Foreign relations of Indonesia

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Since independence, Indonesian foreign relations have adhered to a "free and active" foreign policy, seeking to play a role in regional affairs commensurate with its size and location but avoiding involvement in conflicts among major powers. Indonesian foreign policy under the "New Order" government of President Suharto moved away from the stridently anti-Western, anti-American posturing that characterised the latter part of the Sukarno era. Following Suharto's ouster in 1998, Indonesia's government has preserved the broad outlines of Suharto's independent, moderate foreign policy. Preoccupation with domestic problems has not prevented successive presidents from travelling abroad.

Indonesia's relations with the international community were strained as a result of its invasion of neighbouring East Timor in December 1975, the subsequent annexation and occupation, the independence referendum in 1999 and the resulting violence afterwards. As one of the founding members of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), established in 1967, and also as the largest country in Southeast Asia, Indonesia has put ASEAN as the cornerstone of its foreign policy and outlook. After the transformation from Suharto's regime to a relatively open and democratic country in the 21st century, Indonesia today exercises its influence to promote co-operation, development, democracy, security, peace and stability in the region through its leadership in ASEAN.[1]

Indonesia managed to play a role as a peacemaker in the Cambodia-Thailand conflict over the Preah Vihear temple. Indonesia and other ASEAN member countries collectively have also played a role in encouraging the government of Myanmar to open up its political system and introduce other reforms more quickly.[1]

Given its geographic and demographic size, rising capabilities and diplomatic initiatives, scholars have classified Indonesia as one of Asia-Pacific's middle powers.[2]

Significant international memberships[edit]

ASEAN[edit]

A cornerstone of Indonesia's contemporary foreign policy is its participation in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN),[3] of which it was a founding member in 1967 with Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, and the Philippines. Since then, Brunei, Vietnam, Laos, Burma, and Cambodia also have joined ASEAN. While organised to promote shared economic, social, and cultural goals, ASEAN acquired a security dimension after Vietnam's invasion of Cambodia in 1979; this aspect of ASEAN expanded with the establishment of the ASEAN Regional Forum in 1994, which comprises 22 countries, including the US.

Indonesian national capital Jakarta is also the seat of ASEAN Secretariat, located at Jalan Sisingamangaraja No.70A, Kebayoran Baru, South Jakarta. Other than serving their diplomatic missions for Indonesia, numbers of foreign embassies and diplomatic mission in Jakarta are also accredited to ASEAN. ASEAN Headquarter has led to the prominence of Jakarta as a diplomatic hub in Southeast Asia.

In the late 1990s to early 2000s, Indonesia's continued domestic troubles have distracted it from ASEAN matters and consequently lessened its influence within the organisation. However, after the political and economic transformation, from the turmoil of 1998 Reformasi to the relatively open and democratic civil society with rapid economic growth in the 2010s, Indonesia returned to the region's diplomatic stage by assuming its leadership role in ASEAN in 2011. Indonesia is viewed to have weight, international legitimacy and global appeal to draw support and attention from around the world to ASEAN. Indonesia believes that ASEAN can contribute positively to the international community, by promoting economic development and co-operation, improving security, peace, the stability of ASEAN, and making the Southeast Asia region far from conflicts.[1]

Indonesia's bilateral relations with three neighbouring ASEAN members — Malaysia, Singapore, and Vietnam — are not without challenges. If not appropriately managed, it would result in mutual mistrust and suspicion, thus hindering bilateral and regional co-operation. In the era of rising Indonesia, which might assert its leadership role within ASEAN, the problem could become more significant. Nevertheless, the rise of Indonesia should be regarded in the sense of optimism. First, although Indonesia is likely to become assertive, the general tone of its foreign policy is mainly liberal and accommodating. The consolidation of the Indonesian democratic government played a key role and influence in ASEAN. The second, institutional web of ASEAN will sustain engagements and regular meetings between regional elites, thus deepening their mutual understanding and personal connections.[4]

Non-Aligned Movement (NAM)[edit]

Indonesia also was one of the founders of NAM and has taken moderate positions in its councils. As NAM Chairman in 1992–95, it led NAM positions away from the rhetoric of North-South confrontation, advocating the broadening of North-South co-operation instead in the area of development. Indonesia continues to be a prominent, and generally helpful, leader of the Non-Aligned Movement.

Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC)[edit]

Indonesia has the world's largest Muslim population and is a member of OIC. It carefully considers the interests of Islamic solidarity in its foreign policy decisions but generally has been an influence for moderation in the OIC.

APEC[edit]

Indonesia has been a strong supporter of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) forum. Mainly through the efforts of President Suharto at the 1994 meeting in Indonesia, APEC members agreed to implement free trade in the region by 2010 for industrialised economies and 2020 for developing economies. As the largest economy in Southeast Asia, Indonesia also belongs to other economic groupings such as G20 and Developing 8 Countries (D-8).

