|Country||People's Republic of China|
|• Total||1,197.1 km2 (462.2 sq mi)|
|• Density||340/km2 (890/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+08:00 (China Standard)|
Penglai, formerly known as Dengzhou or Tengchow,[a] is a district belonging to the prefecture-level city of Yantai, Shandong Province, in the People's Republic of China. It lies on the northwest corner of the Shandong Peninsula on the southern coast of the Gulf of Bohai. Penglai is famous for its mirages out at sea, which are frequent during May and June. Formerly a county-level city, Penglai became a district of Yantai City in 2020.
Penglai is entirely surrounded by other divisions of Yantai: Fushan District is to the east, Longkou City to the west, and Qixia City to the south. Its limits in geographic coordinates are 37° 25'–37° 50' N, 120° 35'–121° 09' E.
Penglai District is located in the mid-latitude region of the northern hemisphere, with a continental climate in the warm temperate monsoon zone, annual average temperature of 12.5°C, annual average daily maximum temperature of 28.8°C, annual average daily minimum temperature of -2.3°C, extreme maximum temperature of 38.8°C, extreme minimum temperature of -14.9°C, annual average precipitation of 664mm, annual average sunshine of 2826 hours, frost-free period of 206 days on average, relative humidity 65%, average annual wind speed 5.2 m/s, no floods, not affected by typhoons.
|Climate data for Penglai (1981−2010 normals)|
|Record high °C (°F)||15.1
|Average high °C (°F)||1.9
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−1.5
|Average low °C (°F)||−4.4
|Record low °C (°F)||−13.0
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||8.3
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||5.0||4.0||3.8||5.4||7.3||7.8||10.4||9.7||6.4||5.9||6.2||6.8||78.7|
|Average snowy days||8.9||5.1||1.8||0.2||0||0||0||0||0||0.2||2.9||8.6||27.7|
|Average relative humidity (%)||61||59||56||53||60||67||79||81||71||62||61||61||64|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||172.5||182.5||241.0||253.7||278.9||259.5||230.4||235.3||231.0||220.4||171.8||151.6||2,628.6|
|Percent possible sunshine||56||59||65||64||63||59||52||56||63||64||57||51||59|
|Source: China Meteorological Administration (precipitation days, snow days, sunshine 1991–2020)|
The Red Cliffs (丹崖) of the area are reputed to have been the site where the Eight Immortals set out for the land of the immortals and where Qin Shi Huang later sent off five hundred boys and five hundred girls on ships to search for them. Chinese legends held that a mystic dolphin was seen from the cliffs above and, missing it with his spear, the emperor knew that his days were numbered. The Martial Emperor of Han (Han Wudi) later also visited the area while searching for the elixir of immortality.
The old city walls incorporate guard towers of three stories (rather than the usual two) because the uncle of the first emperor of the 6th-century Sui dynasty had been prince of the area. Under the Ming, the harbor was fortified and used by the war junks of the imperial navy.
During the early years of the Manchu invasion of China, Portuguese artillerists were instructing Ming forces at Dengzhou when it was besieged by a mutinous army under Kong Youde in February 1632. Captain Gonçalo Teixeiro was killed during its sack, but the 70-year-old Jesuit linguist João Rodrigues escaped by jumping from the city walls into the sea. Kong's forces then seized the Portuguese cannon and used them to pillage the countryside before joining the Manchu invaders who eventually established China's Qing dynasty.
Following the Second Opium War, Dengzhou became the first port opened to foreigners on the Shandong Peninsula in 1858. Christian missions were quickly established. The harbor was found inadequate for the traders, however, and Zhifu (now central Yantai) was developed 30 miles (48 km) away to function as Dengzhou's port.
Penglai is mentioned in the fictional stories about Judge Dee by Robert van Gulik, first mentioned in the book The Chinese Gold Murders.
