A Dusun man carrying Bongun, 1922.
|Regions with significant populations|
| Malaysia: 568,575 (2010)|
|Dusun, Sabah Malay and English|
|Christianity, Islam, Animism|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Kadazandusun, Murut, Rungus , Lun Bawang/Lundayeh other Austronesian peoples|
Dusun is the collective name of a tribe or ethnic and linguistic group in the Malaysian state of Sabah of North Borneo. Due to similarities in culture and language with the Kadazan ethnic group, a new unified term called "Kadazan-Dusun" was created. Collectively, they form the largest ethnic group in Sabah. Kadazan-Dusun has been recognized as an indigenous nation of Borneo with documented heritage by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) since 2004.
Other similarly termed, yet non-related groups can also be found in Brunei and the Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Both Bruneian Dusuns (Sang Jati Dusun) and Dusuns of Indonesia (Barito Dusun) are not related to the Kadazan-Dusun people, instead, the Bruneian Dusuns are culturally, historically and linguistically shared a common origin, language and identity with the Bisaya people of Brunei, northern Sarawak and southwestern Sabah, while in Indonesia, the Barito Dusun groups that can be found throughout the Barito River system belonged to the Ot Danum Dayak people instead.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup
- 3 Introduction
- 4 Cultural and society
- 5 Subtribes of the Dusun
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 Further reading
- 9 External links
The Dusuns do not have the word 'Dusun' in their vocabulary. It has been suggested that the term 'Dusun' was a term used by the Sultan of Brunei to refer to the ethnic groups of inland farmers in present-day Sabah. 'Dusun' means 'orchard' in Malay. Since most of the west coast of North Borneo was under the influence of the Sultan of Brunei, taxes called 'Duis' (also referred to as the 'River Tax' on the area of southeast of North Borneo) were collected by the sultanate from the 'Orang Dusun', or 'Dusun people'. Hence, since 1881, after the establishment of the British North Borneo Company, the British administration categorized the linguistically-similar, 12 main and 33 sub-tribes collectively as 'Dusun' though among themselves they are simply known in their own dialect as just "human" or in their Bobolian term "kadayan" or "kadazan" (in Tangaa version). The Tambanuo and Bagahak, who had converted to Islam for religious reasons, had preferred to be called "Sungei" and "Idaan" respectively although they come from the same sub-tribes.
Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup
According to a study published in 2014, by Kee Boon Pin on 150 volunteers from the Kadazandusun people all over the Sabah region, the Y-DNA of the Kadazandusun people belongs to 9 mtDNA(Mitochondrial-DNA) Haplogroups, with Haplogroup M being the most common mtDNA where it represents (60/150 40%) of all maternal lineages. Followed by Haplogroup R (26/150 17.33%), Haplogroup E (22/150 14.67%), Haplogroup B (20/150 13.33%), Haplogroup D (9/150 6%), Haplogroup JT (6/150 4%), Haplogroup N (4/150 2.67%), Haplogroup F (2/150 1.33) and Haplogroup HV (1/150 0.67%). These mtDNA Haplogroups have multiple subgroup distribution into several subclades due to genome mutations for thousands of years. The Haplogroup M subclades founded were: M7b1'2'4'5'6'7'8 (22%), M7c3c (12.67%), M31a2 (0.67%), and M80 (3.33%). The Haplogroup E subclades founded were: E1a1a (8%), E1b+16261 (4.67%), and E2 (2%). The Haplogroup B subclades founded were: B4a1a (3.33%), B4b1 (1.33%), B4b1a+207 (3.33%), B4c2 (0.67%), B4j (0.67%), B5a (2%), and B5a1d (1.33%). The Haplogroup D subclades founded were: D4s (1.33%), and D5b1c1 (4.67%). For Haplogroup F, H, JT, R and N, there were only 1 subclade founded for each haplogroup: F1a4a1 (1.33%), HV2 (0.67%), JT (4%), R9c1a (17.33%), N5 (2.67%). According to S.G. Tan in his studies published in 1979, Kadazandusun ethnic have close genome relation to the other ethnics currently present in Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia and the Philippines, including the Ibans, Visayan, Ifugao, Aboriginal Malays, Dayak Kalimantan, and Tagalog. S.G. Tan also stated that Kadazandusun have very little to none genome relation to the Haplogroup K and Haplogroup O maternal lineage ethnics including Batak, Senoi, Bunun, Malay and Aeta (Philippine Negritos). 
