The avoirdupois ounce (exactly 28.349523125 g) is 1⁄16 avoirdupois pound; this is the United States customary and British imperial ounce. It is primarily used in the United States to measure packaged foods and food portions, postal items, areal density of fabric and paper, boxing gloves, and so on, but it is sometimes also used elsewhere in the Anglosphere.
Although the avoirdupois ounce is the mass measure used for most purposes, the 'troy ounce' of exactly 31.1034768 g is used instead for the mass of precious metals such as gold, silver, platinum, palladium, rhodium, etc.
The term 'ounce' is also used in other contexts:
Historically, a variety of different ounces measuring mass or volume were used in different jurisdictions by different trades and at different times in history.
Ounce derives from the Ancient Roman uncia, a unit in the Ancient Roman units of measurement weighing about 27.35 grams or 0.967 of an Avoirdupois ounce, that was one-twelfth (1⁄12) of the Roman pound (libra). The term 'Ounce' was borrowed twice: first into Old English as ynsan or yndsan from an unattested Vulgar Latin form with ts for c before i (palatalization) and second into Middle English through Anglo-Norman and Middle French (unce, once, ounce). The abbreviation oz came later from the cognate Italian word onza, pronounced [ˈontsa] (now oncia, pronounced [ˈontʃa]).
Historically, in different parts of the world, at different points in time, and for different applications, the ounce (or its translation) has referred to broadly similar but still slightly different standards of mass.
|International avoirdupois ounce||28.349523125||437.5|
|International troy ounce||31.1034768||480|
|Maria Theresa ounce||28.0668|
|Spanish ounce (onza)||28.75|
|French ounce (once)||30.59|
|Portuguese ounce (onça)||28.69|
|Roman/Italian ounce (oncia)||27.4|
|Dutch metric ounce (ons)||100|
|Dutch (pre-metric) ounce (ons)||ca. 30|
|Chinese metric ounce (盎司)||50|
|English Tower Ounce||29.16||450|
Currently in use
International avoirdupois ounce
The international avoirdupois ounce (abbreviated oz) is defined as exactly 28.349523125 g under the international yard and pound agreement of 1959, signed by the United States and countries of the Commonwealth of Nations.
The ounce is still a standard unit in the United States. In the United Kingdom it ceased to be a legal unit of measure in 2000, but is still in general usage on an informal basis and also as the indicator of portion sizes in restaurants.
International troy ounce
Today, the troy ounce is used only to express the mass of precious metals such as gold, platinum, palladium, rhodium or silver. Bullion coins are the most common products produced and marketed in troy ounces, but precious metal bars also exist in gram and kilogram (kg) sizes. (A kilogram bullion bar contains 32.151 troy ounces.)
For historical measurement of gold,
- a fine ounce is a troy ounce of pure gold content in a gold bar, computed as fineness multiplied by gross weight
- a standard ounce is a troy ounce of 22 carat gold, 91.66% pure (an 11 to 1 proportion of gold to alloy material)
Some countries have redefined their ounces in the metric system. For example, the German apothecaries' ounce of 30 grams, is very close to the previously widespread Nuremberg ounce, but the divisions and multiples come out in metric.
In 1820, the Dutch redefined their ounce (in Dutch, ons) as 100 grams. In 1937 the IJkwet of the Netherlands officially abolished the term, but it is still commonly used. Dutch amendments to the metric system, such as an ons or 100 grams, has been inherited, adopted, and taught in Indonesia beginning in elementary school. It is also listed as standard usage in Indonesia's national dictionary, the Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia, and the government's official elementary-school curriculum.
Maria Theresa ounce
"Maria Theresa ounce" was once introduced in Ethiopia and some European countries, which was equal to the weight of one Maria Theresa thaler, or 28.0668 g. Both the weight and the value are the definition of one birr, still in use in present-day Ethiopia and formerly in Eritrea.
The Tower ounce of 450 grains (29 grams) was a fraction of the tower pound used in the English mints, the principal one being in the Tower of London. It dates back to the Anglo-Saxon coinage weight standard. It was abolished in favour of the Troy ounce by Henry VIII in 1527.
An ounce-force is 1⁄16 of a pound-force, or about 0.2780139 newtons. It is defined as the force exerted by a mass of one avoirdupous ounce under standard gravity (at the surface of the earth, its weight).
The "ounce" in "ounce-force" is equivalent to an avoirdupois ounce; ounce-force is a measurement of force using avoirdupois ounces. It is customarily not identified or differentiated. The term has limited use in engineering calculations to simplify unit conversions between mass, force, and acceleration systems of calculations.
A fluid ounce (abbreviated fl oz, fl. oz. or oz. fl.) is one of two units of volume. It is equal to about 28.4 ml (very close to the volume of one avoirdupois ounce of water) in the imperial system, or about 29.6 ml in the US system. The fluid ounce is sometimes referred to simply as an "ounce" in applications where its use is implicit, such as bartending.
Ounces are also used to express the "weight", or more accurately the areal density, of a textile fabric in North America, Asia, or the UK, as in "16 oz denim". The number refers to the weight in ounces of a given amount of fabric, either a yard of a given width, or a square yard, where the depth of the fabric is a fabric-specific constant.
|Fabric type||Typical weight in ounces|
|Organza, voile, chiffon||1–3|
|Most cottons, wools, silks, muslin, linen||4–7|
|Denim, corduroy, twill, velvet||7–16|
Copper layer thickness of a printed circuit board
The most common unit of measure for the copper thickness on a printed circuit board (PCB) is ounces (oz), as in mass. It is the resulting thickness when the mass of copper is pressed flat and spread evenly over a one-square-foot area. 1 oz will roughly equal 34.7 µm.
Notes and references
- Ronald Zupko. "Measurement system". Encyclopedia Britannica.
- uncia. Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short. A Latin Dictionary on Perseus Project.
- "ounce". Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. (Subscription or participating institution membership required.)
- "The Units of Measurement Regulations 1995 (Article 4)". 2000-09-20. Retrieved 2009-01-26.
- London Bullion Market Association. "Market Basics". Archived from the original on 2012-03-08.
- Wittop Koning, D. A.; Houben, G. M. M. (1980). 2000 jaar gewichten in de nederlanden (in Dutch). Lochem-Poperinge: De Tijdstroom. ISBN 9060879651. (in Dutch)
- "Guide to The Hague – Where to turn". Archived from the original on 2008-03-16. Retrieved 2008-01-01.
- nl:Nederlands metriek stelsel
- Ons in KBBI
- Greenfield, Richard (1965). Ethiopia: a new political history. F. A. Praeger. p. 327.
- Ethiopia observer. Vol. 6. 1962. pp. 187–8.
- Diccionario de la Real Academia Española, 23rd edition, libra
- Diccionario de la Real Academia Española, 23rd edition, onza
- Slater, Robert (1855). An Inquiry into the Principles involved in the Decimalization of the Weights, Measures, and Monies of the United Kingdom. London: Arthur Hall. p. 11.
- "How to shop the fabric market". Retrieved 2008-12-10.
- "Copper Thickness FAQ". Retrieved 2016-11-13.