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Plate from book: Flora de Filipinas
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Malpighiales
Family: Achariaceae
Genus: Pangium
P. edule
Binomial name
Pangium edule
Rowal (Pangium edule), raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy462 kJ (110 kcal)
23.9 g
Sugars14.1 g
Dietary fiber6.2 g
2 g
2.3 g
Vitamin A equiv.
19 μg
230 μg
Vitamin C
25.8 mg
15 mg
2.2 mg
32 mg
0.155 mg
52 mg
151 mg
4 mg
0.43 mg

Percentages estimated using US recommendations for adults,[3] except for potassium, which is estimated based on expert recommendation from the National Academies.[4]

Pangium is a genus in the family Achariaceae containing the sole species Pangium edule, a tall tree native to the mangrove swamps of Southeast Asia (Indonesia and Papua New Guinea[5]). It produces a large poisonous fruit (the "football fruit" or pangi)[6] which can be made edible by fermentation. It is dioecious, with male and female flowers produced on separate individuals.[7]

The taxonomy of the tree is uncertain and it may also be classed in the Flacourtiaceae[5] or the Violales.


The tree can reach 18 metres (59 feet) in height. The leaves are heart-shaped. The brownish fruit grows in clusters and shaped like a pear.[6]


The tree requires many years to mature and the seeds are therefore most frequently harvested from wild trees, as it is not economically feasible to cultivate.[8] Although poisonous to humans, the seeds of the tree form part of the natural diet of the babirusa (Babyroussa babyrussa).[9]


Seeds used as spice in Indonesian cooking (rawon beef stew)

The fresh fruit and seeds contain hydrogen cyanide, thus are deadly poisonous if consumed without prior preparation.[10][11][12] The seeds are first boiled and then buried in ash, banana leaves and earth for forty days,[13] during which time they turn from a creamy white colour to dark brown or black.[14] The method relies on the fact that the hydrogen cyanide released by the boiling and fermentation is water-soluble and easily washed out.

The kernels may be ground up to form a thick black gravy called rawon. Popular dishes include nasi rawon, beef stew in keluwek paste, popular in East and Central Java,[15] and sambal rawon, rawon stew made with beef or chicken, also made in East Java.[16] In West Java and Jakarta, gabus pucung, snakehead fish in pucung paste soup, is a popular traditional dish in Betawi cuisine.[17] The Toraja dish pammarrasan (black spice with fish or meat, also sometimes with vegetables) uses the black keluak powder.[citation needed] In Singapore and Malaysia, the seeds are best known as an essential ingredient in ayam (chicken) or babi (pork) buah keluak,[18][19] a mainstay of Peranakan cuisine. The Dusun tribe of Borneo use this pounded kernel as main ingredient for making local signature dish called bosou,[20] a sour fermented fish.

People of the Minahasa tribe in North Sulawesi use the young leaves as a vegetable, slicing them small, then cooking them with herbs and pork fat or meat inside bamboo. Many sellers in the Tomohon traditional market sell the leaves.


The edible portions of the plant are an excellent source of vitamin C and high in iron.


  1. ^ IUCN SSC Global Tree Specialist Group & Botanic Gardens Conservation International (BGCI) (2021). "Pangium edule". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2021: e.T143874361A192377449. Retrieved 25 June 2022.
  2. ^ "Sylloge Plantarum Novarum Itemque Minus Cognitarum a Praestantissimis Botanicis adhuc Viventibus Collecta et a Societate Regia Botanica Ratisbonensi Edita. Ratisbonae (Regensburg)". 2. 1825: 13. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  3. ^ United States Food and Drug Administration (2024). "Daily Value on the Nutrition and Supplement Facts Labels". Retrieved 28 March 2024.
  4. ^ National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; Health and Medicine Division; Food and Nutrition Board; Committee to Review the Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium (2019). Oria, Maria; Harrison, Meghan; Stallings, Virginia A. (eds.). Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium. The National Academies Collection: Reports funded by National Institutes of Health. Washington, DC: National Academies Press (US). ISBN 978-0-309-48834-1. PMID 30844154.
  5. ^ a b Conn B, Damas K. "Pangium edule Reinw.". National Herbarium of New South Wales, and Papua New Guinea National Herbarium. Retrieved 15 October 2009.
  6. ^ a b The Complete Guide to Edible Wild Plants. United States Department of the Army. New York: Skyhorse Publishing. 2009. p. 134. ISBN 978-1-60239-692-0. OCLC 277203364.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  7. ^ Renner, Susanne S. (2014). "The relative and absolute frequencies of angiosperm sexual systems: Dioecy, monoecy, gynodioecy, and an updated online database". American Journal of Botany. 101 (10): 1588–1596. doi:10.3732/ajb.1400196. PMID 25326608.
  8. ^ Andarwulan N, Fardiaz D, Wattimena GA, Shetty K (1999). "Antioxidant activity associated with lipid and phenolic mobilization during seed germination of Pangium edule Reinw". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 47 (8): 3158–3163. doi:10.1021/jf981287a. PMID 10552624.
  9. ^ Leus K, Morgan CA, Dierenfeld ES (2001). "Nutrition". In Fischer M (ed.). Babirusa (Babyrousa babyrussa) Husbandry Manual. American Association of Zoos and Aquariums.
  10. ^ Treub M (1896). "Sur la localisation, le transport, et le rôle de l'acide cyanhydrique dans le Pangium edule". Ann Jardin Bot Buitenzorg (in French). xiii: 1.
  11. ^ Greshoff M (1906). Distribution of prussic acid in the vegetable kingdom. York, England. p. 138. {{cite book}}: |work= ignored (help)CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  12. ^ Willaman JJ (1917). "The estimation of hydrocyanic acid and the probable form in which it occurs in Sorghum vulgare". J Biol Chem. 29 (1): 25–36. doi:10.1016/S0021-9258(18)86804-1.
  13. ^ Chia CC. "Buah Keluak". Archived from the original on 30 June 2012. Retrieved 15 October 2009.
  14. ^ Wong WH (11 January 2007). "Buah Keluak". National Parks.
  15. ^ Nyonya Rumah (24 July 2012). "Nasi Rawon Komplet" (in Indonesian). Retrieved 24 July 2013.
  16. ^ "Tarry, Tarry Night". 22 May 2007. Retrieved 15 October 2009.
  17. ^ Media, Kompas Cyber (23 June 2019). "Jakarta Ulang Tahun, Yuk Coba 5 Kuliner Betawi Langka Ini Halaman all". (in Indonesian). Retrieved 1 July 2020.
  18. ^ Ng L (29 October 2007). "Ayam/Pork Buah Keluak".
  19. ^ Chia CC. "Ayam/Babi Buah Keluak". Archived from the original on 30 June 2012. Retrieved 15 October 2009.
  20. ^ Lajius, Leolerry (April 2014). "Bosou - Makanan tradisi masyarakat Dusun Sabah" (PDF). Universiti Malaysia Sabah. Retrieved 23 February 2018.