G-20 major economies[edit]

In 2008, Indonesia was admitted as a member of the G20, as the only ASEAN member state in the group.[5] Through its membership in the global economic powerhouse that accounted of 85% of the global economy,[5] Indonesia is keen to position itself as a mouthpiece for ASEAN countries, and as a representative of the developing world within the G-20.[6]

IGGI and CGI[edit]

After 1966, Indonesia welcomed and maintained close relations with the international donor community, particularly the United States, western Europe, Australia, and Japan, through the meetings of the Inter-Governmental Group on Indonesia (IGGI) and its successor, the Consultative Group on Indonesia (CGI), which coordinated substantial foreign economic assistance. Problems in Timor and Indonesia's reluctance to implement economic reform at times complicated Indonesia's relationship with donors. In 1992 the IGGI aid coordination group ceased to meet and the coordination activities were transferred to meetings arranged by the World Bank through the CGI. The CGI, in turn, ceased activities in 2007 when the Indonesian government suggested that an internationally-organised aid coordination program was no longer needed.

International disputes[edit]

Indonesia has numerous outlying and remote islands, some of which are inhabited by numerous pirate groups that regularly attack ships in the Strait of Malacca in the north,[7] and illegal fishing crews known for penetrating Australian and Filipino waters.[8] While Indonesian waters itself is the target of many illegal fishing activities by numerous foreign vessels.[9]

Indonesia has some present and historic territorial disputes with neighboring nations, such as:

Bilateral relations[edit]

Africa[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Algeria See Algeria–Indonesia relations
 Botswana
 Cape Verde

Indonesia is accredited to Cape Verde from its embassy in Dakar, Senegal.[15]

 Comoros
 Djibouti 1979

Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1979.[17]

 Egypt 1950 See Egypt–Indonesia relations
 Guinea-Bissau 12 December 1996

Both countries established diplomatic relations on December 12, 1996.[18]

 Kenya See Indonesia–Kenya relations
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Nairobi, also accredited to Mauritius, Seychelles, and Uganda,[19] while Kenya did not establishes embassy in Indonesia yet, diplomatic relations with Indonesia is accredited to its embassy in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
  • Both countries are partners in multilateral organisations, such as the WTO and NAM.
 Liberia 1965 See Indonesia–Liberia relations

The diplomatic relations was officially established in 1965, however it was not until 2013 that both leaders of each countries visited each other's to further the co-operations.

 Libya
 Madagascar See Indonesia–Madagascar relations
  • The ancestors of Madagascar people came from Indonesia, sailed across Indian Ocean, back in early 8th to 9th century CE.[20]
  • Indonesia have an embassy in Antananarivo, while Madagascar do not established an embassy in Jakarta yet.
  • Malagasy language and Indonesian language shared similar words, such as hand: ˈtananə (Malagasy), tangan (Indonesian); skin: ˈhulitse (Malagasy), kulit (Indonesian); white: ˈfuti (Malagasy), putih (Indonesian).
 Mauritania
 Morocco See Indonesia–Morocco relations
  • Indonesia and Morocco shared similarity as the Muslim-majority countries.
  • Morocco praised Indonesia as a strong democratic nation, and pointed that both countries facing the same challenges of separatism and terrorism.[23]
  • Diplomatic relations were established in 1960. Indonesia has an embassy in Rabat and a consulate in Casablanca, while Morocco has an embassy in Jakarta.
  • both countries are members of the WTO, NAM and OIC.
 Mozambique
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Maputo, also accredited to Malawi.[24] Mozambique maintains an embassy in Jakarta, which also serves Malaysia, East Timor, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand.[25]
  • The two countries have signed a preferential trade agreement in 2019.[26]
 Nigeria See Indonesia–Nigeria relations
 South Africa See Indonesia–South Africa relations
 Tanzania See Indonesia–Tanzania relations
 Tunisia See Indonesia–Tunisia relations
  • Tunisia and Indonesia are partners in capacity building and partnership for democracy.[28]
  • Indonesia hails Tunisia as a shining example of democratic transition in Arab world.[29]
  • The diplomatic relations dated back to the 1950s when Indonesia supports Tunisian independence from France.
  • Indonesia have an embassy in Tunis, while Tunisia have an embassy in Jakarta.
  • Both countries are the member of Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and Non-Aligned Movement.
 Uganda 1989

Both countries established diplomatic relations on January 12, 1989.[30]

Americas[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Argentina See Argentina–Indonesia relations
 Antigua and Barbuda 2011

Both countries established diplomatic relations in 2011.[33]

 Belize 11 July 2014

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 11 July 2014.[34]

 Brazil See Brazil–Indonesia relations
  • Brazil and Indonesia possess the largest tropical rainforest of the world[35] that contains the world's richest biodiversity, which gave them a vital role in global environment issues, such as ensuring tropical forests protection.[36]
  • Both countries leading the list of megadiverse countries with Indonesia second only to Brazil.[37]
  • Brazil expects to expand its co-operation with Indonesia in many areas, including agriculture and high-technology industry.[38]
  • Both countries are members of World Trade Organization (WTO), Forum of East Asia-Latin America Cooperation and the G-20 major economies.
  • By the first quarter of the 21st century, both countries are expected to emerge as the rising global power.[39]
 Canada See Canada–Indonesia relations
 Chile See Chile–Indonesia relations
  • Chile has an embassy in Jakarta.
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Santiago.
 Colombia See Colombia–Indonesia relations
  • Colombia has an embassy in Jakarta.
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Bogotá.
 Cuba See Cuba–Indonesia relations
 Guyana

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 27 August 1999.[44]

 Mexico 1953 See Indonesia–Mexico relations

Diplomatic relations between both nations were officially established in 1953.

