A colonial empire is a collective of territories (often called colonies), either contiguous with the imperial center or located overseas, settled by the population of a certain state and governed by that state.
Before the expansion of early modern European powers, other empires had conquered and colonized territories, such as the Romans in Iberia, or the Chinese in what is now southern China. Modern colonial empires first emerged with a race of exploration between the then most advanced European maritime powers, Portugal and Spain, during the 15th century. The initial impulse behind these dispersed maritime empires and those that followed was trade, driven by the new ideas and the capitalism that grew out of the European Renaissance. Agreements were also made to divide the world up between them in 1479, 1493, and 1494. European imperialism was born out of competition between European Christians and Ottoman Muslims, the latter of which rose up quickly in the 14th century and forced the Spanish and Portuguese to seek new trade routes to India, and to a lesser extent, China.
Although colonies existed in classical antiquity, especially amongst the Phoenicians and the Ancient Greeks who settled many islands and coasts of the Mediterranean Sea, these colonies were politically independent from the city-states they originated from, and thus did not constitute a colonial empire. This paradigm shifted by the time of the Ptolemaic Empire, the Seleucid Empire, and the Roman Empire.
European colonial empires
Portugal began establishing the first global trade network and one of the first colonial empires under the leadership of Henry the Navigator. The empire spread throughout a vast number of territories distributed across the globe (especially at one time in the 16th century) that are now parts of 60 different sovereign states. Portugal would eventually control Brazil, territories such as what is now Uruguay and some fishing ports in north, in the Americas; Angola, Mozambique, Portuguese Guinea, and São Tomé and Príncipe (among other territories and bases) in the North and the Subsaharan Africa; cities, forts or territories in all the Asian Subcontinents, as Muscat, Ormus and Bahrain (amongst other bases) in the Persian Gulf; Goa, Bombay and Daman and Diu (amongst other coastal cities) in India; Portuguese Ceylon; Malacca, bases in Southeast Asia and Oceania, as Makassar, Solor, Banda, Ambon and others in the Moluccas, Portuguese Timor; and the granted entrepôt-base of Macau and the entrepôt-enclave of Dejima (Nagasaki) in East Asia, amongst other smaller or short-lived possessions.
During its Siglo de Oro, the Spanish Empire had possession of Mexico, South America, the Philippines, all of southern Italy, a stretch of territories from the Duchy of Milan to the Netherlands, Luxembourg, and Belgium, parts of Burgundy, and many colonial settlements in the Americas, Africa, and Asia. Possessions in Europe, Africa, the Atlantic Ocean, the Americas, the Pacific Ocean, and East Asia qualified the Spanish Empire as attaining a global presence. From 1580 to 1640 the Portuguese Empire and the Spanish Empire were conjoined in a personal union of its Habsburg monarchs during the period of the Iberian Union, but beneath the highest level of government, their separate administrations were maintained.
Subsequent colonial empires included the French, English, Dutch and Japanese empires. By the mid-17th century, the Tsardom of Russia, continued later as the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union, became the largest contiguous state in the world, and the modern Russian Federation continues to be so to this day. Russia today has nine time zones, stretching across about half of the world's longitude.
Throughout the 19th and early 20th century, by virtue of its technological and maritime supremacy, the British Empire steadily expanded to become by far the largest empire in history; at its height ruling over a quarter of the Earth’s land area and 24% of the population. Britain’s role as a global hegemon during this time ushered in a century of “British Peace”, lasting from the end of the Napoleonic Wars to the start of WW1. During the New Imperialism, Italy and Germany also built their colonial empires in Africa.
It is worth noting that, from the 16th to 19th century, there were also large non-European empires, most notably the Qing Empire of China, which conquered a huge area of East and Inner Asia, and the states of the Age of the Islamic Gunpowders, Mughal India, the Ottoman Empire in Asia Minor and Southwest Europe, and Safavid Iran. The British replaced the Mughals in India, and after the Boxer Rebellion in 1901, Imperial China made concessions to the Eight-Nation Alliance (all the Great Powers of the time). By the end of the 20th century most of the previous colonial empires had been decolonized, though the modern nation-states of Russia and China inherited much of the territory of the Romanov and Qing empires, respectively.
