Boycott, Divestment and Sanctions
|Formation||9 July 2005|
|Purpose||Boycotts, political activism|
The Boycott, Divestment and Sanctions Movement (also known as BDS and the BDS Movement) is a global campaign attempting to increase economic and political pressure on Israel to comply with the stated goals of the movement: the end of Israel's occupation and colonization of Palestinian land and the Golan Heights, full equality for Arab-Palestinian citizens of Israel, and acknowledgement of the right of return of Palestinian refugees.
The campaign is organised and coordinated by the Palestinian BDS National Committee. The campaign was started on 9 July 2005 by over 170 Palestinian non-governmental organizations in support of the Palestinian cause for boycott of Israel, disinvestment from Israel and international sanctions against Israel. Citing a body of UN resolutions and specifically echoing the anti-apartheid campaigns against white minority rule in apartheid era South Africa, the BDS campaign called for "various forms of boycott against Israel until it meets its obligations under international law". Protests and conferences in support of the campaign have been held in a number of countries around the world.
Supporters of BDS compare the movement with the 20th century Anti-Apartheid Movement and view their actions similar to the boycotts of South Africa during its apartheid era, comparing the situation in Israel to apartheid. Critics of BDS vehemently repudiate the charge that Israel is an apartheid state, asserting, among other things, that in Israel (outside of the West Bank) "Jews and Arabs mix freely and increasingly live in the same neighborhoods...there is no imposed segregation" and that Arabs and Jews interact together in any mall, restaurant, or hospital in Israel.
Critics further argue that the BDS movement disincentivizes the Palestinian leadership from negotiating with Israel at present, is antisemitic, and that it is a form of anti-semitic anti-Zionism that promotes the delegitimization of Israel.
There is considerable debate about the scope, efficacy, and morality of the BDS movement.
- 1 Background
- 2 Goals of the campaign
- 3 Methods
- 4 Responses by governments
- 5 Academic boycotts
- 6 Business boycotts
- 7 Cultural boycotts
- 8 Impact of BDS
- 9 Support
- 10 Opposition
- 11 Reaction
- 12 See also
- 13 References
- 14 Further reading
- 15 External links
One of the objectives stated at the founding of Arab League in 1945 was to "frustrate further Jewish development in Palestine by means of boycott against Zionist products". A central boycott office was established to coordinate this effort. After the establishment of Israel in 1948, the boycott of Jewish products from Palestine was transformed into the boycott of Israeli products and services. The boycott was conducted on a primary level (as a direct boycott of Israeli products), a secondary level (though direct pressure on states and institutions not to deal with Israel), and a tertiary level (to prevent companies from uninvolved third-party states from dealing with companies that had relationships with Israel).
Marc Greendorfer argues that the BDS movement originated in the Arab League's boycott of Israel in name, in function, in tasks, in methodology and in goals.
During the Second Intifada, Palestinians began developing international solidarity and support that could be used to apply pressure on Israel through non-violent means. In 2002, organizations in Europe, Australia, the United States, and the Palestinian territories called for a boycott of Israeli institutions, including a boycott of academic and cultural institutions. Palestinian academics and intellectuals also called for a boycott in October 2003. In 2004, an attempt to coordinate the boycotts gained momentum following the start of the construction of the Israeli West Bank barrier. In April 2004, the Palestinian Campaign for the Academic and Cultural Boycott of Israel (PACBI) was founded. One of the founders was Omar Barghouti.
On 9 July 2005, the first anniversary of the advisory opinion by the International Court of Justice in which the West Bank barrier was declared a violation of international law, a large number of organizations representing Palestinians in Israel, Palestine and abroad called upon the international community for boycotts, divestment and sanctions against Israel until it complies with International Law and Universal Principles of Human Rights. At the first Palestinian BDS Conference, held in Ramallah in November 2007, the "BDS National Committee" (BNC) was established as the Palestinian coordinating body for the BDS campaign worldwide. The movement's main example and source of inspiration is the 20th century boycott of South Africa by the Anti-Apartheid Movement.
Goals of the campaign
On 9 July 2005, a broad spectrum of over 170 Palestinian non-governmental organizations initiated a campaign for a boycott, divestment and international sanctions against Israel in support of the Palestinian cause. According to the call, the BDS campaign urges various forms of non-violent punitive measures against Israel until it complies with the precepts of international law. These measures should bring about:
- Ending its occupation and colonization of all Arab lands and dismantling the Wall;
- Recognizing the fundamental rights of the Arab-Palestinian citizens of Israel to full equality; and
- Respecting, protecting and promoting the rights of Palestinian refugees to return to their homes and properties as stipulated in UN Resolution 194.
The BDS campaign is organised and coordinated by the Palestinian BDS National Committee. The committee cites a body of UN resolutions and specifically echoes the anti-apartheid campaigns against white minority rule in apartheid era South Africa; the BDS campaign called for "various forms of boycott against Israel until it meets its obligations under international law".
The BDS Movement uses the means of boycott, divestment and sanctions against Israel. The campaign has organised demonstrations and protests targeting companies that have contracts with the Israeli military or with companies in Israeli settlements. Actions may also target prominent individuals who openly support settlements businesses.
Social media platforms are used to draw attention to BDS activities. With public calls on social media, protests, petitions and articles, pressure is put on individuals to cancel their participation in events in Israel or in Israeli settlements, such as concerts or academic events. On the other hand, Israelis are pressured not to take part in activities outside Israel or the Occupied territories. Participants in events are sometimes demanded to declare solidarity with the Palestinian cause.
BDS also makes use of Israeli Apartheid Week, which is an annual series of university lectures and rallies against the Israeli occupation of the West Bank and Gaza. The series is normally held in February or March. According to the organization, "the aim of IAW is to educate people about the nature of Israel as an apartheid system and to build BDS campaigns as part of a growing global BDS movement." Since IAW began in Toronto in 2005, it has since spread to at least 55 cities around the world including locations in Canada, France, Germany, India, Italy, Austria, Jordan, Japan, Korea, Brazil, Botswana, Malaysia, the United Kingdom, the United States, South Africa, Mexico, Norway, Australia, and Palestine.
Responses by governments
In December 2012, following the withholding of taxes collected by Israel on behalf of the Palestinians, Palestinian Prime Minister Salam Fayyad called for a boycott of all Israeli goods. In the past, he had unsuccessfully called for a boycott of goods made in Israeli settlements.