  • Indonesia has an embassy in Mexico City.
  • Mexico has an embassy in Jakarta.
  • Both countries sees their counterpart as their strategic partners in each regions.
  • Both countries are partners in multilateral organizations such as the WTO, FEALAC, APEC and G-20.
 Peru See Indonesia–Peru relations
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Lima.
  • Peru has an embassy in Jakarta.
 Suriname See Indonesia–Suriname relations
  • Indonesia and Suriname had a special relationship,[45] based upon shared common history as former colonies of the Dutch Empire.
  • Large numbers of Javanese migrated to Suriname to work on plantations during the late 19th and early 20th-centuries.
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Paramaribo.
  • Suriname has an embassy in Jakarta.
  • Both countries committed to expand and improve their relations covering trade, agriculture and cultural sectors.
  • Indonesia and Suriname are partners in multilateral organisations such as the WTO and FEALAC.
 United States See Indonesia–United States relations

The United States has important economic, commercial, and security interests in Indonesia. It remains a lynchpin of regional security due to its strategic location astride a number of key international maritime straits, particularly the Malacca Strait. Relations between Indonesia and the US are positive and have advanced since the election of President Yudhoyono in October 2004. The US played a role in Indonesian independence in the late 1940s and appreciated Indonesia's role as an anti-communist bulwark during the Cold War. Cooperative relations are maintained today, although no formal security treaties bind the two countries. The United States and Indonesia share the common goal of maintaining peace, security, and stability in the region and engaging in a dialogue on threats to regional security. Cooperation between the US and Indonesia on counter-terrorism has increased steadily since 2002, as terrorist attacks in Bali (October 2002 and October 2005), Jakarta (August 2003 and September 2004) and other regional locations demonstrated the presence of terrorist organisations, principally Jemaah Islamiyah, in Indonesia. The United States has welcomed Indonesia's contributions to regional security, especially its leading role in helping restore democracy in Cambodia and in mediating territorial disputes in the South China Sea.

 Venezuela See Indonesia–Venezuela relations
  • Since the diplomatic relations established in 1959, Indonesia and Venezuela enjoy friendly ties.[46]
  • Indonesia supports Venezuela on the Guayana Esequiba issue.[32]
  • both countries agreed to expand the trade and investment relations, especially in tourism, technology, chemicals and natural gas sectors.[47]
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Caracas, while Venezuela has an embassy in Jakarta.
  • Indonesia and Venezuela are partners in multilateral organisations such as the WTO, NAM and FEALAC.

Asia[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Azerbaijan 24 September 1992[48] See Azerbaijan-Indonesia relations
  • On September 28, 1991, the Republic of Indonesia recognized the independence of the Republic of Azerbaijan.[48]
  • On September 24, 1992, diplomatic relations were established between the Republic of Azerbaijan and the Republic of Indonesia.[48]
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Jakarta.[48]
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Baku.[48]
 Bangladesh 1972 See Bangladesh–Indonesia relations
  • Indonesia is a country with the world largest Muslim population, whereas Bangladesh is the fourth largest Muslim country. Indonesia and Bangladesh are partners in Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and the Developing 8 Countries. Bangladesh has an embassy in Jakarta, whereas Indonesia has an embassy in Dhaka. Since the official bilateral relations were established in 1972, both countries enjoy cordial and friendly relations.
 Brunei See Brunei–Indonesia relations
  • Republic of Indonesia established diplomatic relations with Brunei Darussalam on 1 January 1984. Brunei Darussalam was recognised by Indonesia in 1984.
  • Although they do not share a direct land border, Indonesia and Brunei share the island of Borneo. Overall relations between the two countries were progressing well and that both sides continued to enjoy strong ties in a wide spectrum of co-operations; including trade and investment, tourism, agriculture, marine and fisheries, health, defence, transnational crimes, education, youth, culture and people-to-people contacts.[49]
 Cambodia See Cambodia–Indonesia relations
  • The relationship between ancient Indonesia and Cambodia dated back from the kingdom of Chenla and Javan Sailendra also Srivijaya; it was mentioned that king Jayavarman II had resided for some times in Java during the reign of Sailendras, and in 802 declare sovereignty of Cambodia from Java and proclaimed himself as universal monarch thus started the Angkor period.[50]
  • During the Sukarno reign in the 1960s, the president of Indonesia has visited Cambodia and vice versa prince Norodom Sihanouk also visited Indonesia.

