This article may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. The specific problem is: No clear structure that meets the requirements of Wikipedia, different senses of a single word referring to multiple notable subjects need to be disambiguated and placed in separate articles as they are not related topics, needs to show why the geographical definition of Pacificism needs to have a different article from Pacific, and needs to show why the philosophical definition of pacificism needs to have a different article from pacifism. (May 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
It falls between pacifism, which usually states that killing, violence or war is unconditionally wrong in all cases, and defensivism, which accepts all defensive wars and acts of deterrence as morally just. Pacificism states that war can only ever be considered as a firm "last resort", condemning both aggression and militarism. In the 1940s, the two terms were not conceptually distinguished and pacificism was considered merely as an archaic spelling, although less 'barbarous' than the more common and shorter form.
The distinct theory was first put forward by A. J. P. Taylor in The Trouble-Makers (1957) and was subsequently defined by Martin Ceadel in his 1987 book, Thinking About Peace and War. It was also discussed in detail in Richard Norman's book: Ethics, Killing and War.
The largest national peace association in history, the British League of Nations Union, was pacificist rather than pacifist in orientation. Historically, the majority of peace activists have been pacificists rather than strict pacifists.
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- Western Herald - Pacifism cannot hold up under scrutiny Archived 2008-06-29 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Pacificist or Pacifism ?". The Spectator. 5 September 1940. p. 13.
- ‘By ‘pacificism’ I mean the advocacy of a peaceful policy; by ‘pacifism’ (a word invented only in the twentieth century) the doctrine of non-resistance. The latter is the negation of policy, not an alternative, and therefore irrelevant to my theme. Hence my disregard for the Peace Societies.’ AJP Taylor, The Trouble-Makers, London: H Hamilton, 1957, p. 51
- Pacifism - Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
- Pledge Peace Union - Debating Peace and War
- Donald Birn, The League of Nations Union, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1981
- Martin Ceadel, Semi Detached Idealists: The British Peace Movement and International Relations, 1854-1945, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000, p. 7
- Lyons, Paul (2006). American Pacificism: Oceania in the U.S. Imagination. Routledge Research in Postcolonial Literatures. Routledge. ISBN 9781134264148.
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