This article's factual accuracy is disputed. (January 2020)
The chart below shows the span of some European colonial empires.
- Black lines mark the year of the empires largest territorial extent of land area.
- Red represents that the empire is at that time a monarchy.
- Blue represents that the empire is at that time a republic.
List of colonial empires
- Belgian Empire (1843–1962)
- British Empire (1707–1997/present)
- Evolution of the British Empire
- Possessions in Europe
- Possessions in Africa
- British Somaliland (1884–1960)
- British Egypt (1914–1936)
- Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (1899–1956)
- East Africa Protectorate (1895–1920)
- Kenya Colony (1920–1963)
- Uganda Protectorate (1894–1962)
- Tanganyika (territory) (1922–1961)
- Protectorate of Nyasaland (1893–1964)
- Protectorate of Northern Rhodesia (1924–1964)
- Colony of Southern Rhodesia (1923–1965), (1979–1980)
- Bechuanaland Protectorate (1885-1966)
- British Nigeria (1914–1954)
- British Gold Coast (1867–1957)
- British Sierra Leone (1808–1961)
- British Gambia (1821–1965)
- Possessions in the Americas
- Thirteen Colonies
- British West Indies
- British Honduras (1862–1981)
- British Guiana (1814–1966)
- Mosquito Coast (1638-1860)
- Possessions in the Indian subcontinent
- Possessions in China
- Possessions in the Middle East
- Possessions in Southeast Asia
- Dominions of the United Kingdom
- Dominion of Newfoundland
- Territories and mandates under Australian administration (1901–present)
- Realm of New Zealand (1907–present)
- The New Zealand dominion, itself a colony that gradually increased its independence in 1907, 1947 and 1986, was tasked with the government of multiple other British colonies and territories and the mandate of Samoa. It was also nominal co-trustee of the mandate of Nauru. The remaining non-self-governing New Zealand territory is Tokelau.
- Mandates under South African administration (1915–1990)
- Danish Empire (1620–1979/present)
- Dutch Empire (1602–1975/Present)
- English colonial empire (1585–1707)
- French colonial Empire (1534–1980/present)
- French colonization of the Americas:
- New Hebrides (1906–1980)
- German Empire (1884–1920)
- Italian Empire (1882–1960)
- Eritrea (1882–1947)
- Somaliland (1889–1947, 1950-1960 as Italian Trust Territory of Somaliland)
- Ethiopia (1936-1941)
- Italian East Africa (formed by merging Eritrea, Somaliland and Ethiopia: 1936–1947)
- Cyrenaica (1912–1947)
- Tripolitania (1912–1947)
- Italian Islands of the Aegean (1912–1947)
- Italian Albania (1939-1943)
- Italian France (1940-1943)
- Italian Montenegro (1941-1943)
- Italian concession of Tientsin (1901-1947)
- Ottoman Empire (1354-1908)
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- Portuguese Empire (1415–1999)
- Evolution of the Portuguese Empire
- Portuguese colonization of the Americas
- Colonial Brazil (1500–1815)
- Portuguese India (1505–1961)
- Portuguese Ceylon (1598-1658)
- Portuguese Timor (1702–1975)
- Portuguese Malacca (1511–1641)
- Portuguese Macau (1557–1999)
- Portuguese Nagasaki (1580-1587)
- Portuguese Oman (1507-1656)
- Portuguese Africa
- Russian Empire (1721–1917)
- Spanish Empire (1492–1825/1898)
- Spanish colonization of the Americas
- Spanish East Indies (1565–1898)
- Spanish Guinea (1778–1968)
- Spanish Sahara (1884–1975)
- Spanish protectorate in Morocco (1912–1956)
- Ifni (1476-1524/1859-1969).