In 1992, Indonesia is among the countries that provides troops for United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia. Indonesia also supported Cambodia membership to ASEAN in 1999. Indonesia also among the countries that provide aid to Angkor restoration project, especially the three main gates of Angkor Royal Palace archaeological site near Phimeanakas site. Indonesia is also appointed as observer in Cambodian–Thai border dispute.[51][52]

 China 13 April 1950 See China–Indonesia relations
Countries which signed cooperation documents related to the Belt and Road Initiative
  • China and Indonesia established diplomatic relations on 13 April 1950, which was suspended on 30 October 1967 due to the occurrence of the 30 September event of 1965. Indonesia also supports China on the Diaoyu (Senkaku) issue.
  • The bilateral relations began to ease since the 1980s. Foreign Minister Qian Qichen of China met with President Suharto and State Minister Moerdiono of Indonesia in 1989 to discuss the resumption of diplomatic relations of the two countries. In December 1989, the two sides held talks on the technical issues regarding the normalisation of bilateral relations and signed the Minutes. Foreign Minister Ali Alatas of Indonesia visited China on invitation in July 1990 and the two sides issued the Agreement on the Settlement of Indonesia's Debt Obligation to China and the Communique on the Resumption of Diplomatic Relations between the two countries. The two countries issued the "Communiqué on the Restoration of Diplomatic Relations between the Two Countries".
  • Premier Li Peng visited Indonesia on 6 August 1990. In his talks with President Suharto, the two sides expressed their willingness to improve relations on the basis of the Five Principles of Peaceful Co-Existence and the Ten Principles of the Bandung Conference. On 8 August 1990, the Foreign Ministers of China and Indonesia signed a Memorandum of Understanding on the Resumption of Diplomatic Relations. The resumption of formal diplomatic relations between China and Indonesia was announced the same day.
 East Timor See East Timor–Indonesia relations
  • East Timor (officially named the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste) and Indonesia share the island of Timor. Indonesia invaded the former Portuguese colony in 1975 and annexed East Timor in 1976, maintaining East Timor as its 27th province until a United Nations-sponsored referendum in 1999, in which the people of East Timor chose independence. Following a United Nations interim administration, East Timor gained independence in 2002.
  • Despite the traumatic past, relations with Indonesia are very good. Indonesia is by far the largest trading partner of East Timor (Approximately 50% of imports, 2005) and is steadily increasing its share.
  • Problems to be solved include, East Timor-Indonesia Boundary Committee meetings to survey and delimit land boundary; and Indonesia is seeking resolution of East Timorese refugees in Indonesia.
 India See India–Indonesia relations
  • In 1950, Sukarno, Indonesian first president, called upon the peoples of Indonesia and India to "intensify the cordial relations" that had existed between the two countries "for more than 1000 years" before they had been "disrupted" by colonial powers.[53] Fifteen years later in Djakarta, government-inspired mobs were shouting: "Down with India, the servant of imperialists" and "Crush India, our enemy. "[54] Yet in the spring of 1966, the foreign ministers of both countries began speaking again of an era of friendly relations. India had supported Indonesian independence and Nehru had raised the Indonesian question in the United Nations Security Council.
  • India has an embassy in Jakarta[55] and Indonesia operates an embassy in Delhi.[56]
 Iran See Indonesia–Iran relations
  • Indonesia and Iran are Muslim-majority countries, despite the differences in its religious orientation. Indonesia has the largest Muslim Sunni population in the world, while Iran is a predominantly Shiite nation.[57]
 Iraq See Indonesia–Iraq relations
  • Indonesia and Iraq share similarity as Muslim-majority countries. Both countries share their experiences in rebuilding and development. Indonesia has an embassy in Baghdad, while Iraq has an embassy in Jakarta. Both countries are partners in multilateral organisations, such as World Trade Organization (WTO), The Non-Aligned Movement and Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC).
  • The two countries established diplomatic relations in 1950 and have signed around 15 agreements to boost bilateral ties. Indonesia has maintained its embassy in Baghdad during various crises, such as the Iraq-Iran War in the 1980s. However, at the height of the Iraq War, Indonesia was forced to temporarily closed its embassy in Baghdad in 2003, and reopen it in June 2011.[61]
  • In 2003, the Indonesian government and people protested against a US-led military campaign against Baghdad. Over 50,000 Indonesian people crowded the streets of the Indonesian capital, Jakarta, on Sunday, 9 February 2003, to protest the United States' threat of military action against Iraq.[62] After the war ended and Indonesia reopened its embassy in 2011, relations between the two countries have developed at a fast pace. Iraq invited Indonesia's companies to participate in the reconstruction of Iraq.[63]
  • Traditionally, Indonesia views Iraq as a source of energy resources, such as oil and gas. Iraqi people are familiar with Indonesian exported products such as: tires, soaps, spices, furniture, coal, clothing, palm oil, shoes, paper, automobiles, rubber, and electronic goods.
 Israel See Indonesia–Israel relations
  • The two countries maintain no formal diplomatic ties.[64][65][66]
 Japan See Indonesia–Japan relations
  • Despite being invaded by Japan in World War Two, Indonesia enjoys friendly relations with Japan.
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Tokyo and a consulate in Osaka. Japan has an embassy in Jakarta and consulates in Medan, Denpasar, Surabaya, and Makassar.
  • Japan is Indonesia's largest export partner.
  • Both countries are members of the G-20 major economies and APEC.
 Jordan See Indonesia–Jordan relations
 Laos 1957 See Indonesia–Laos relations