As of July 2020, Penglai District has 6 streets, 8 towns and 6 townships: Dengzhou Street, Zijingshan Street, Xingang Street, Penglaiguo Street, Nanwang Street, Nanchangshan Street, Liujiagou Town, Chaoshui Town, Daliuxing Town, Xiaomenjia Town, Daxindian Town, Muriji Town, Beigou Town, Emery Town, North Changshan Township, Daqindao Township, Heihe Township, Xiaoqindao Township, Nanhuangcheng Township, Beihuangcheng Township, the district people's government is located in Penglai Economic Development Zone, No. 169 Jinchuang Road.
- In 2020, Penglai District achieved a gross regional product of 37.04 billion yuan, an increase of 3.3% over the previous year at comparable prices. Among them, the value added of the primary industry is 5.19 billion yuan, up 2.1%; the value added of the secondary industry is 12.20 billion yuan, up 5.7%; the value added of the tertiary industry is 19.65 billion yuan, up 1.9%. The ratio of the three industrial structures was 14.0:32.9:53.1.
- In 2020, Penglai District realized public budget revenue of 3.402 billion yuan, up 3.1% year-on-year; public budget expenditure of 4.368 billion yuan, up 5.3%. Realize tax revenue of 3.49 billion yuan, an increase of -3.0% year-on-year.
Penglai has been ranked by the Chinese government as a top domestic tourist destination. Its Water Fortress (水城, Shuǐchéng), a fortified harbor, is one of China's oldest military ports. It was built under the Ming in 1376 and housed a fleet of warjunks. It is now a protected historical monument being renovated at a cost of 500m RMB (more than $60m). There is a plank walk along the cliffs nearby.
More than US$25 million has also been invested into developing the Penglai Pavilion and other sites. The Penglai Pavilion is a large park of ancient buildings, palaces and temples, that have been restored and rebuilt. It has been a tourist goal for more than a thousand years, and the site features inscriptions from famous poets and calligraphers like Su Shi and Dong Qichang. Among other cultural attractions of Penglai are the Naval Museum with exhibits of ancient ships and the restored residence of the famous patriotic general Qi Jiguang. Penglai also has the largest ocean aquarium in Asia. It includes a polar area, a shark hall, a tropical rainforest, and a theater with mermaids, dolphins and sea lions. A picturesque festival takes place in January for the birthday of Tianhou, a local sea goddess.
While tourism is the mainstay of Penglai's economy, bringing more than two million tourists annually, in fact the entire center of the town around the harbour was walled off and completely razed in 2006.
The production of wine is the second largest industry in the province. Agriculture is first. However, in Penglai, tourism is the primary industry, and wine-making is second. The hills south of Penglai have an average elevation of 200 metres (660 ft), while the coastal areas are relatively flat. Most of the soil is loose, well-aerated, and rich in minerals and organic matters that enable full development of the root systems. The wineries are located mainly in the Nanwang Grape Valley and along the Yan-Peng Sightseeing Highway. The main varieties grown there, like Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Gernischt, Merlot, Riesling and Chardonnay, are all reaching 20 years of age, considered to be the golden stage for these grapes. Most of them maintain an average sugar content of above 20%. The Cabernet is especially typical, with good color and a dense fragrance.
- Qi Jiguang (戚继光, 1528－1588) Ming dynasty general and national hero who fought Japanese pirates
- Henry Luce (1898–1967) - born in Penglai, founder of TIME, Fortune, and Life.
- Ida Pruitt (1888–1985) - born in Penglai, spoke fluent Chinese, prolific writer on China
- Wu Peifu (吴佩孚, 1874–1939) - army general, later became one of the most powerful military rulers in China during the Warlord Era (1916–1928)
- Meng Xuenong (simplified Chinese: 孟学农; traditional Chinese: 孟學農; pinyin: Mèng Xuénóng 1949- ) - vice-governor and acting governor of Shanxi (as of 2007) and disgraced former Mayor of Beijing Municipality
- Mu Xiang (慕湘,1916-1988), formerly known as Mu Xian Song, also known as Mu Song Jun, Bo Lin, Bai Lin, Bai Song; a native of the city and a major general in the Chinese People's Liberation Army.