During a visit to South Africa in 2013, President Mahmoud Abbas stunned reporters and Palestinian activists by stating that the Palestinians do not support a general boycott of Israel. He supported, however, a boycott of settlement products.
In February 2015, activists from Fatah launched a new campaign in reaction to another Israeli punitive withholding of taxes. They called on people to boycott products made by six major Israeli food companies. Abbas apparently did not openly support the boycott, but rather asked the Fatah-led Palestine Liberation Organization to lead the campaign. At the 25th African Union assembly in the South Africa in June 2015, President Abbas urged the African countries to boycott goods produced by settlement companies in the West Bank.
On 11 July 2011, the Knesset passed a law making it a civil offence to publicly call for a boycott against the State of Israel, defined as "deliberately avoiding economic, cultural or academic ties with another person or another factor only because of his ties with the State of Israel, one of its institutions or an area under its control, in such a way that may cause economic, cultural or academic damage". According to the law, anyone calling for a boycott can be sued, and forced to pay compensation regardless of actual damages. At the discretion of a government minister, they may also be prevented from bidding in government tenders.
The law drew a lot of criticism. 32 Israeli law professors signed a petition arguing that the law is unconstitutional and does grievous harm to freedom of political expression and protest. Other critics include BDS opponents, such as Gerald Steinberg from NGO Monitor and Morton Klein from the Zionist Organization of America, who criticize the law noting the many better avenues with which to counter BDS.
On 10 December 2012 the Israeli Supreme Court froze the law and issued an interim order to the State of Israel to explain why the law should not be struck down. The court order gave the state until 14 March 2013 to respond. The final hearing on the issue was to be before a nine-justice panel of the court presided over by Asher Grunis, President of the Supreme Court of Israel. Yehuda Weinstein Attorney General of Israel is reported to have called the law "borderline" defensible and admitted in defending the law in the hearing that it had serious problems. The court's 2015 ruling upheld most provisions of the law but struck down the ability for lawsuits to go forward without plaintiffs needing to show damages.
In March 2016 the Israeli Intelligence and Atomic Energy Minister Yisrael Katz argued that Israel should employ "targeted civil eliminations" against leaders of the BDS movement. The expression puns on the Hebrew word for targeted assassinations.
In June 2016, Haaretz reported that Israeli Strategic Affairs Minister was going to establish a "dirty tricks" unit to "establish, hire or tempt nonprofit organizations or groups not associated with Israel, in order to disseminate" negative information about BDS supporters. The news came on the heels of a report that Israel's efforts to fight the BDS movement have been ineffectual, in part because the responsibility had been transferred to the Strategic Affairs Ministry from the Foreign Ministry. "Despite receiving expanded authority in 2013 to run the government's campaign against the delegitimization and boycott efforts against Israel, the Strategic Affairs Ministry did not make full use of its budget and had no significant achievements in this area," Haaretz quotes the report as saying. "In 2015, it still did not carry out its work plans."
Responses by other governments
In 2016, in a bipartisan vote, the Legislative Assembly of Ontario passed a resolution that "calls on the legislature to stand against any movement that promotes hate, prejudice and racism" and "reject the 'differential treatment' of Israel by the BDS movement".
In April 2015, Tennessee became the first state in the United States to pass a resolution condemning BDS. There was one vote against the resolution, which passed the General Assembly with bipartisan support. In June 2016, New York governor Andrew Cuomo issued an executive order directing state agencies not to conduct business with companies and organizations that boycott Israel. In September 2016, California Governor Jerry Brown signed into law a measure that that requires companies contracted by the state to certify that they aren't boycotting any foreign nation, including Israel.
The campaign for academic boycotts of Israel is led by the Palestinian Campaign for the Academic and Cultural Boycott of Israel. It has been endorsed by nearly sixty Palestinian academic, cultural and other civil society federations, unions, and organizations, including the Federation of Unions of Palestinian Universities' Professors and Employees and the Palestinian NGO Network (PNGO) in the West Bank. Academics in a number of countries have signed on to support the campaign. In December 2013, the American Studies Association (ASA) joined the boycott of all Israeli academic institutions. Israel is the first nation ever boycotted by the ASA in the 52 years since the organization's founding.
United Nations Special Rapporteur, Richard A. Falk, in his 2012 report to the United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) recommended that "businesses highlighted in the report – as well as the many other businesses that are profiting from the Israeli settlement enterprise – should be boycotted until they bring their operations into line with international human rights and humanitarian law and standards." He specifically named the United States' Caterpillar Inc., Hewlett Packard and Motorola; Israel's Ahava, Elbit Systems and Mehadrin; Sweden's Volvo Group and Assa Abloy; France's Veolia Environment; United Kingdom's G4S, Belgium's Dexia Group, Netherlands' Riwal Holding Group and Mexico's Cemex.
Effects of business boycotts on Palestinian employment
Opponents of BDS argue that BDS destroys employment for Palestinians. They argue that companies in settlements are beneficial for Palestinians. They claim that they offer employment with high wages compared with Palestinian factories and that the Palestinians are happy with their jobs and do not feel exploited. Proponents of BDS allege that in 2011 many Palestinians worked in settlements without permits and earn less than the Israeli minimum wage or even less than half the minimum wage. In the former SodaStream factory in Ma'ale Adumim, for example, for entry-level employees there was not much difference in the salaries between SodaStream and Palestinian factories. The majority of Palestinian employees at SodaStream had renewable seasonal contracts that last only three months each. Palestinians work in settlements because they have no other choice and 82% of Palestinians working in Israeli settlements would quit those jobs if viable alternatives were available. Omar Barghouti said that the fact that "tens of thousands" of Palestinians work in settlements is the direct result of Israeli policy. For decades, Israel has been "systematically destroying Palestinian industry and agriculture, confiscating our most fertile lands and richest water reserves, and imposing extreme restrictions of movement preventing many from reaching their workplaces". According to Who Profits, all of the Palestinian trade unions and labor unions and almost all Palestinian civil society organizations, including political parties, support the BDS call for boycott, divestment and sanctions.
Examples of business boycotts
In December 2012 the New Zealand Superannuation Fund excluded three Israeli companies from its portfolio because of their involvement in the construction of Israeli settlements and the Israeli West Bank barrier. The New Zealand Herald described "the fund's investments in the [Israeli] firms", which amounted to less than $83,000, as "insubstantial".