Since established diplomatic relations in 1957, both countries enjoys cordial relations. Indonesia have an embassy in Vientiane, while Laos have an embassy in Jakarta. Indonesia supported and welcomed Laotian membership to the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) in 1997. Laos and Indonesia agreed to enhance relations to focus on exploring the potential of both countries to co-operate on trade and investment. The two countries expressed a desire to reach further agreements relating to security, tourism, sport, air transport and education.[69] Indonesia through bilateral co-operation assist Laos on capacity building and development in various sectors, through scholarships and trainings for Laotian students.[70]

 Malaysia See Indonesia–Malaysia relations
  • Despite fighting each other in the Indonesia-Malaysia Confrontation, Indonesia and Malaysia enjoy friendly relations. The populations of both countries have cordial relations and trade between the two countries has greatly increased over the years.
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur and consulate general in Johor Bahru, George Town, Kota Kinabalu and Kuching. Malaysia has an embassy in Jakarta and a consulate general in Medan and Pekanbaru.
  • Indonesia and Malaysia has the same ethnic population that belongs to the Austronesian group and sharing the same language although minor differences in vocabulary.
  • Both countries are founding members of ASEAN and APEC. both countries are also members of the Non-Aligned Movement.
  • Relations were deteriorated under President Sukarno, whose opposition to the formation of Malaysia led to a confrontation between the two countries. However, relations were restored following a government transition in Indonesia.
  • Currently, both countries are in a territorial dispute over the oil rich islands of Ambalat. Previously, they were over territorial disputes over the islands of Ligitan and Sipadan, which were won by Malaysia.
  • The Indonesian migrant workers (Indonesian: TKI/Tenaga Kerja Indonesia) have become the important issue between both countries. The problems concerning migrant workers such as illegal immigration, crime, human trafficking, abuse, poor treatment and extortion upon migrant workers. Since 2009 Indonesia has temporarily stop sending domestic workers to Malaysia until both countries agree on ways to protect them.[71] Indonesia will resume sending migrant workers to Malaysia in May 2011 as both countries will sign a memorandum of understanding (MoU) about worker protection by the end of April 2011.[72]
 Myanmar See Indonesia–Myanmar relations
  • Both Indonesia and Myanmar are promoting the two countries trade volume. The trade volume is estimated to reach up to $1 billion in 2016.[73]
  • Indonesia has offered to purchase 300,000 tons of rice from Myanmar, with prospects of buying more in the future.
  • Indonesia supports Myanmar's democratisation process.[74]
   Nepal See Indonesia–Nepal relations

Since diplomatic relations were established in 1960, both countries enjoy friendly and cordial relations, although both parties have not established embassies in each counterparts' capitals. Indonesia only established an honorary consulate in Kathmandu, while its embassy in Dhaka, Bangladesh, is also accredited to Nepal. Nepal on the other hand accredited its embassy in Bangkok, Thailand, also to Indonesia. Both the countries have many cultural proximities and similar view on international issues. Both countries are also partners and founding members of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM).

 North Korea See Indonesia–North Korea relations

Indonesia is one of the very few countries that still maintain cordial relations with North Korea, despite international sanctions and isolation applied upon North Korea concerning its human rights abuses and nuclear missile program. Indonesia has adopted what it calls a "free-and-active" foreign policy, which allows it to be consistent in counting on both North and South Korea as friends.

Both countries share a relationship that dates back to the Sukarno and Kim Il-sung era in the 60s. Indonesia has an embassy in Pyongyang, while North Korea has an embassy in Jakarta. both countries are members of the Non-Aligned Movement.

According to a 2014 BBC World Service Poll, 28% of Indonesians view North Korea's influence positively, with 44% expressing a negative view. This shows a deterioration from previous year's poll where 42% of Indonesians view North Korea's influence positively, with 29% expressing a negative view.[75][76]

