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Common arguments for partitions include:
- historicist – that partition is inevitable, or already in progress
- last resort – that partition should be pursued to avoid the worst outcomes (genocide or large-scale ethnic expulsion), if all other means fail
- cost–benefit – that partition offers a better prospect of conflict reduction than the if existing borders are not changed
- better tomorrow – that partition will reduce current violence and conflict, and that the new more homogenized states will be more stable
- rigorous end – heterogeneity leads to problems, hence homogeneous states should be the goal of any policy
Notable examples are: (See Category:Partition)
- Partition of Africa (Scramble for Africa), between 1881 and 1914.
- Partition, multiple times, of the Roman Empire into the Eastern Roman Empire and the Western Roman Empire, following the Crisis of the Third Century.
- Partition of Prussia by the Second Peace of Thorn in 1466 creating Royal Prussia, and Duchy of Prussia in 1525
- Partition of Catalonia by the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659: Northern Catalan territories (Roussillon) were given to France by Spain.
- In the Treaty of Versailles (1757), France agreed upon the partition of Prussia
- Partition of the U.S. state of Virginia, twice: in 1792, nine Trans-Appalachian counties became the Commonwealth of Kentucky; and then in 1863, 50 northwestern counties became the State of West Virginia.
- German occupation of Czechoslovakia and Munich Agreement of 1938.
- Three Partitions of Poland in 1772, 1793, and 1795, which led to the complete annihilation of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
- 1905 Partition of Bengal and 1947 Partition of Bengal
- Partition of the geographic region of Macedonia by the Treaty of Bucharest (1913)
- Partition of Tyrol by the London Pact of 1915
- Partition of the German Empire in 1919 by the Treaty of Versailles
- Partition of Prussia in 1919
- Partition of the Ottoman Empire
- Partition of the Austrian-Hungarian Empire by the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye (1919)
- Partition of Ireland in 1920 into the independent Irish Free State and (British) Northern Ireland
- Treaty of Kars of 1921, which partitioned Ottoman Armenia between the republic of Turkey and the then Soviet Union (Western and Eastern Armenia)
- Partition of Germany and Berlin after World War II, annexation of former eastern territories of Germany
- Partition of Korea in 1945
- 1947 UN Partition Plan for British Mandate of Palestine; this partition was abortive[clarification needed], resulting only in Jewish independent state, while the proposed Arab state was never formed.
- Partition of India (colonial British India) in 1947 into the independent dominions (later republics) of India and Pakistan (which included modern-day Bangladesh)
- Partition of Korea in 1953
- Partition of Punjab in 1966 into the states of Punjab, Haryana and Himachal Pradesh
- Partition of Pakistan in 1971, when East Pakistan became the independent nation of Bangladesh after the Bangladesh Liberation War
- Partition of Vietnam in 1954
- The hypothetical partition of the Canadian province of Quebec
- Partition of Yugoslavia in the 1990s
- Independence of Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia and Slovenia from Yugoslavia (leaving Serbia and Montenegro)
- Failed partition of Republic of Serbian Krajina in Croatia (Croatian War)
- Ethno-political partition of Bosnia and Herzegovina into two entities, Republika Srpska (Serbs) and Federation of B&H (Bosniaks and Croats)
- Partition of Cyprus in 1974 (de facto), into Cyprus (Greek) and Northern Cyprus (Turkish)
- Possible Partition of Kosovo after disputed independence (partition from Serbia) in 2008. See also Kosovo independence precedent.
- Partition of China (See 瓜分中國)
- Partition of Indonesia to approve Annexation of Borneo to the Philippines
- Brendan O'Leary, DEBATING PARTITION: JUSTIFICATIONS AND CRITIQUES
- Norman Davies. God's Playground , p. 28
- Stephen R. Turnbull. Tannenberg 1410: Disaster for the Teutonic Knights p. 89
- Millot, Claude François Xavier. Elements of General History: Ancient and Modern p. 227
- Arthur Hassall. The Balance of Power, 1715–1789, p. 242
- "Kentucky". history.com. A+E Networks. Retrieved 25 March 2018.
- "Official Name and Status History of the several States and U.S. Territories". TheGreenPapers.com. Retrieved 25 March 2018.
- "Today in History – June 20: Mountaineers Always Freemen". Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress. Retrieved 25 March 2018.
- "A State of Convenience: The Creation of West Virginia, Chapter Twelve, Reorganized Government of Virginia Approves Separation". Wvculture.org. West Virginia Division of Culture and History. Retrieved 25 March 2018.
- "The Polish Occupation. Czechoslovakia was, of course, mutilated not only by Germany. Poland and Hungary also each asked for their share." Hubert Ripka Munich, Before and After: A Fully Documented Czechoslovak Account 
- Davies, p. 101
- Samuel Leonard Sharp: Poland, White Eagle on a Red Field
- Norman Davies: God's Playground 
- Debates of the Senate of the Dominion of Canada
- Sambanis, Nicholas, and Jonah Schulhofer-Wohl. "What's in a line? Is partition a solution to civil war?." International Security 34.2 (2009): 82–118.
- Berg, Eiki. "Re-examining sovereignty claims in changing territorialities: reflections from ‘Kosovo Syndrome’." Geopolitics 14.2 (2009): 219-234.
- Fearon, James D. "Separatist wars, partition, and world order." Security Studies 13.4 (2004): 394–415.
- Downes, Alexander B. "More Borders, Less Conflict? Partition as a Solution to Ethnic Civil Wars." SAIS Review of International Affairs 26.1 (2006): 49–61.
- Kumar, Radha. "Settling Partition Hostilities: Lessons Learned, Options Ahead." The Fate of the Nation-state (2004): 247.
- O'Leary, Brendan. "Debating partition: justifications and critiques." Revised version of portion of a paper presented at final conference of the Mapping frontiers, plotting pathways: routes to North-South cooperation in a divided island programme, City Hotel, Armagh, 19–20 January 2006. University College Dublin. Institute for British-Irish Studies, 2006.
- Horowitz, Michael C., Alex Weisiger, and Carter Johnson. "The limits to partition." International Security 33.4 (2009): 203–210.
- Kumar, Radha. "The Partition Debate: Colonialism Revisited or New Policies?." The Brown Journal of World Affairs 7.1 (2000): 3–11.