Page protected with pending changes

Joko Widodo

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Joko Widodo
Joko Widodo 2019 official portrait.jpg
Official portrait, 2019
7th President of Indonesia
Assumed office
20 October 2014
Vice PresidentJusuf Kalla (2014–2019)
Ma'ruf Amin (2019–present)
Preceded bySusilo Bambang Yudhoyono
14th Governor of Jakarta
In office
15 October 2012 – 16 October 2014
DeputyBasuki Tjahaja Purnama
Preceded byFauzi Bowo
Succeeded byBasuki Tjahaja Purnama
15th Mayor of Surakarta
In office
28 July 2005 – 1 October 2012
DeputyF. X. Hadi Rudyatmo
Preceded bySlamet Suryanto
Succeeded byF. X. Hadi Rudyatmo
Personal details
Born
Mulyono

(1961-06-21) 21 June 1961 (age 59)
Surakarta, Central Java, Indonesia[1]
Political partyPDI-P
Spouse(s)
(m. 1986)
ChildrenGibran Rakabuming Raka
Kahiyang Ayu
Kaesang Pangarep
MotherSudjiatmi
FatherWidjiatno Notomiharjo
ResidenceBogor Palace, Merdeka Palace
Alma materGadjah Mada University
Signature
WebsitePresidential website

Joko Widodo (Indonesian pronunciation: [dʒɔkɔ widɔdɔ], born 21 June 1961), also known as Jokowi, is an Indonesian politician and businessman who is the 7th and current president of Indonesia. Elected in July 2014 as the first president not to come from an elite political or military background, he was previously the Mayor of Surakarta from 2005 to 2012 and the Governor of Jakarta from 2012 to 2014. Prior to his political career, he was an industrialist and businessman.[2][3]

He achieved national prominence in 2009 for his work as the Mayor of Surakarta. A member of the Indonesian Democratic Party of Struggle (PDI-P), he was named as the party's candidate for the 2012 Jakarta gubernatorial election, alongside Basuki Tjahaja Purnama (often known as Ahok)[4] as his running mate.[5] Defeating incumbent Fauzi Bowo,[6] he took office in October 2012 and reinvigorated Jakartan politics, introducing publicised blusukan visits (unannounced spot checks)[7] and improving the city's bureaucracy, reducing corruption in the process. He also introduced years-late programs to improve quality of life, including universal healthcare, dredging the city's main river to reduce flooding, and inaugurating the construction of the city's subway system.[8]

The PDI-P nominated Jokowi, who was already seen as a rising star in Indonesian politics, for the 2014 presidential election.[9] Winning a majority of the popular vote, he was named president-elect on 22 July 2014, to bitter protest from his opponent Prabowo Subianto, who disputed the outcome and withdrew from the race before the count was completed.[10][11] As president, Jokowi has primarily focused on infrastructure, introducing or restarting long-delayed programs to improve connectivity in the Indonesian archipelago.[12] On foreign policy, his administration has emphasised "protecting Indonesia’s sovereignty",[13] with the sinking of illegal foreign fishing vessels[14] and the prioritising and scheduling of capital punishment for drug smugglers. The latter was despite intense representations and diplomatic protests from foreign powers, including Australia and France.[15][16] He was re-elected in 2019 for a second five-year term, again defeating Prabowo Subianto.[17]

Early life and career[edit]

Joko Widodo was born Mulyono on 21 June 1961 in Surakarta[1] and is of Javanese descent.[18] He is the eldest of four siblings and is the only son of Noto Mihardjo (father) and Sudjiatmi Notomihardjo (mother). He has three younger sisters, named Iit Sriyantini, Ida Yati, and Titik Relawati.[19][20] His father came from Karanganyar, while his grandparents came from a village in Boyolali.[21] Jokowi was often sick as a toddler, and his name was thus changed—a common practice in Javanese culture—to Joko Widodo, with widodo meaning "healthy" in Javanese.[18] At the age of 12, he started working in his father's furniture workshop.[22][23] Throughout his childhood, Jokowi's family constantly faced evictions from their landlords; this greatly affected him, and later in his career, he organised medical housing in Surakarta during his years as mayor of the city.[24]

Education and business career[edit]

Jokowi's education began at State Elementary School 111 Tirtoyoso, known for being a school for less wealthy citizens.[25] He continued his studies in State Junior High School 1 Surakarta,[26] and later wanted to attend State Senior High School 1 Surakarta, but failed the entrance exam and instead enrolled in State Senior High School 6 Surakarta.[27] Jokowi graduated from the Forestry faculty at Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, in 1985, where his work included studies and research on the use of plywood. He later began work at PT Kertas Kraft Aceh (id), a state-owned firm in Aceh, Sumatra.[28] He worked in the present-day Bener Meriah Regency between 1986 and 1988 as a supervisor of forestry and raw materials of a Pinus merkusii plantation.[29][30]