 Pakistan See Indonesia–Pakistan relations
 Palestine See Indonesia–Palestine relations
  • Indonesia has a non-resident embassy in Amman.
  • Palestine has an embassy in Jakarta.
 Philippines See Indonesia–Philippines relations
  • Indonesia and the Philippines are both archipelagic country and same ethnic population that belongs to the Austronesian group.
  • Both countries established their bilateral and diplomatic relations in 1949. The Indonesian Government has opened its consular office in Manila but it was not until the mid-1950s that an embassy was established headed by an ambassador.
  • A treaty of friendship was signed in 1951. This Treaty constituted the basic relationship of both countries, covering several aspects such as maintenance of peace and friendship, settlement of disputes by diplomatic and peaceful means, traffic arrangements for citizens of both countries and activities to promote co-operation in the area of trade and cultural, which include the political, social-economic and security matters of both countries.
  • Both countries are members of the East ASEAN Growth Triangle together with Brunei Darussalam and Malaysia in the BIMP-EAGA.
  • Both countries peacefully settled their maritime borders after 20 years of diplomatic talks.
  • Both countries have high cooperation in fields of economy, tourism, culture, and defense.
 Singapore See Indonesia–Singapore relations
  • In August 2005, Singapore and Indonesia signed a memorandum of understanding to expand aviation rights between the two countries.[82]
  • On 3 October 2005, Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong met Indonesian President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono in Bali, just two days after the Bali bombings. They agreed to strengthen the fight against terrorism and also discussed co-operation in the fields of economy, trade and investment.
  • Relations with Indonesia are generally good, though current outstanding issues include the bans on the export of sand, and granite;[83] both of which Singapore's construction industry is reliant on.
 Saudi Arabia See Indonesia–Saudi Arabia relations
  • Saudi Arabia have an embassy in Jakarta, while Indonesia have an embassy in Riyadh and a consulate in Jeddah.
  • Both countries are the member of Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and G-20 major economies.
  • Indonesia sent the largest hajj pilgrims among Muslim-majority countries.
  • The balance of trade is heavily in favour of Saudi Arabia, because of its oil and gas exports to Indonesia.
  • Migrant worker abuse and death sentences faced by Indonesian workers in Saudi Arabia are the main problems that strained diplomatic relations between two countries.
 South Korea See Indonesia–South Korea relations
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Seoul.
  • South Korea has an embassy in Jakarta.
  • Scale of bilateral trade between two nation is US$14.88 billion.
  • Both countries have invested in multiple joint military development projects including the KFX/IFX fighter jet.
  • South Korea firm Daewoo Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering (DSME) is in final contract negotiations to supply Indonesia with three Type-209 submarines. This will be the largest ever bilateral defence deal valued at US$1.1 billion.[84]
 Sri Lanka See Indonesia–Sri Lanka relations
  • Indonesia and Sri Lanka are the founder of the Non-Aligned Movement.
  • Since the diplomatic relations were established in 1952, both countries enjoys cordial and friendly relationship
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Colombo, while Sri Lanka has an embassy in Jakarta.
 Taiwan See Indonesia–Taiwan relations

Indonesia and Taiwan (ROC) do not have diplomatic relations, both have only an unofficial relationship.

 Thailand See Indonesia–Thailand relations
  • Indonesia is Thailand's third most important trade partner within ASEAN, with bilateral trade worth $8.7 billion in 2007.[85] Trade between the two countries is set to grow over the years.
 United Arab Emirates See Indonesia–United Arab Emirates relations
  • The diplomatic relations between Indonesia and the United Arab Emirates are important because both share the solidarity as Muslim-majority countries, and both countries recognise the important role of each counterparts in the region.
  • Since the diplomatic relations established in 1976, both country enjoy friendly and cordial relationship.
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Abu Dhabi, while the United Arab Emirates has an embassy in Jakarta.
  • Both countries are partners in multilateral organisations, such as the World Trade Organization (WTO), Non-Aligned Movement and Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC).
  • Indonesia uses the UAE as the main gate to enter the Gulf and Middle East market, Indonesia's export to UAE is the largest in the Middle East.
  • The Indonesian government has established the trade and investment representative office to promote its products in the United Arab Emirates and the entire Middle East region.
 Vietnam See Indonesia–Vietnam relations
  • Formal relations started in 1955 for the consulate general level. Soedibjo Wirjowerdojo (former chargé d'affaires of Indonesian Embassy in Peking, China from year of 1953–1955) was appointed to be The First Indonesian Consul General to Vietnam, and located in Hanoi.
  • Vietnam and Indonesia are both members of ASEAN.
  • President Megawati Sukarnoputri of Indonesia visited Vietnam in June 2003. At this time the two countries signed a "Declaration on the Framework of Friendly and Comprehensive Cooperation Entering the 21st Century".
  • In May 2005 President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono of Indonesia visited Vietnam.
  • In the December of the same year festivities were organised in the respective capital cities to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic ties.
  • http://english.vovnews.vn/Home/Vietnam-Indonesia-aim-for-allround-co-operation-development/20062/37663.vov[permanent dead link]

