Pangium edule

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Pangium edule
Pangium edule Blanco2.391.jpg
Plate from book: Flora de Filipinas
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Malpighiales
Family: Achariaceae
Genus: Pangium
Species: P. edule
Binomial name
Pangium edule
Rowal (Pangium edule), raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 462 kJ (110 kcal)
23.9 g
Sugars 14.1 g
Dietary fiber 6.2 g
2 g
2.3 g
Vitamin A equiv.
19 μg
230 μg
Vitamin C
25.8 mg
15 mg
2.2 mg
32 mg
0.155 mg
52 mg
151 mg
4 mg
0.43 mg

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Pangium edule (Indonesian: keluak or keluwak; Malay: kepayang) is a tall tree native to the mangrove swamps of Southeast Asia (Indonesia, Malaysia and Papua New Guinea[2]). It produces a large poisonous fruit (the "football fruit") which can be made edible by fermentation.

The taxonomy of the tree is uncertain and it may also be classed in the Flacourtiaceae[2] or the Violales.

Ecology and cultivation[edit]

The tree requires many years to mature and the seeds are therefore most frequently harvested from wild trees, as it is not economically feasible to cultivate.[3] Although poisonous to humans, the seeds of the tree form part of the natural diet of the babirusa (Babyroussa babyrussa).[4]

Culinary uses[edit]

Pangium edule seeds used as spice in Indonesian cooking (rawon beef stew)

The fresh fruit and seeds contain hydrogen cyanide and are deadly poisonous if consumed without prior preparation.[5][6][7] The seeds are first boiled and then buried in ash, banana leaves and earth for forty days,[8] during which time, they turn from a creamy white colour to dark brown or black.[9] The method relies on the fact that the hydrogen cyanide released by the boiling and fermentation is water-soluble and easily washed out.

The kernels may be ground up to form a thick black gravy called rawon, popular dishes include nasi rawon, beef stew in keluwek paste,[10] and sambal rawon. A stew made with beef or chicken also exists in East Java.[11] The Toraja dish pammarrasan (black spice with fish or meat, also sometimes with vegetables) uses the black keluak powder.[citation needed] In Singapore and Malaysia, the seeds are best known as an essential ingredient in ayam (chicken) or babi (pork) buah keluak,[12][13] a mainstay of Peranakan cuisine.


The edible portions of the plant are an excellent source of vitamin C and high in iron.


  • Indonesian:
    • Keluak,[14] kluwak,[14] kluak,[14] kluwek,[14] keluwek[14] or kloewak (Dutch spelling).[15]
    • Pucung[14] or pucing (Sundanese)[14]
    • Rawan or rawon (adjective referring to food prepared with the seeds of this tree)
  • Malay:
  • Kadazan:


  1. ^ "Sylloge Plantarum Novarum Itemque Minus Cognitarum a Praestantissimis Botanicis adhuc Viventibus Collecta et a Societate Regia Botanica Ratisbonensi Edita. Ratisbonae (Regensburg)" 2. 1825. p. 13. 
  2. ^ a b Conn B, Damas K. "Pangium edule Reinw.". National Herbarium of New South Wales, and Papua New Guinea National Herbarium. Retrieved 15 Oct 2009. 
  3. ^ Andarwulan N, Fardiaz D, Wattimena GA, Shetty K (1999). "Antioxidant activity associated with lipid and phenolic mobilization during seed germination of Pangium edule Reinw.". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 47 (8): 3158–3163. doi:10.1021/jf981287a. 
  4. ^ Leus K, Morgan CA, Dierenfeld ES (2001). "Nutrition". In Fischer M. Babirusa (Babyrousa babyrussa) Husbandry Manual. American Association of Zoos and Aquariums. 
  5. ^ Treub M (1896). "Sur la localisation, le transport, et le rôle de l'acide cyanhydrique dans le Pangium edule". Ann Jardin Bot Buitenzorg (in French) xiii: 1. 
  6. ^ Greshoff M (1906). Distribution of prussic acid in the vegetable kingdom. Report Brit Assn (York, England). p. 138. 
  7. ^ Willaman JJ (1917). "The estimation of hydrocyanic acid and the probable form in which it occurs in Sorghum vulgare". J Biol Chem 29 (1): 25–36. 
  8. ^ Chia CC. "Buah Keluak". Retrieved 15 Oct 2009. 
  9. ^ Wong WH (11 Jan 2007). "Buah Keluak". National Parks. Retrieved 15 Oct 2009. 
  10. ^ Nyonya Rumah (24 July 2012). "Nasi Rawon Komplet" (in Indonesian). Retrieved 24 July 2013. 
  11. ^ "Tarry, Tarry Night". 22 May 2007. Retrieved 15 Oct 2009. 
  12. ^ Ng L (29 Oct 2007). "Ayam/Pork Buah Keluak". Retrieved 15 Oct 2009. 
  13. ^ Chia CC. "Ayam/Babi Buah Keluak". Retrieved 15 Oct 2009. 
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Kluwak Pangium edule Reinw Familia: Flacourtiaceae Indonesia: Keluwek, keluwak, kluwak, kluwek, picung (Sunda), kepayang. Malaysia: Kepayang, Payang". DipoKusumo Farm Nursery. Retrieved 15 Oct 2009. 
  15. ^ "Kloewak [Pangium edule]". Objectief. Retrieved 15 Oct 2009.