People's Democratic Front (Indonesia)

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People's Democratic Front (Indonesian: Front Demokrasi Rakjat, FDR) was a short-lived united front of leftists in Indonesia, founded in February 1948.[1][2] FDR included the Communist Party of Indonesia, the Socialist Party, Labour Party of Indonesia, SOBSI and Pesindo.[3][4] The leader of FDR was Amir Sjarifuddin.[5]


  1. ^ Törnquist, Olle. Dilemmas of Third World Communism: The Destruction of the PKI in Indonesia. London: Zed Books, 1984. p. 274
  2. ^ Kahin, Audrey. Regional Dynamics of the Indonesian Revolution: Unity from Diversity. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1985. p. 16
  3. ^ Sastroamidjojo, Ali, and C. L. M. Penders. Milestones on My Journey. St. Lucia: Queensland U.P., 1979. p. 153
  4. ^ Sundhaussen, Ulf. The Road to Power: Indonesian Military Politics, 1945-1967. Kuala Lumpur u.a: Oxford Univ. Pr, 1982. p. 39
  5. ^ Masatoshi, Kisaichi. Popular Movements and Democratization in the Islamic World. London: Routledge, 2006. p. 110