In 2013, Luxembourg's state pension fund, FDC, "excluded from [its] authorised investment universe" eight major Israeli firms, including Bank Hapoalim, Bank Leumi, and AFI Group. FDC also excluded American firm Motorola Solutions. In January 2014, the government of Norway announced that its pension fund will no longer invest in two Israeli companies (Africa Israel Investments and Danya Cebus). Norway's YMCA-YWCA joined the boycott in 2014, announcing that it will support "[a] broad economic boycott of goods and services from Israel and Israeli settlements". In January 2014, Danske Bank, blacklisted Israeli bank, Bank Hapoalim. Previously, Danske Bank had withdrawn its investments from Africa Israel Investments Ltd. and Danya Cebus. On 21 July 2014, the government of the Maldives announced the annulment of three bilateral trade agreements with Israel, and a government boycott of all Israeli goods. Mohamed Hussain Shareef, the minister at the President's Office, also announced that the government planned to ban the import of Israeli goods into the state. In February 2016, Crepes & Waffles terminated its security transport contracts with British company G4S."
The organizers of the week long Rototom Sunsplash music festival held in Spain in 2015, cancelled the scheduled appearance of Jewish American rapper Matisyahu after he refused to sign a statement supporting a Palestinian state. Matisyahu stated that it was "appalling and offensive" that he was singled out as the "one publicly Jewish-American artist". After criticism from Spain's daily paper El País and the Spanish government as well as Jewish organisations, the organisers apologised to Matisyahu re-inviting him to perform. They stated that "it made a mistake, due to the boycott and the campaign of pressure, coercion and threats employed by the BDS País Valencià."
Impact of BDS
The effectiveness of the movement has been questioned. Many reports from both in and outside of Israel indicated that the movement had made very little impact on the Israeli economy, and suggested that it was unlikely to for the foreseeable future.
In June 2015, an analysis carried out by the Rand Corporation concluded that a successful Boycott, Divestment and Sanctions campaign against Israel, if it could be maintained for 10 years, could potentially cost the Israeli economy $47 billion - this figure, which was not published in the report, was reportedly determined by using a model examining previous attempts to boycott countries. However, the Rand Corporation also noted that "evidence on the effectiveness of sanctions is mixed, making an assessment of the potential economic effects of the BDS movement problematic".
Supporters of BDS include Pink Floyd musician Roger Waters, Anglican Archbishop Desmond Tutu and Alice Walker. In 2014, an international Jewish group, Jews for Palestinian Right of Return, issued a list of signatories endorsing the American Studies Association academic boycott of Israel. The Israeli activist organization Boycott from Within supports the BDS campaign. Boycott From Within regularly releases statements calling on musicians to cancel concerts scheduled in Israel.
The African National Congress endorsed BDS in 2012. The party declared itself to be "unapologetic in its view that the Palestinians are the victims and the oppressed in the conflict with Israel". Following Israel's ground invasion of Gaza in 2014, the Green Party of England and Wales's conference supported "active participation in the BDS movement". Scotland's Green Party endorsed a boycott of Israel in October 2015. Members of the Green Party of Canada voted to endorse BDS in August 2016, despite the objections of the party's leader and sole MP Elizabeth May.
The Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU) supports the campaign for BDS against Israel, fully endorsing it in July 2011. During the 2014 Israel–Gaza conflict, COSATU vowed to "intensify" their support for the campaign, picketing Woolworths for stocking Israeli goods.
In April 2014, the UK's National Union of Teachers, the largest teacher's union in the EU, passed a resolution backing boycotts against Israel. In July of that year, the UK's Unite the Union voted to join BDS.
In April 2015, the Confédération des syndicats nationaux, Quebec, Canada, representing 325,000 in nearly 2,000 unions, voted to join the campaign for BDS and support a military embargo against Israel.
Political parties that oppose BDS include the Liberal Party of Australia and both major political parties in the United States. The European Union has also expressed opposition to boycotting Israel. A common reason given for opposing BDS is that it attacks Israel's legitimacy and fosters antisemitism.
Artists and writers
Israeli-born musician Gene Simmons, lead singer of Kiss, said that artists who avoid Israel would be better served directing their anger at Arab dictators. "The countries they should be boycotting are the same countries that the populations are rebelling," he said.
Other artists include John Lydon, Umberto Eco, Joel and Ethan Coen, J. K. Rowling, Hilary Mantel, Helen Mirren, Ziggy Marley, Jon Bon Jovi, and Howard Stern.
Novelist Ian McEwan, upon being awarded the Jerusalem Prize, was urged to turn it down, but said that "If I only went to countries that I approve of, I probably would never get out of bed. [...] It's not great if everyone stops talking."
Creative Community for Peace, founded in late 2011, is an anti-BDS organization made up of music executives and music representatives of bands including Aerosmith, Celine Dion, Lady Gaga, Jennifer Lopez, and Justin Timberlake.
Israeli President Reuven Rivlin describes Israel as a land that is used to debate, criticism, and controversy, but that BDS is an attempt to influence healthy discussion in unhealthy ways. "Boycotts, violence, and incitement only deepen divides, and don't bring us any closer to a solution. When BDS takes over, criticism turns into camouflage for the de-legitimization of the existence of the State of Israel," Rivlin wrote in a 2016 op-ed published on Ynetnews. He added, "I'm sorry to say that some parts of BDS even include factions which are connected to enemies of the State of Israel, and who work in order to eradicate Israel as a Jewish state. Some of them are even worse, and hide their anti-Semitism by calling their actions 'criticism of Israeli policy.'"
The long-standing pro-Palestinian activist and political scientist Norman Finkelstein deemed the BDS movement a "cult". He argued that the worldwide movement was overly controlled by the Ramallah headquarters, made unrealistic claims so as to hide a wish to destroy Israel, and accused the movement of exaggerating its achievements and its capacity, most notably by maintaining that it represents the entire pro-Palestine movement. Finkelstein also asserted that the movement misrepresented and misinterpreted Israel's obligation under international law as defined by the International Court of Justice.