- Xiahou Sumin (夏侯苏民,1919-1946), formerly known as Zhang Peili, a native of Xiahou Village (formerly known as Xing Village), was a combat hero of Jiaodong.
- Yu Xuezhong (于学忠,1890-1964), character Xiaohou, a native of Yujiazhuang Village, was a patriotic general of the Kuomintang.
- Zhang Bolong, whose birth and death are unknown, was a famous doctor in the late Qing Dynasty, the imperial physician of the Imperial Hospital and the governor of Qiongdao in the Qing Dynasty during the Guangxu period, formerly known as Zhang Shijian, who advanced the etiology and treatment of stroke by a great step.
- Sun Wei, male, Han nationality, was born in December 1961. He is currently the chairman and party secretary of the Hubei Provincial Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference.
- Chi Yaoyun, male, Han nationality, born in September 1965. He is currently a member of the 20th CPC Central Commission for Discipline Inspection, a member of the Standing Committee of Fujian Provincial Committee, Secretary of the Provincial Commission for Discipline Inspection and Director of the Provincial Supervisory Commission.
- In 2018, Penglai was reconfirmed as a national sanitary city (district) by the review.
- In June 2020, Penglai District was selected as one of the "Top 100 Most Bookish Counties and Cities in China in 2020", and in December, Penglai District was selected as one of the "Second Batch of National Territorial Tourism Demonstration Areas", and on December 30, Penglai District was selected as one of the "On December 30, Penglai District was selected as one of the advanced counties (cities and districts) in Shandong Province for the sixth session of the ideological and moral construction of minors.
- In December 2021, the Department of Culture and Tourism of Shandong Province, the Development and Reform Commission of Shandong Province and the Department of Finance of Shandong Province awarded the title of "the first batch of provincial cultural and tourism consumption pilot counties (cities and districts)". In the same month, Penglai District was selected as the sixth batch of demonstration counties (cities and districts) in the country to take the lead in the basic realization of full mechanization of major crop production.
- In May 2022, the Department of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of Shandong Province and the Department of Finance of Shandong Province jointly issued the Notice on the Identification of the Second Batch of Provincial Modern Agricultural Industrial Parks (Lu Fa Gui Zi  No. 10), and Fushan District and Penglai District of the city were successfully identified as provincial modern agricultural industrial parks. On June 26, it was selected as the list of strong counties of cultural tourism and recreation in Shandong Province in 2021.
- In February 2023, it was recognized as the first batch of demonstration counties (municipalities) for natural resource conservation and efficiency.
- EB (1878).
- EB (1911), p. 132.
- 中国气象数据网 – WeatherBk Data (in Simplified Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 12 August 2023.
- 中国气象数据网 (in Simplified Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 12 August 2023.
- Pruitt, Ida, A Daughter of Han
- Brown, Arthur Judson (1904) New forces in old China: an unwelcome but inevitable awakening F.H. Revell Co., New York, Chapter IV OCLC 2177558
- "蓬莱区，来了！_媒体_澎湃新闻-The Paper". www.thepaper.cn. Retrieved 2022-02-12.
- "Welcome to Penglai!". www.penglai.gov.cn. Archived from the original on 2011-07-07.
- China Daily article on Penglai Water City
- "Welcome to the Ocean Aquarium of Penglai". shandong.chinadaily.com.cn. Archived from the original on 2009-10-03.
- "Penglai Destroyed".
- Baynes, T. S., ed. (1878), Encyclopædia Britannica, vol. 5 (9th ed.), New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, p. 455 ,
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911), , Encyclopædia Britannica, vol. 6 (11th ed.), Cambridge University Press, pp. 132–3