlement". The Spinoff. Retrieved 5 July 2020. [...] our Rūnanga is not, should not, and cannot be a proxy for Ngāpuhi te iwi. It was established for a specific purpose, to hold and manage the assets received through the fisheries settlement, through an act of Crown legislation. It should not be assumed by default that the Rūnanga will be the entity to take us forward into negotiations over our historic loss, nor to manage any future redress.
  8. ^ "Treaty of Waitangi (Fisheries Claims) Settlement Act 1992 No 121 (as at 28 October 2021), Public Act Contents – New Zealand Legislation". www.legislation.govt.nz. Retrieved 19 July 2022.
  9. ^ Taonui, Rāwiri (3 March 2017). "Ngāpuhi – Ancestors". Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 16 April 2017.
  10. ^ a b Taonui, Rāwiri (1 March 2017). "Ngāpuhi – Tribal links and movement". Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 8 July 2023.
  11. ^ a b c Carleton, Hugh (1874). "Vol. I". The Life of Henry Williams. Early New Zealand Books (ENZB), University of Auckland Library.
  12. ^ Fitzgerald, Caroline (2004). Marianne Williams: Letters from the Bay of Islands. Penguin Books, New Zealand. p. 62. ISBN 0-14-301929-5.
  13. ^ Rogers, Lawrence M. (1973). Te Wiremu: A Biography of Henry Williams. Pegasus Press. p. 55.
  14. ^ Fitzgerald, Caroline (2011). Te Wiremu: Henry Williams – Early Years in the North. Huia Publishers, New Zealand. pp. 25, 39–40. ISBN 978-1-86969-439-5.
  15. ^ Orange, Claudia & Ormond Wilson. 'Taiwhanga, Rawiri fl. 1818 – 1874'. in: Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, updated 22 June 2007
  16. ^ Missionary Impact > 'A high profile conversion' by Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa
  17. ^ James Belich, Making Peoples; A History of the New Zealanders, 1996, ISBN 0-8248-2517-9, pp. 141–168.
  18. ^ "The Te Roroa Report 1992 (Wai 38)". Waitangi Tribunal. 1992. Archived from the original on 3 November 2011. Retrieved 3 October 2011.
  19. ^ "Treaty events 1800–49 – Treaty timeline". New Zealand History online. Retrieved 6 September 2011.
  20. ^ "OFFICIAL DESPATCHES. Colonial Secretary's Office, Auckland, January 17, 1846". New Zealander, Volume 1, Issue 34. 24 January 1846. p. 4. Retrieved 17 September 2011.
  21. ^ Carleton, Hugh (1874). "Vol. II". The Life of Henry Williams. Early New Zealand Books (ENZB), University of Auckland Library. pp. 137–8.
  22. ^ James Belich, The New Zealand Wars, p. 70
  23. ^ The Te Roroa Report 1992 (Wai 38), Waitangi Tribunal (1992) Chapter 1, Section 1.1. p 8
  24. ^ Carleton, Hugh (1874). "Vol. II". The Life of Henry Williams. Early New Zealand Books (ENZB), University of Auckland Library. pp. 328–331.
  25. ^ Kawiti, Tawai (October 1956). "Heke's war in the North". Te Ao Hou / The New World. Maori Affairs Department (16): 38–46. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
  26. ^ Events of August 2004 may have the effect of recognising Ngāti Hine as an independent iwi rather than a hapū of Ngāpuhi.
  27. ^ Field, Michael (9 May 2010). "Hearing starts into Ngapuhi's claims". Stuff.co.nz. Fairfax New Zealand. Retrieved 6 September 2011.
  28. ^ Te Paparahi o Te Raki (Northland) Te Paparahi o Te Raki (Northland) inquiry, Waitangi Tribunal
  29. ^ "Book lies at the heart of Ngapuhi's sovereignty". NZNewsUK. New Zealand News Online. Retrieved 6 September 2011.
  30. ^ "Joshua Hitchcock sets the record straight regarding Ngapuhi, sovereignty, and legal pluralism in New Zealand". Settler Colonial Studies Blog. 3 August 2010. Retrieved 6 September 2011.
  31. ^ "Te Manutukutuku (Issue 67)". Waitangi Tribunal. February 2015. Retrieved 25 July 2015.
  32. ^ "Te Paparahi o Te Raki (Northland) (Wai 1040) Volume 1" (PDF). Waitangi Tribunal. 2014. Retrieved 25 July 2015.
  33. ^ "Te Paparahi o Te Raki (Northland) (Wai 1040) Volume 2" (PDF). Waitangi Tribunal. 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 July 2015. Retrieved 25 July 2015.
  34. ^ "Report on Stage 1 of the Te Paparahi o Te Raki Inquiry Released". Waitangi Tribunal. 2014. Retrieved 25 July 2015.
  35. ^ "TKM Te Rūnanga o Ngāti Hine". tkm.govt.nz. Te Puni Kōkiri, New Zealand Government. Retrieved 2 March 2018.
  36. ^ "Iwi Radio Coverage" (PDF). maorimedia.co.nz. Māori Media Network. 2007. Retrieved 14 June 2015.
  37. ^ Koti, Tepara. "Fire engulfs Tautoko FM in Mangamuka". Te Kaea. Māori Television. Retrieved 14 June 2015.
  38. ^ "Religion – Ngāpuhi". tewhata.io. Data Iwi Leaders Group. 25 June 2021. Retrieved 8 August 2021.

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