Former Spanish Prime Minister Jose Maria Aznar, says "I think BDS is an unfair, discriminatory movement based on a moral double standard that is, in the final analysis, anti-Semitic [...] BDS is in fact trying to harm every Israeli citizen and not only the government. In reality what BDS wants is to make life in Israel intolerable so the Jewish nation will not be able to have a normal existence in its state. BDS does not only want to change the government's policy, it wants to empty the country of Jews."
Former British Prime Ministers Tony Blair and David Cameron have both condemned the calls for an academic boycott Israeli educational institutions. President of Al-Quds University Sari Nusseibeh similarly opposes academic boycotts of Israel.
Noam Chomsky warned that the boycott, divestment, and sanctions campaign could end up harming the Palestinian cause since the demand for a "right of return" for Palestinian refugees has failed to muster significant international support.
In December 2015, the executive board of the United Auto Workers struck down a vote by UAW Local 2865 to support the BDS movement. Local 2865 represents students workers on the University of California.
Reception to the BDS movement has been mixed and varies widely depending on geography and politics. Some political parties, such as the NSW Greens in Australia and the Québec solidaire in Canada, have supported BDS. BDS has also found support from some private companies, churches, and academic associations.
The reaction to BDS in the United States has been especially polarizing. Several bills and resolutions have been written in federal and state legislatures with the intent to combat BDS. Noam Chomsky, a prominent American critic of Israel, stated that he supports the "boycott and divestment of firms that are carrying out operations in the occupied territories" but the current BDS movement's "hypocrisy rises to heaven." He stated that the BDS campaign harms the "whole movement. It harms the Palestinians and it is a gift to the Israeli hardliners and their American supporters" because the BDS's "hypocrisy is so transparent ... why not boycott the United States? ... Israeli crimes [are] a fragment of US crimes, which are much worse." He also argued that the Palestinian people don't support boycotting Israel and that the BDS movement is run by "one man NGOs" who falsely claim to represent the Palestinian people. On the other end of the spectrum, the UC Student Association passed a resolution not only to boycott Israel, but also to boycott the United States and several other countries.
According to Yehuda Ben Meir and Owen Alterman in an essay published in the Strategic Survey for Israel 2011 by the Institute for National Security Studies (Israel), by depicting Israel as a racist, fascist, totalitarian, and apartheid state, BDS engages in defamation and demonization of Israel. They state that this is followed by the specific targeting of Israeli diplomatic, economic, academic, and cultural targets—regardless of their position or connection to the conflict, which they describe as incitement. In a 2009 opinion column for the The Jerusalem Post, Gil Troy argued that the BDS movement does not target Israel's policies, but rather targets Israel's legitimacy. The Israeli Reut Institute has argued that the BDS movement singles out Israel, and applies double standards that delegitimize Israel.
The Economist in 2007 called the boycott "flimsy" and ineffective, noted that "blaming Israel alone for the impasse in the occupied territories will continue to strike many outsiders as unfair," and pointed out that the Palestinian leadership did not support the boycott. By early 2014, however, they noted that the campaign, "[o]nce derided as the scheming of crackpots", was "turning mainstream" in the eyes of many Israelis. Alan Dershowitz and the Israeli Action Network point to the Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas's support of a boycott specific to Israeli businesses that operate in Israeli settlements in the Palestinian Territories over a general boycott of Israel as evidence that the BDS is not in the Palestinians' favor. Dershowitz adds, "The BDS movement is immoral because it would hurt the wrong people" such as Palestinians employees of the firms effected by BDS or patients awaiting medicine made by those firms.
Allegations of antisemitism
The Anti-Defamation League, the Simon Wiesenthal Center and Israeli officials categorize the BDS movement as antisemitic. Abraham Foxman penned an advertisement that ran in The New York Times that criticized Brooklyn College's political science department for sponsoring a conference promoting BDS. In the ad, Foxman referred to the BDS movement as antisemitic "at its very core".
Other arguments include:
- The "double-standards" argument claims that the BDS campaign singles-out Israel, or that it judges the state with standards different from those used to judge other political situations. For example, Charles Krauthammer writes: "Israel is the world's only Jewish state. To apply to the state of the Jews a double standard that you apply to none other, to judge one people in a way you judge no other, to single out that one people for condemnation and isolation – is to engage in a gross act of discrimination." Retired Harvard Law Professor Alan Dershowitz compares the way BDS proponents "single-out" Israel for its human rights violations with the way Harvard president A. Lawrence Lowell defended his decision to impose anti-Jewish quotas in the beginning of the twentieth century. When asked why there should be a quota on Jews, Lowell replied, "Jews cheat." When reminded that Christians cheat too, Lowell responded, "You're changing the subject. We are talking about Jews now."
- The accusation that supporters of the campaign make antisemitic statements or engage in antisemitic activity. For example, some supporters compare Israel's contemporary treatment of Arabs to Nazi Germany's treatment of Jews during the Holocaust and deny Israel's right to self-determination. The Australian attributes BDS supporters with antisemitic activity including the publication of material on the Internet that denies the Holocaust and promotes attacks against "Jews and Jew lovers".
- Seeing similarities between BDS and historical acts of discrimination against Jewish minorities, such as historic antisemitic boycotts such as the Nazi boycott of Jewish businesses.
- The argument that BDS is a significant step in the creeping normality of antisemitism.
- In the case of academic boycotts, BDS targets Israelis who are often on record of opposing the continued Israeli presence in Palestinian territories and supporting Arab-Israeli peace initiatives.
Replies to allegations
Several replies have been made to the allegations presented above:
- Jay Michaelson wrote an editorial in The Jewish Daily Forward critical of Foxman's position. His editorial mentioned that several leaders of the BDS movement are themselves Jewish and state that the ADL, "with every pro-censorship stance it takes [...] loses more and more credibility and cheapens the meaning of the term 'anti-Semitism' itself".
- Judith Butler asserts that BDS' demands are fully compatible with, and derived from, international standards for human rights. From this Butler draws the conclusion that equating BDS with antisemitism amounts to the assertion that those standards are antisemitic.
- The "double-standards" argument has seen several types of rejoinders.
- Some argue that Israel is one of the most highly subsidized American allies and that thanks to their unique political and historical relationships with Israel, Americans have a special responsibility to the status of human rights in that country. Another reason for treating the Israeli case differently is that the call for boycott is the result of a unified effort by numerous civil societies whose members see themselves as the victims of Israeli human rights violations. An example for this latter effect can be found in the words of scientist Stephen Hawking, explaining that his decision to withdraw from Israel's Presidential Conference was motivated by calls from Palestinian academics, who were unanimous in their conviction that he "should respect the boycott".