Europe[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Armenia 22 September 1992
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on September 22, 1992.[86]
  • Armenia has an embassy in Jakarta.
  • Indonesia has a non-resident ambassador in Kyiv, Ukraine also accredited to Armenia,[87] and an honorary consulate in Yerevan.
 Austria 1954 See Austria–Indonesia relations
  • Bilateral relations between Austria and Indonesia were officially established in 1954.
  • Austria recognises Indonesia as a stable and reliable partner, and both countries enjoy excellent relations.[88]
  • The two countries have agreed to expand relations in business, trade and investment, tourism, culture, environment and green technology.[89]
  • Austria has an embassy in Jakarta, while Indonesia has an embassy in Vienna that is also accredited to Slovenia as well as the following multilateral organisations: IAEA, PrepCom CTBTO, UNODC and UNOOSA.
 Bulgaria 21 September 1956 See Bulgaria–Indonesia relations
  • Diplomatic relations started on 21 September 1956.
  • Bulgaria has had an embassy in Jakarta since October 1958
  • Indonesia has had an embassy in Sofia Since 1960.[90]
 Cyprus 4 December 1987
  • Diplomatic relations were established on 4 December 1987[91]
  • Cyprus is represented in Indonesia through its embassy in Canberra, Australia.[92]
  • Indonesia is represented in Cyprus through its embassy in Rome, Italy.[93]
 Denmark See Denmark–Indonesia relations
  • Denmark has an embassy in Jakarta.
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Copenhagen.
 Estonia See Estonia–Indonesia relations
 Finland
  • Indonesia and Finland enjoy friendly relations.
  • Finland played a key role in the peace talks to solve the insurgency in Aceh.
 France See France–Indonesia relations
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Paris.
  • France has an embassy in Jakarta.
  • Relations between France and Indonesia have been improving of late, while Indonesia has become increasingly strategic to the government and people of France.
  • There are 110 French multinational companies operating in Indonesia.[94]
  • The relations between two countries are important as both are democratic republics and both have significant geopolitical influence in their regions.
  • The diplomatic relationship between France and Indonesia is also a key element for developing relations between Indonesia and the European Union and between France and ASEAN.[95]
  • Both countries are the member of G-20 major economies.
 Germany See Germany–Indonesia relations
  • Indonesia and Germany have traditionally enjoyed good, intensive and wide-ranging relations.
  • Germany and Indonesia, as the largest members of the European Union and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), respectively, take similar positions on many issues relating to the development of the two regional organisations.[96]
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Jakarta.
 Greece 1960 See Greece–Indonesia relations
  Holy See See Holy See–Indonesia relations
 Hungary 1955 See Hungary–Indonesia relations
  • Diplomatic relations started in 1955.[105]
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Budapest which was opened in 1960.[106]
  • Hungary has an embassy in Jakarta which was opened in 1957, as well as honorary consuls in Bandung and Denpasar.[105]
 Iceland 1983

Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1983.[107]

 Italy See Indonesia–Italy relations
  • Both countries have shown a strong desire to improve their relations, especially in intercultural understanding and trade.[108]
  • Indonesia recognises Italy's strategic location and important role in the Mediterranean region, while Italy has favoured relations with Indonesia, and sees Indonesia as the leader in Southeast Asia.[109]
  • The relations between two countries not only important to bridge the two regional communities; European Union and ASEAN, but also vital as intercultural and interfaith dialogue,[110]
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Rome.
  • Italy has an embassy in Jakarta.
 Netherlands See Indonesia–Netherlands relations
  • The Netherlands is the former colonial power, and handed over sovereignty in 1949.[111]
  • Indonesia has an embassy in The Hague.
  • The Netherlands has an embassy in Jakarta.
 North Macedonia

Indonesia is represented in North Macedonia by its embassy in Sofia, Bulgaria.[112]

 Portugal See Indonesia–Portugal relations

In 1999, Indonesia and Portugal restored diplomatic relations, which were broken off following the Indonesian invasion of East Timor in 1975.

  • Indonesia has an embassy in Lisbon.[113]
  • Portugal has an embassy in Jakarta.[114]
 Romania
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Bucharest.[115]
  • Romania has an embassy in Jakarta.
 Russia See Indonesia–Russia relations
  • Russia has an embassy in Jakarta.[116]
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Moscow along with a consulate general in Saint Petersburg.[117]
  • Both countries are also members of the G20 and APEC.
  • Early in the Cold War, both countries had very strong relations with Indonesian president Sukarno visiting Moscow and Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev visiting Jakarta. When Sukarno was overthrown by General Suharto, relations between the two states were not as close as they were during Sukarno's times.
  • In late 2007, Indonesia purchased military weapons from Russia with long term payment.
 Serbia 1954 See Indonesia–Serbia relations

Serbia has very close relations with Indonesia, especially within the fields of trade, culture and tourism. Indonesia has also voiced support for Serbia's territorial integrity over the Kosovo issue.[118]

 Spain See Indonesia–Spain relations
  • Spain identifies Indonesia as a natural ally and has named Indonesia as one of their priority countries in their foreign relations with the Asian region.[119]
  • Indonesia supports Spain in the Gibraltar issue.[32]
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Madrid and consulates in Barcelona and Las Palmas, while Spain has an embassy in Jakarta and a consulate in Denpasar, Bali.
  • Cooperation has expanded to various fields, from trade and culture to education and the defence technology sector.[120]
  • Since the 1980s, Spain and Indonesia have embarked on a strategic partnership in aeronautics technology. Spain's CASA and Indonesia's IPTN (formerly known as Nurtanio) co-designed and co-produced the CASA/IPTN CN-235 medium transport aircraft.
  Switzerland See Indonesia–Switzerland relations
  • In 2010, the heads of state of the two countries agreed to launch negotiations on a Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement.[121]
  • Switzerland has named Indonesia as one of seven priority countries for economic development co-operation.[122]
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Bern, while Switzerland has an embassy in Jakarta, also accredited for East Timor and ASEAN.
  • On 6 December 1973, the Indonesian and Swiss governments signed an agreement to establish Polytechnic for Mechanics within the Bandung Institute of Technology at Bandung.[123] Today, the Swiss Mechanics Polytechnic has transformed into Bandung State Polytechnic for Manufacture.
 Turkey 1571[124] See Indonesia–Turkey relations
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Ankara.[124]
  • Turkey has an embassy in Jakarta.[124]
  • Both countries are members of D-8, G20, MIKTA, OIC and WTO.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 1.85 billion USD in 2019 (Indonesian exports/imports: 1.64/0.21 billion USD.[125]
  • 2,400 Indonesian citizens reside in Turkey.[124]
 Ukraine 1993
  • Indonesia recognised Ukraine's independence in 1992 and established diplomatic relations in 1993. Indonesia has an embassy in Kyiv.[126]
  • Ukraine has an embassy in Jakarta.[127]
 United Kingdom 1949 See Indonesia–United Kingdom relations