The Dusun ethnic group at one time made up almost 40% of the population of Sabah and is broken down into more than 30 sub-ethnic, or dialect groups, or tribes, each speaking a slightly different dialect of the Dusunic family language. They are mostly mutually understandable. The name 'Dusun' was popularised by the British colonial masters who borrowed the term from the Brunei Malays.
Most Dusuns have converted to mainstream religions such as Christianity (both Roman Catholic and Protestant) and Sunni Islam, although animism is still being practiced by a minority of Dusun.
The Dusun of old traded with the coastal people by bringing their agricultural and forest produce (such as rice and amber 'damar') to exchange for salt, salted fish and other products. The Dusun has a special term to describe this type of trading activity, i.e. mongimbadi. This was before the development of the railroad and road network connecting the interior with the coastal regions of Sabah. The present Tambunan-Penampang road was largely constructed based on the trading route used by the Bundu-Liwan Dusun to cross the Crocker Range on their mongimbadi.
The vast majority of Dusuns live in the hills and upland valleys and have a reputation for peacefulness, hospitality, hard work, frugality, drinking and aversion to violence. They are now modernized and well-integrated into the larger framework of Malaysian society, taking up various occupations as government servants, and employees in the private sector, as well as becoming business owners. Many have completed tertiary education both locally and overseas (in America, England, Australia, and New Zealand).
In their old traditional setting, they use various methods of fishing, including using the juice called "tuba" derived from the roots of the "surinit" plant to momentarily stun fish in rivers.
The arrival of the Christian Missionaries in the 1880s brought to the Dayaks and the Kadazans/Dusuns of Borneo the ability to read, write and converse in English. This opened their minds and stimulated them to get involved in community development. The tribes who were first exposed to this modernization were the Tangaa or Tangara who dwelt in the Papar and Penampang coastal plains who were responsible to spread the passion of nationalism to the other tribes. The first attempt to translate the Bible was in Kadazan (Tangaa), also referred to as the "z" dialect. This was followed by a Kadazan (Tangaa) Dictionary. The first registered Native friendly Society was the Kadazan Society and the political party registered in North Borneo was the United National Kadazan Organization under the leadership of Donald Stevens, who was made the first Huguan Siou of the Kadazan aka Dusun Nation of 12 main and 33 sub-tribes. When Sabah became independent on 31 August 1963, Donald Stevens became the Prime/Chief Minister, a position he continued to hold after Sabah formed Malaysia on 16 September 1963.
Cultural and society
Harvest Festival or Pesta Kaamatan is an annual celebration by the people of Kadazandusun in Sabah. It is a one-month celebration starting from 1 May to 31 May. In modern-day of Kaamatan Festival celebration, 30 and 31 May are the climax dates for the state-level celebration that happens at the place of the yearly Kaamatan Festival host. Today's Kaamatan celebration is very synonymous with beauty pageant competition known as Unduk Ngadau, a singing competition known as Sugandoi, Tamu, non-halal food and beverages stalls, and handicraft arts and cultural performances in traditional houses.
During the old days, Kaamatan was celebrated to give thanks to ancient God and rice spirits for the bountiful harvesting to ensure continuous paddy yield for the next paddy plantation season. Nowadays, the majority of the Kadazan-dusun people have embraced Christianity and Islam. Although the Kaamatan is still celebrated as an annual tradition, it is no longer celebrated for the purpose to meet the demands of the ancestral spiritual traditions and customs, but rather in honouring the customs and traditions of the ancestors. Today, Kaamatan is more symbolic as a reunion time with family and loved ones. Domestically, modern Kaamatan is celebrated as per individual personal aspiration with the option of whether or not to serve the Kadazandusun traditional food and drinks which are mostly non-halal.
Traditional foods and drinks
A few of the most well known traditional food of the Kadazandusun people are hinava, noonsom, pinaasakan, bosou, tuhau, kinoring pork soup and rice wine chicken soup. Some of the well known traditional drinks of Kadazandusun are tapai, tumpung, lihing and bahar.