- Another rejoinder holds that eventually, all countries must be held accountable to human rights standards, but that there is no standard answer to the question of which should be held accountable first.
- The ad hominem argument claims that personal attacks of BDS supporters are logically irrelevant, because they focus on individuals' character, acts, and/or motivation, rather than on the arguments for or against the BDS initiative in and of themselves.
- Butler argues that the allegation of anti-Semitism springs necessarily from a false "generalizations about all Jews", presuming that "they all share the same political commitments" while ignoring a view prevalent among some Jews who were "exceedingly critical" of the state. A similar line of reasoning was developed by Omar Barghouti, who claims that those who criticize BDS as an attack on all the Jewish people are equating the latter with state of Israel.
- Suggested similarities between BDS and boycott imposed on Jews by antisemitism have been challenged by Daniel Blatman, Professor of Holocaust and Genocide Studies at the Hebrew University. Blatman, a liberal Zionist and an opponent of BDS, argues that "the boycott imposed on Jews by antisemitism and the boycott of Israel today have nothing in common... The antisemitic boycott movement was directed against the authorities who had not acted against those who were not considered to belong to the nation, and even deemed the nation's enemy. The Israeli equivalent of the boycott movement can be found in right-wing circles, who have called for a boycott of Arab produce...."
- 3D Test of Antisemitism
- Boycotts of Israel
- Criticism of the Israeli government
- Disinvestment from Israel
- "Palestinian BDS National Committee". BDS Movement, 9 July 2005. Archived on 31 January 2016
- Mitchell G. Bard; Jeff Dawson (2012). "Israel and the Campus: The Real Story" (PDF). AICE. Retrieved 27 October 2013.
- Charles Tripp (25 February 2013). The Power and the People: Paths of Resistance in the Middle East. Cambridge University Press. p. 125. ISBN 978-0-521-80965-8. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
- "Boycotts that aid the Palestinians", Ben White, Al Jazeera, 16 August 2013.
- "What's So Wrong With BDS?", Jerry Haber, The Daily Beast, 7 February 2013.
- "Israel is new South Africa as boycott calls increase", Jonathan Owen, The Independent, 3 June 2012.
- "Final score: Dershowitz 137, BDS 101". The Jerusalem Post. 2015-11-03. Retrieved 2015-11-03.
- "Is BDS Hate Speech?" The Jewish Daily Forward. 14 February 2013. 2 June 2013.
- Foxman, Abraham. "An Open Letter on Academic Freedom and University Responsibility". ADL. 2 June 2013.
- Johnson, Alan (Fall 2015). "The Left and the Jews: Time for a Rethink". Fathom. Retrieved 26 February 2016.
- Schama, Simon (19 February 2016). "The left's problem with Jews has a long and miserable history". Financial Times. Retrieved 26 February 2016.
- Nathan Guttman (13 April 2010). "Want to delegitimize Israel? Be careful who you mess with". Haaretz. Retrieved 16 September 2012.
- "A blueprint to combat the assault on Israel's legitimacy in Europe". The Jerusalem Post. 4 June 2014.
At its core, the assault on Israel's legitimacy is a denial of the Jewish people's right to self-determination.
- David Taras, David Goldberg. Domestic Battleground: Canada and the Arab-Israeli Conflict. pp. 64–65.
- Greendorfer, Marc (January 7, 2015). "The BDS Movement: That Which We Call a Foreign Boycott, By Any Other Name, Is Still Illegal". p. 19.
- Daniel Coleman; Erin Goheen Glanville; Wafaa Hasan; Agnes Kramer-Hamstra (26 April 2012). Countering Displacements: The Creativity and Resilience of Indigenous and Refugee-ed Peoples. University of Alberta. p. 81. ISBN 978-0-88864-592-0. Retrieved 7 June 2013.
- Julie M. Norman (2009). The Activist and the Olive Tree: Nonviolent Resistance in the Second Intifada. ProQuest. p. 281. ISBN 978-1-109-16669-9. Retrieved 6 June 2013.
- "Boycotting the Israeli Academy". Lisa Taraki, ZNet, 19 August 2004
- "History", PACBI website, 21 December 2008. Archived 3 December 2014.
- "Academic boycotter to study in Tel Aviv". Anshel Pfeffer, The Jewish Chronicle, 23 April 2009
- SodaStream controversy continues to bubble. Patrick Strickland, Al Jazeera, 11 February 2014
- "Introducing the BDS Movement". BDS Movement. Accessed April 2016
- "Boycotting Israel". Al Jazeera, 10 May 2013
- "Palestinian Civil Society Call for BDS". BDS Movement, 9 July 2005. Archived on 31 January 2016
- "UofC Divest". UofC Divest on Facebook, 3 April 2016. Website: About
- "BDS action against Max Brenner undeterred by counter protest". Green Left Weekly. 27 August 2011. Retrieved 2 January 2016.
- "Under boycott pressure, Veolia dumps most Israel businesses". The Electronic Intifada. Retrieved 2016-02-17.
- "Social Media Rhetoric of the Transnational Palestinian-led Boycott, Divestment, and Sanctions Movement". Jennifer Hitchcock, Social Media + Society, 24 February 2016
- "Palestinians urge Oscar nominees to reject Israel junket". Ali Abunimah, Electronic Intifada, 10 February 2016
- "Israeli musician cancels his show in Jordan following anti-Israel outcry". The Jerusalem Post, 4 April 2016
- Matisyahu Kicked Off European Festival Over Palestinian Politics. Kory Grow, 17 August 2015
- "About Israeli Apartheid Week". Retrieved 2010-03-03.
- "Campuses awash in tension over Israel apartheid week", National Post, 2 March 2009
- "Israeli Apartheid Week 2009 may be coming to a campus near you", The Jerusalem Post, 29 January 2009 Archived 13 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
- [dead link]
- Sheri Shefa (6 February 2001). "Israel Apartheid Week gains momentum". The Canadian Jewish News. Archived from the original on 12 April 2009. Retrieved 2016-02-17.
- Editorial (7 April 2011). "BDS, bombs and rock 'n' roll". The Australian Jewish News. Retrieved 2016-02-17.