The United Kingdom and Indonesia have maintained strong links since formal relations were established in 1949.[128] Indonesia has an embassy in London,[129] the United Kingdom has an embassy in Jakarta and consulate in Surabaya and Medan.[130]

The Culture and Tourism Ministry of Indonesia launched a campaign to boost the number of tourists from the UK entering Indonesia.[129] In 2009, 160,000 British tourists visited Indonesia, the aim of the campaign was to boost this number to 200,000.[129]

In 2006 former British prime-minister Tony Blair met with Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono where they agreed upon "the establishment of a regular Indonesia-UK Partnership Forum to be chaired by the Foreign Ministers, to promote strategic dialogue on bilateral, multilateral and global issues".[128] The first Indonesia-UK forum was held in 2007 and was chaired by British foreign minister Margaret Beckett and Indonesian foreign minister Hassan Wirajuda.[128]

In March 2010 members of the House of Lords praised Indonesia for its progress in democratising society, media freedom and environmental protection.[131] In a meeting with Indonesian MP Hayono Isman, the Lords stated that they wanted to improve the relationship between the two countries.[131]

Oceania[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Australia See Australia–Indonesia relations

Since Indonesian independence, the two countries have maintained mutual diplomatic relations, formalised co-operation (especially in the fields of fisheries conservation, law enforcement, and justice co-operation), a measure of security co-operation, broadening treaty relationships, co-membership of regional forums, and co-participation in several multilateral Treaties of significance. Trade between the two countries has grown over the years.

Recent years have seen a deepening of Australia's aid commitment to Indonesia, and Australia has become a popular venue for Indonesian students.[132]

In 2008-09, Indonesia is the largest recipient of Australian aid at a value of AUD462 million.[133]

Indonesia has an embassy in Canberra and consulate general in Melbourne, Perth and Sydney, While Australia has an embassy in Jakarta and consulate in Medan, Makassar, Surabaya and Bali.

 Fiji See Indonesia–Fiji relations
  • Fiji has an embassy in Jakarta.
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Suva.
 New Zealand See Indonesia–New Zealand relations

Having common interests as democracies and neighbours in the Asia-Pacific region, New Zealand and Indonesia are viewed as natural partners.[134] Both countries are members of APEC. Indonesia and New Zealand officially established diplomatic relations in 1958, the diplomatic and economic ties have grown stronger ever since. New Zealand has an embassy in Jakarta and Indonesia has an embassy in Wellington. Indonesia's commodity exports to New Zealand consist mainly of energy products and minerals as well as lumber and agriculture, while New Zealand's commodity exports to Indonesia mainly consist of dairy products and meats, such as beef, milk, and cheese.

 Papua New Guinea See Indonesia–Papua New Guinea relations

Indonesia shares a 760-kilometre (470 mi) border with Papua New Guinea through its Papua province. The common border has raised tensions and ongoing diplomatic issues[which?] over many decades.[135]

  • Indonesia has an embassy Port Moresby and a consulate in Vanimo.
  • Papua New Guinea has an embassy in Jakarta.
 Solomon Islands See Indonesia–Solomon Islands relations
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Honiara.
  • Solomon Islands has an embassy in Jakarta.

International organisation participation[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

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Further reading[edit]

  • Fuadi Pitsuwan (2014). "Smart Power Strategy: Recalibrating Indonesian Foreign Policy". Asian Politics & Policy. 6 (2): 237–266. doi:10.1111/aspp.12107.
  • Gardner, Paul F., Shared Hopes, Separate Fears: Fifty Years of U.S.-Indonesia Relations, Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press (1997).
  • He, Kai. "Indonesia's foreign policy after Soeharto: international pressure, democratization, and policy change." International Relations of the Asia-Pacific 8.1 (2007): 47-72. online
  • Leifer, Michael. Indonesia's Foreign Policy (1983)
  • Ricklefs, M. C. A History of Modern Indonesia since c.1200 (2001 0
  • Shekhar, Vibhanshu. Indonesia’s Foreign Policy and Grand Strategy in the 21st Century: Rise of an Indo-Pacific Power (2018)
  • Sukma, Rizal. "The evolution of Indonesia's foreign policy: an Indonesian view." Asian Survey 35.3 (1995): 304-315. online
  • Weinstein, Franklin B. Indonesia Abandons Confrontation: An Inquiry Into the Functions of Indonesian Foreign Policy (2009)

External links[edit]