The traditional costume of the Kadazandusun is generally called the "Koubasanan costume", made out of black velvet fabric with various decorations using beads, flowers, colored buttons, golden laces, linen, and unique embroidery designs. The traditional costume that is commonly commercialized as the cultural icon of the Kadazandusun people is the Koubasanan costume from the Penampang district. The koubasanan costume from the Penampang district consists of 'Sinuangga' worn by women and 'Gaung' for men. 'Sinuangga' comes with a waistband called 'Himpogot' (made out of connected silver coins, also known as the money belt), 'Tangkong' (made out of copper loops or rings fastened by strings or threads), 'Gaung' (decorated with gold lace and silver buttons) and a hat that is called 'Siga' (made out of weaved dastar fabric). The decorations and designs of the koubasanan costume are usually varied by region. For example, the koubasanan dress design for Kadazandusun women of Penampang usually comes in a set of sleeveless blouse combined with long skirts and no hats, while the koubasanan dress design for Kadazandusun women of Papar comes in a set of long sleeves blouse combined with knee-length skirts and wore with a siung hat. There are over 40 different designs of the Koubasanan costume across Sabah that belongs to different tribes of the Kadazandusun community.
Sumazau dance is the traditional dance of Kadazandusun. Usually, the sumazau dance is performed by a pair of men and women dancers wearing traditional costumes. Sumazau dance is usually accompanied by the beats and rhythms of seven to eight gongs. The opening movement for sumazau dance is the parallel swing of the arms back and forth at the sides of the body, while the feet springs and move the body from left to right. Once the opening dance moves are integrated with the gong beats and rhythms, the male dancer will chant "heeeeee!" indicating that it is time to change the dance moves. Upon hearing this chant, dancers will raise their hands to the sides of their body and in line with their chest, and move their wrists and arms up and down resembling the movement of a flying bird. There is plenty of choreography of sumazau dance, but the signature dance move of the sumazau will always be the flying bird arms movement, parallel arms swinging back and forth at the sides of the body, and the springing feet.
The Kadazandusun traditional music is usually orchestrated in the form of a band consist of musicians using traditional musical instruments, such as the bamboo flute, sompoton, togunggak, gong, and kulintangan. Musical instruments in Sabah are classified into Cordophones (tongkungon, gambus, sundatang or gagayan), Erophon (suling, turali or tuahi, bungkau, sompoton), and Idofon (togunggak, gong, kulintangan) and membranophones (kompang, gendang or tontog). The most common musical instruments in Kadazandusun ceremonies are gong, and kulintangan. The gong beats usually varies by regions and districts, and the gong beats that is often played at the official Kaamatan celebration in KDCA is the gong beats from the Penampang district.
Kadazandusun people use natural materials as resources in producing handicrafts, including the bamboo, rattan, lias, calabash, and woods. Few of the many handicrafts that are synonym to the Kadazandusun people are wakid, barait, sompoton, pinakol, siung hat, parang and gayang.
Before the mentioned handicrafts were promoted and commercialized to represent the Kadazandusun cultures, they were once tools that were used in daily lives. In fact, some of these handicrafts are still used for its original purpose to this day. Wakid and barait are used to carry harvested crops from farms. Sompoton is a musical instrument. Pinakol is an accessory used in ceremonials and rituals. Parang/machetes and gayang/swords are used as farming and hunting tools, as well as weapons in series of civil wars of the past, which indirectly made the Kadazandusun known as headhunters in the past.
Subtribes of the Dusun
Tuaran Dusun Lotud
From an anthropological point of view, it is not clear where the Dusun originated. However, based on anecdotes or folklore, the Dusun have been known to come from Nunuk Ragang or the red-coloured 'Kayu Ru' tree colour situated at Kampong Tampias in the district of Ranau.
From the time before the spread of the major world religions in Southeast Asia and until the present day, the ethnic Lotud were animists.
Bruneians use the word 'Dusun' to identify farmers who have a piece of land planted with fruits or tend orchards. The term was adopted by the British during the period of North Borneo Chartered Company rule from 1881 to 1941.
According to researchers, the Lotud ethnic was synonymous with the word 'Suang Lotud' and can be found in 35 villages in Tuaran district. The ethnic Dusun Lotud called Lotude were based on the anecdotes not written by their ancestors. The Lotud women were known to wear skirts below the knees only. The word 'otud' in Dusun Lotud dialect means 'Lutut' or knee.
A husband from ethnic Dusun Lotud can practice polygamy and can divorce.
The 'Adat' or Custom of 'Dusun Lotud' marriage processes is divided into 35 segments like Suruhan, (merisik or bilateral meeting), monunui (bertunang or engagement), popiodop ('bermalam' or stay a night atau ditidur or 'sleeping together'), Matod (kahwin or wedding) and mirapou ('adat' or custom).