- Hartman, Ben. "'Israeli Apartheid Week' starts today - Jewish World -". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 2016-02-17.
- "Palestinian PM calls for boycott of Israeli goods". The Times of Israel, 16 December 2012
- "Abbas urges Africans to label, boycott settlement goods". Adiv Sterman, The Times of Israel, 15 June 2015
- "Palestinians call for boycott of Israeli goods". Mohammed Daraghmeh, AP, 11 February 2015
- Jonathan Lis (11 July 2011). "Israel passes law banning calls for boycott". Haaretz.; "New Version of Boycott Prohibition Bill Approved for Final Reading". Association for Civil Rights in Israel. 27 June 2011. which includes a link to download the English translation of the current version of the bill.
- Tomer Zarchin and Jonathan Lis (14 July 2011). "Dozens of Israeli law professors protest against the boycott law". Haaretz.
- Gerald M. Steinberg (23 February 2011). "Transparency for NGOs is not anti-democratic". Haaretz. Retrieved 16 September 2012.
- Jeremy, Yonah (2013-03-14). "Court freezes Anti-Boycott Law after petitions". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 2016-02-17.
- Mairav Zonszein, 'In Israel, BDS is winning,'+972 magazine 28 March 2016.
- Oren, Amir (20 June 2016). "Israel Setting Up 'Dirty Tricks' Unit To Find, Spread Dirt on BDS Groups". Haaretz. Retrieved 29 June 2016.
- Ravid, Barak (24 May 2016). "Watchdog: Power Struggles Between Ministries Hindered Israel's Battle Against BDS". Haaretz. Retrieved 29 June 2016.
- Jefferson, Shawn (1 December 2016). "Ontario MPPs reject BDS movement". Toronto Sun. Retrieved 6 December 2016.
- "California Gov. Jerry Brown signs anti-BDS bill into law." Jewish Telegraphic Agency. 25 September 2016. 25 September 2016.
- "Bill Text - AB 2844 Public ..." California Legislative Information. 17 March 2016. 25 September 2016.
- "Boycott, Divestment, and Sanctions (Bds) Frequently Asked Questions". US Campaign for the Academic and Cultural Boycott of Israel. Retrieved 1 January 2016.
- "140 Irish academics pledge to boycott Israeli institutions". The Electronic Intifada. Retrieved 2016-02-17.
- Gilio-Whitaker, Dina (2013-12-29). "The Native American Studies Association Boycott of Israel". Indian Country Today Media Network.com. Retrieved 2015-11-21.
- "BACBI: Press Releases: Academic". Bacbi.be. Retrieved 2016-02-17.
- Redden, Elizabeth (2015-11-23). "Big Night for Boycott Movement". Inside Higher Ed. Retrieved 2016-01-01.
- "2013 Top Ten Anti-Semitic/Anti-Israel Slurs". Simon Wiesenthal Center. 30 December 2013.
- Redden, Elizabeth. "Backing the Israel Boycott". Inside Higher Ed. 17 December 2013.
- "Human Rights Council elects Advisory Committee Members and approves a number of Special Procedures mandate holders". United Nations. 26 March 2008. Archived from the original on 1 January 2009. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
- Wayne Schoenfeld, Richard Falk Calls for Corporate Israel Boycott; U.N. Official Backs Calls To Shun Occupation-Backing Firms, Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 25 October 2012.
- "Palestinian Workers in Settlements–Who Profits' Position Paper". Who Profits, 2013
- "NZ Super Fund excludes three Israeli firms on ethical grounds", The New Zealand Herald, 12 December 2012.
- "New Zealand government fund divests from Israeli firms over settlement construction", Jewish Telegraphic Agency (JTA), (republished in Haaretz), 16 December 2012.
- "FDC Exclusion List" (PDF). Fonds du Compensation. 15 November 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 April 2014. Retrieved 20 February 2016.
- White, Ben (6 March 2014). "Spring in the step of BDS, as a worried Israel plans pushback". Middle East Monitor. Retrieved 20 February 2016.
- "Denmark's largest bank blacklists Israel's Hapoalim over settlement construction" Barak Ravid, Haaretz, 1 February 2014.
- Norwegian YMCA embraces boycott Israel policy, Jewish Telegraphic Agency (reprinted in The Jerusalem Post), 2 March 2014.
- Norwegian youth group YMCA-YWCA boycotts Israel Archived 16 March 2014 at the Wayback Machine., Press TV, 4 March 2014.
- Jewish NGO wants YMCA rapped for Israel boycott, The Local, 14 March 2014.
- Rilwan, Ahmed (21 July 2014). "Maldives to boycott Israeli products, annul bilateral agreements". Minivan News. Archived from the original on 4 April 2015. Retrieved 22 July 2014.
- "Maldives to boycott Israeli products" (21 July 2014). Sun Online. Retrieved 22 July 2014.
- "Crepes & Waffles".
- G4S loses major contract in Colombia after BDS campaign, Middle East Monitor, 26 February 2016.
- "Unacceptable discrimination". El País. Retrieved 2016-02-17.
- "Spanish Official Condemn Matisyahu Cancellation". Billboard. 2015-08-18. Retrieved 2016-02-17.
- "A Rototom Sunsplash public institutional declaration regarding Matisyahu". Rototomsunsplash.com. 2015-08-19. Retrieved 2016-02-17.
- "The BDS Movement Can't Harm Israel's Economy, Just its Reputation". 5 September 2014.
- "More 'Noise' Than Anything?". 28 May 2014.
The BDS movement gets heft from media coverage but its impact is minor to inconsequential
- "Knesset report: BDS movement has no impact on economy". Haaretz. 9 January 2015.
Finds exports to Europe have doubled since launch of BDS movement
- "Multi-nationals say BDS not making a dent". The Jerusalem Post. 17 December 2014.
When you're looking at the dollar sense, you forget the geopolitical reality
- "Boycott Israel Movement Stunts The Palestinian Economy". Forbes. Retrieved 2016-02-17.
- Reed, John (12 June 2015). "Israel: A new kind of war". Financial Times. Retrieved 29 June 2015.
- Study: Peace would boost Israel's economy $123b by 2024 by Niv Elis, The Jerusalem Post, 6 June 2015.
- Roger Waters (11 March 2011). "Tear down this Israeli wall". The Guardian. Retrieved 2 January 2016.