- Swedish Empire (1638–1663, 1733, 1784–1878)
- Japanese Empire (1868–1945)
Other countries with colonial possessions:
- United States of America (1817–present)
- Colonies of the Habsburg Monarchy and the Austro-Hungarian Empire (1719–1750, 1778–1783, 1901–1917)
- Duchy of Courland and Semigallia (a vassal of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, 1637–1690)
- German colonial initiatives (1683–1721)
- Italy and the colonization of the Americas
- Kingdom of Scotland (1621–1707)
- Sweden-Norway (1814-1905)
- Kingdom of Morocco (1975–present)
- Omani Empire (1652–1892)
- Tsardom of Russia, Russian Empire, Soviet Union, and Russian Federation (1547–1721) (1721-1917) (1917–1991) (1991-present)
- Chinese Empire (from Qin dynasty to Qing dynasty), Republic of China, and People's Republic of China (221 BC- Present)
- Chinese imperialism
- Imperial Chinese Tributary System
- Canghai Commandery(A commandery that self subjugated to Han dynasty from Dongye)
- Four Commanderies of Han(Established after the fall of Gojoseon)
- Daifang Commandery(Offshoot of the former four commanderies of Han that existed in the 3rd to 4th century)
- Colonization attempts of the Tang dynasty after Unification of the three kingdoms of Korea(Gyerim Territory Area Command,Protectorate General to Pacify the East and Ungjin Commandery)
- Dongnyeong Prefectures,Ssangseong Prefectures and Tamna prefectures(Yuan dynasty)
- Hainan (since the Han dynasty)
- Manchuria (during the Tang, Liao, Jin, Yuan, Ming, and Qing dynasties)
- Inner Mongolia
- Outer Mongolia (during the Tang, Liao, Yuan, Northern Yuan, and Qing dynasties)
- Taiwan (during the Qing dynasty)
- Tibet (during the Yuan, Ming, and Qing dynasties)
- Vietnam (during the Han, Xin, Eastern Wu, Jin, Liu Song, Southern Qi, Liang, Sui, Tang, Wu Zhou, Southern Han, and Ming dynasties)
- Central Asia (during the Tang, Western Liao, and Qing dynasties)
- Chinese imperialism
- Kingdom of Siam
- Empire of Brazil, Brazil
- Analysis of Western European colonialism and colonization
- Colonial troops
- Democratic empire
- Great Divergence
- History of Western civilization
- List of ancient great powers
- List of largest empires
- List of medieval great powers
- List of modern great powers
- Middle Eastern empires
- Nomadic empire
- The empire on which the sun never sets
Notes and references
- Encarta-encyclopedie Winkler Prins (1993–2002) s.v. "kolonie [geschiedenis]. §1.2 De moderne koloniale expansie". Microsoft Corporation/Het Spectrum.
- Encarta, s.v. "kolonie [geschiedenis]. §1.1 Oudheid.
- William D. Phillips, Jr; Phillips, Carla Rahn (November 12, 2015). "Spain as the first global empire". A Concise History of Spain.
- Powell, Philip Wayne ([1991?]). Árbol de odio: la leyenda negra y sus consecuencias en las relaciones entre Estados Unidos y el mundo hispánico. Ediciones Iris de Paz. ISBN 9788440488855. OCLC 55157841
- part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain before 1821.
- .part of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata before 1810.
- Gregory Smits (1999). Visions of Ryukyu: Early-Modern Thought and Politics. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 143–149·
- Part of the Holy Roman Empire realm before 1804.
- part of the Holy Roman Empire before 1736
- The dependencies of Norway are uninhabited, thus as end date is taken the latest date of full Norwegian sovereignty extension to such territory, instead of the date of decolonization or integration in the administrative structures of the mainland.
Bouvet Island claimed in 1927, under Norway sovereignty since 1930.
Peter I Island claimed in 1929, under Norway sovereignty since 1933.
Queen Maud Land claimed in 1938, under Norway sovereignty since 1957.
Peter I Island and Queen Maud Land fall under the scope of the Antarctic Treaty System since 1961.