Before the 1950s, the partners for Dusun Lotud children were chosen by their parents. The children had no choice except to accept what their parents required for the matching partners without any help. The main objective aims to have good generations of a family: which claims to be respectful and hard-working in the paddy fields and to avoid incest in the families.
The male's family will appoint an elderly person known as 'suruhan' qualified on the 'adat resam' and will visit the female's house for the purpose of 'merisik' or negotiating.
The 'Suruhan' is aimed at delivering a message to engage the daughter from the female's family. The girl's family requests for a duration of days before the 'Risikan' or negotiation could be accepted. Many matters have to be clearly made known like the family tree, character, the capability of the male's side, and to evaluate the meaning of a dream that occurred in the female's family. If the female's side had a bad dream, 'sogit mimpi' is done for 'perdamaian' or peace. Based on 'adat', when the male's had no 'suruhan' or appointee, they can be fined on 'adat malu' by the girl's family.
Adat Monunui ('bertunang' or engagement) side the proposal of marriage or 'risikan' is accepted by the girl's side, both parties will discuss to fix the date for 'Adat Monunui' They will find the suitable date and month in the Dusun Lotud calendar like the night of the 14th in a one-month cycle called 'tawang kopiah' or the 15th night called tolokud, to perform 'monunui'.
As a symbol of engagement, the man's side will give a ring to the woman only. 'Adat Monunui' can only be done in the morning before 1 pm. After completion of the ceremony, the man's family members have to leave the woman's home before 4 pm.
In the 'adat monunui', the head of the village and the appointee are the frontline people in the ceremony. Both parties of the families will be represented by the head of the village. At this time the girl proposed to be the fiancée must be in the bedroom or in another place not to be seen by the male's family. The man will not be allowed in the girl's living room before the 'monunui' ends.
The most important in 'adat menunui' (engagement) are 'berian/mas kawin' (tinunui), 'belanja dapur' ('wang hangus' or kitchen expenses), 'hantaran tunang' or dowry, 'sogit' atau adat keluarga (jika ada or if family custom exist), tempoh bertunang (duration of engagement).
The list of valuables equivalent to dowry items delivered to the girl are 'karo aman tunggal', 'karo lawid', 'kalro inontilung', 'karo dsapau', 'kemagi lawid', 'kemagi 3 rondog', 'badil' or cannon, 'tajau' or vase, 'canyang tinukul', 'tatarapan', two pieces of 'rantakah', two pieces of 'sigar emas', 'simbong bersiput', 'pertina', 'tompok', gong (tawag-tawag), 'tutup panasatan' ('canyang'), 'kampil', 'kulintangan', two pieces of 'simbong bersiput'.
At the traditional pre-speech, 'adat berian' or dowry custom and belanja dapur or kitchen expenses, the heads of the villages from the man's and girl's sides will start the pre-discussion. They have prepared some pieces of 'kirai' or the (mangrove palm shoot rolled, dried and turned to make cigarette), or the matches sticks as a symbol of notes equivalent to RM1,000 each. The girl's side will make some requests on the man's side. 'Berian' or 'Tinunui' or dowry is obligatory as the symbol of the value of the girl's personality and based on the tradition worth RM1,000. The period to perform a marriage ceremony is one year. The man's family will request an adjournment of the marriage if the man encounters a financial problem.
The 'belanja dapur' or kitchen expenses are estimated above RM5,000 and a moderate-fat buffalo. 'Adat Berian Tanah' or the land grant custom dowry is obligatory for the ethnic Dusun Lotud called 'Pinolusadan Do Aluwid', with the approved land taxation of 0.25 cents. The purpose of land grant dowry is for the construction of a house when the married couple has children. Based on tradition, if the bridegroom does not have assets like land, the 'berian four binukul (valuable archaic items) will be mentioned with the value of RM1,000.00 as 'adat berian' and has fulfilled the terms.
The Ranau Dusuns can be considered as more closely representative of the original Dusun stock than other sub-ethnic Dusun. This is due to the area in which they reside, the area is generally considered as the birthplace of the Dusun population,-Nunuk Ragang. Most of the Dusun Ranau embrace Christianity.
The Dusun Tatana is different from all other Dusun people, their culture is similar to Chinese culture but mixed with some traditional Dusun customs. The Dusun Tatana is the only Dusun who celebrates Chinese New Year as their festival. Kaamatan is less celebrated by them.
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