- Adam Horowitz and Philip Weiss (28 June 2010). "The Boycott Divestment Sanctions Movement". The Nation. Retrieved 31 March 2014.
- "'Jews For Palestinian Right of Return' endorse American Studies Association boycott of Israeli academic institutions". Mondoweiss.net.
- Boycott! Supporting the Palestinian BDS Call from Within. "From Israeli citizens to CocoRosie - Please do not play in apartheid Israel". Archived from the original on 7 February 2016.
- Gordin, Jeremy (2012-12-21). "South Africa's Ruling Party Endorses BDS Campaign Against Israel". Haaretz. Retrieved 2015-11-21.
- Israel's Ground Invasion, Autumn 2014, Green Party of England and Wales
- "Scottish Party Passes Motion for Boycott of Israel, Removal of Hamas From List of Terror Groups". Algemeiner.com. 2015-10-13. Retrieved 2015-11-22.
- "Green Party's support for 'polarizing' boycott against Israel forces Elizabeth May to reconsider future". CBC News. 9 August 2016. Retrieved 10 August 2016.
- "COSATU Endorses the Palestinian Call to Impose an Immediate, Comprehensive Military Embargo on Israel". BDSmovement. 2011. Retrieved 2 January 2016.
- "Cosatu to intensify Israeli goods boycott". news24. 2014. Retrieved 2 January 2016.
- "NUT Annual Conference 2014 final agenda" (PDF). National Union of Teachers. 2014. Retrieved 2 January 2016.
- Lewis, Jerry (6 July 2014). "UK's largest union backs boycott of Israel". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 5 July 2014.
- Louis-Serge Houle (2015). "La CSN se joint au mouvement mondial". Confédération des syndicats nationaux. Retrieved 2 January 2016.
- Ean Higgins (29 May 2013). "In a democracy freedom of expression had to allow a capacity for dissent". The Australian. Retrieved 29 May 2013.
- "Republican Platform 2016." 2016. 16 November 2016.
- Avishai, Bernard. "The E.U. vs. B.D.S.: the Politics of Israel Sanctions". The New Yorker. 22 January 2016. 15 May 2016.
- Kornbluh, Jacob. "Hillary Clinton Reaffirms Opposition to BDS in Letter to Jewish Leaders". Haaretz. 10 May 2016.
- Ric Willmot. "Martin Foley, Victorian Labor MP scared of Year 12 student". Retrieved 27 October 2013.
- "Lead singer of Kiss Gene Simmons slams Israel boycotters". Haaretz. Associated Press. 11 March 2011. Retrieved 23 March 2011.
- "John Lydon – Lydon Slams Critics Over Israel Show – Contactmusic News". Contactmusic.com. Retrieved 13 December 2010.
- "Israel boycotters target authors, artists". Ynetnews. 5 March 2011. Retrieved 23 March 2011.
- Amit Kling (15 May 2012). "Coen Brothers: Boycotting Israel is a mistake". Haaretz. City Mouse Online, Haaretz Service. Retrieved 16 September 2012.
- Wolpe, David. "Boycotting Israeli Authors Is an Affront to Free Speech". Time. 29 June 2016.
- Karolyn Coorsh (20 July 2011). "Reggae star Ziggy Marley rejects calls to boycott Israel". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 16 September 2012.
- Danielle Berrin (25 April 2012). "Music moguls to artists: Don't boycott Israel". Jewish Journal. Retrieved 16 September 2012.
- Rivlin, Reuven. "Taking Down BDS". Ynetnews. 28 March 2016.
- Norman Finkelstein Interview with Frank Barat: BDS Campaign - Imperial College London [09-02-2012]. 6 March 2012 – via YouTube.
- Norman G. Finkelstein (2014-02-14). "Beyond the Mass BDS Psychosis". Normanfinkelstein.com. Retrieved 2016-02-17.
- "Norman Finkelstein Throws Wrench In Anti-Israel Movement's Claim To A Rights-Based Agenda » ADL Blogs". Blog.adl.org. Retrieved 2016-02-17.
- The Electronic Intifada. "Finkelstein renews attack on BDS "cult", calls Palestinians who pursue their rights "criminal"". The Electronic Intifada. Retrieved 2016-02-17.
- "BDS movement seeks to empty Israel of Jews, former Spanish PM says", Haim Isserovitz, 20 June 2015, The Jerusalem Post.
- Wistrich, Robert S. A Lethal Obsession: Anti-Semitism from Antiquity to the Global Jihad. New York: Random House, 2010. p. 405-408
- "Chomsky says BDS tactics won't work, may be harmful to Palestinians". The Jerusalem Post. 3 July 2014.
- Pearl, Judea. "Boycott Israel? Not On My Campus". Editorial. Jewish Journal. 3–9 January 2014: 9. Print.
- "United Auto Workers Reject Boycott of Israel". Retrieved 2016-09-23.
- "United Auto Workers International Overturns Local Union's BDS Vote | Jewish & Israel News Algemeiner.com". www.algemeiner.com. Retrieved 2016-09-23.
- "Israel boycotts now official NSW Greens policy". The Australian Jewish News. 9 December 2010. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
- Jerome Klassen; Gregory Albo (2013-01-10). Empire's Ally: Canada and the War in Afghanistan. University of Toronto Press. p. 407. ISBN 978-1-4426-1304-1.
- "A campaign that is gathering weight". The Economist. 8 February 2016. 6 May 2016.
- Proposed congressional bill links BDS prevention, EU trade deal, Jewish Telegraphic Agency (JTA), 10 February 2015.
- New bill in Congress prioritizes fight against BDS in EU trade talks by Michael Wilner, Jerusalem Post 10 February 2015.
- "U.S. lawmakers introduce legislation to prevent Israel boycotts". Haaretz. 27 March 2015.
- "Illinois governor to sign anti-BDS bill". Al-Jazeera. 19 May 2015.
- Kontorovich, Eugene. "Can States Fund BDS?" Tablet Magazine. 13 July 2015. 18 July 2015.
- "Indiana House unanimously passes anti-BDS bill". Jewish Journal. 29 January 2016. 1 February 2016.
- Weinthal, Benjamin and Asaf Romirowsky. "How New York can help stop Europe's rampaging Israel boycotters". New York Post. 10 May 2016. 12 May 2016.
- Harriet Sherwood and Matthew Kalman in Jerusalem. "Stephen Hawking joins academic boycott of Israel | World news". The Guardian. Retrieved 2016-02-17.
- "Noam Chomsky". The Agenda with Steve Paikin. TVOntario. Retrieved 10 August 2012.
- Noam Chomsky Interviewed by Frank Barat, on Israel/Palestine (4/4). 2010. Retrieved 16 September 2012.
- "U. of Calif. student association votes to divest from Israel, U.S." Haaretz. 10 February 2015.
- Wen, Melissa. "UC Student Association votes to divest from companies allegedly violating Palestinian rights". The Daily Californian. 9 February 2015.
- Meir, Y. B., & Alterman, O. (2011). The Delegitimization Threat: Roots, Manifestations, and Containment. Strategic Survey for Israel. Tel Aviv: The Institute For National Security Studies, 121–137.
- "Delegitimizing the delegitimizers". Retrieved 13 August 2010.
- "The Reut Institute: The BDS Movement Promotes Delegitimization against Israel". Retrieved 13 August 2010.
- "Boycotting Israel: New pariah on the block". The Economist. 13 September 2007.
- "A campaign that is gathering weight". The Economist. 8 February 2014.
- Dershowitz, Alan. "Israel and the myopic BDS movement". The Boston Globe. 26 December 2013. 1 January 2014.
- Guttman, Nathan. "Academic Backers of Boycott Israel Movement Take Aim at Bigger Targets". The Jewish Daily Forward. 18 December 2013. 1 January 2014.
- Dershowitz, Alan (12 February 2014). "Ten reasons why BDS is immoral and hinders peace". Haaretz. Retrieved 6 January 2015.
- "Report" (PDF). Wiesenthal.com. Retrieved 2016-02-17.
- Fishman, Joel S. "The BDS Message Of Anti-Zionism, Anti-Semitism, And Incitement To Discrimination". Israel Affairs 18.3 (2012): 412–425. Academic Search Complete. Web. 8 June 2013.
- Hallward, Maia Carter, and Patrick Shaver. "'War By Other Means' Or Nonviolent Resistance? Examining The Discourses Surrounding Berkeley's Divestment Bill". Peace & Change 37.3 (2012): 389–412. Academic Search Complete. Web. 8 June 2013.
- "Anti-Israel groups push product, performers boycott". USA Today. 17 March 2013. 8 June 2013.
- "The Wrong Way To Fight BDS". The Jewish Daily Forward. 21 February 2013.
- Krauthammer:Poison of anti-Semitism continues to proliferate 9 January 2014
- Dershowitz. "Boycotting Israeli universities: A victory for bigotry". Haaretz. 17 December 2013.
- The European Union's Working Definition of Antisemitism lists "comparisons of contemporary Israeli policy to that of the Nazis" as an example of antisemitic behavior. qtd. in "Boycotts, Divestment, and Sanctions ...."
- "Boycotts, Divestment, and Sanctions (BDS) Resource Page". NGO Monitor. 14 July 2011. 1 June 2013.
- Kerr, Christian Julia Gillard denounces activists as anti-Israel protest turns anti-Semitic. The Australian. 30 April 2013.
- "SWC Commends UEFA for Holding Under-21 European Championship in Israel, Blasts Attempts to Cancel/Boycott the Event". Targeted News Service. 21 May 2013. ProQuest. Web. 8 June 2013.
- Nagourney, Adam. "In U.C.L.A. Debate Over Jewish Student, Echoes on Campus of Old Biases." The New York Times. 6 2015.
- Wistrich, Robert S. A Lethal Obsession: Anti-Semitism from Antiquity to the Global Jihad. New York: Random House, 2010. p. 407
- Michaelson, Jay. "The Wrong Way To Fight BDS". The Jewish Daily Forward. 21 February 2013.
- Judith Butler's Remarks to Brooklyn College on BDS, The Nation, 7 February 2013
- Pérez-Peña, Richard (2013-12-15). "Scholars' Group to Disclose Result of Vote on an Academic Boycott of Israel". The New York Times. Retrieved 2013-12-23.
- Jay Michaelson. "There's a Good Reason for 'Singling Out' Israel The Jewish Daily Forward. 15 August 2015.
- Harriet Sherwood, Matthew Kalman and Sam Jones Stephen Hawking: Furore deepens over Israel boycott, The Guardian, 9 May 2013.
- Applause for the academic boycott of Israel by George Bisharat, Chicago Tribune, 30 January 2014.
- Why the boycott movement scares Israel, The New York Times, 31 January 2014.
- Blatman, Daniel. Not anti-Semitism but hysteria, Haaretz, 18 June 2015.
- Barghouti, Omar (2011). Boycott, Divestment, Sanctions: The Global Struggle for Palestinian Rights. Haymarket Books. ISBN 978-1-60846-114-1.
- Mendes, Philip & Dyrenfurth, Nick (2015). Boycotting Israel is Wrong: The Progressive Path to Peace between Palestinians and Israelis. Sydney, Kensington: NewSouth (University of New South Wales Press). ISBN 9781742234144. A critique of the BDS Movement.
|Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
Supportive of BDS
- Global BDS Campaign
- BRICUP (the British Committee for the Universities of Palestine) the body that promotes the academic boycott in the UK
- PACBI (Palestinian campaign for the academic and cultural boycott of Israel)
- Palestinian United Call for BDS against Israel by the Boycott National Committee
- Jello Biafra: "Caught in the crossfire: Should musicians boycott Israel?" on Al Jazeera website (critically supportive)
Critical of BDS
- BDSISRAEL Canadian Anti-BDS Association – Countering BDS Movement[permanent dead link]
- Jiulio Meotti, Is BDS campaign working?, Ynetnews, 31 August 2011
- NGO Monitor, Israeli anti-BDS organisation
- "Boycott Divestment Sanctions (BDS) Against Israel: An Anti-Semitic, Anti-Peace Poison Pill", Simon Wiesenthal Center, March 2013
- Delegitimation of Israel and Israel Attachments Among Jewish Young Adults:The College Campus and Other Contributing Factors, a paper by The Jewish People Policy Institute
Debates on BDS and Mixed Support
- Debate between Omar Barghouti and Rabbi Arthur Waskow, Democracy Now!