Jokowi, however, soon became uninterested in his activities in the firm and returned home. He began working in his grandfather's furniture factory for a year before establishing his own company, Rakabu, whose namesake is his first child. The company, which mainly focused on teak furniture, nearly went bankrupt at one point but survived following an IDR 500 million loan from Perusahaan Gas Negara. By 1991, the company began exporting its products, and they were successful in international markets. The firm first established a presence in the European market in France, and it was a French customer named Bernard who gave Joko Widodo the nickname "Jokowi".[28][31][3]

By 2002, Jokowi had become the chairman of Surakarta's furniture manufacturers association.[3] Ultimately he decided to become a politician and promote reform in his home town, Surakarta, after seeing the neat layouts of some European cities while promoting his furniture there.[23] After becoming mayor, he also made a joint venture with politician and former lieutenant general Luhut Binsar Pandjaitan, when the two founded PT Rakabu Sejahtera (from Rakabu and Luhut's PT Toba Sejahtera).[32][33]

Jokowi reported his net worth in 2018 to be Rp 50.25 billion (US$3.5 million), mostly in the form of property holdings in Central Java and Jakarta.[34]

Political career[edit]

Mayor of Surakarta[edit]

Official Portrait of Joko Widodo as the Mayor of Surakarta
Jokowi as Surakarta's mayor and his deputy F. X. Hadi Rudyatmo in traditional Javanese wayang wong costume.

After first joining PDI-P in 2004, Jokowi ran in the mayoral race in Surakarta in 2005 with F. X. Hadi Rudyatmo as his running mate, with the support of PDI-P and the National Awakening Party.[35][36] The pair won 36.62% of the vote against the incumbent Slamet Suryanto and two other candidates. During the campaign, many questioned his background as a property and furniture businessman. However, one academic paper claimed his leadership style was successful because it established an interactive relationship with the people, through which he was able to induce people's strong faith in him.[37] He adopted the development framework of European cities (which he frequently travelled to as a businessman) as a guide for changes in Surakarta.[38]

His notable policies as mayor included:[39] Building new traditional markets and renovating existing markets, constructing a 7-km city walk with a 3-meter wide pedestrian walkway along Surakarta's main street, revitalising the Balekambang and Sriwedari parks, employing stricter regulations on cutting down trees along the city's main streets, rebranding the city as a centre of Javanese culture and tourism under the tagline 'The Spirit of Java', promoting the city as a centre for meetings, incentives, conventions and exhibitions (MICE), launching healthcare and education insurance program for all residents, a local bus rapid transit system named Batik Solo Trans and a Solo Techno Park, which helped support the Esemka Indonesian car project.[40] It was during his tenure as mayor that he conducted the blusukan, an impromptu visit to specific areas to listen to people's issues, which proved popular later in his political career. He also prohibited his family members from bidding for city projects, therefore suppressing the risk of corruption. His policies brought him into conflict with then provincial governor Bibit Waluyo, who on one occasion called Jokowi a "fool" for the latter's opposition to a provincial construction project in Surakarta.[41]

His supporters pointed to rapid positive changes in Surakarta under his leadership and the city's branding with the motto 'Solo: The Spirit of Java'. While in office, he successfully relocated antique stalls in the Banjarsari Gardens without incident, a helpful move in revitalising the functions of the open green land; he emphasised the importance of business firms engaging in community activities; he improved communications with the local community by appearing regularly on local television. As a follow-up of the city's new branding, he applied for Surakarta to become a member of the Organization of World Heritage Cities, which was approved in 2006, and subsequently had the city chosen to host the organisation's conference in October 2008. In 2007, Surakarta had also hosted the World Music Festival (Festival Musik Dunia/FMD), held at the complex of Fort Vastenburg near the centre of the city. The following year, it was held in the Mangkunegaran Palace Complex.

Part of Jokowi's style was his populist 'can-do' (punya gaye) elements designed to build bonds with the broad electorate.[37] As mayor, he became personally involved in an incident just before Christmas 2011 when the Surakarta municipality had overdue bills of close to $1 million (IDR 8.9 billion) owed to the state-owned electricity company Perusahaan Listrik Negara (PLN). Following its policy of pursuing a more disciplined approach to collecting overdue bills, it imposed a blackout on street lights in the city just before Christmas. The city government quickly authorised payment, but in settling the bill, protested that the PLN should consider the public interest before taking such action. To reinforce the point, Jokowi made a highly publicised personal visit to the local PLN office to deliver the IDR 8.9 billion in cash in the form of hundreds of bundles of notes and even small coins.[42]

In 2010, he was re-elected for a second term, again running with Hadi. They won 90.09% of the vote, losing in only a single polling station.[43] He was later chosen as the 'Tempo Leader of Choice' by Tempo news magazine (2008) and received a 'Changemakers Award' from Republika newspaper (2010); his name also started being considered in national polls for the governorship of Jakarta, long before PDI-P's nomination, including those by University of Indonesia and Cyrus Network (2011).[37]

In 2012, Jokowi faced a smear campaign after declaring his intention to run for the governorship of Jakarta.[44] A group calling itself Save Solo, Save Jakarta and Save Indonesia Team (TS3) reported him to the Corruption Eradication Commission (KPK) for allegedly having facilitated misuse of education funds by his subordinates in Surakarta in 2010. The KPK investigated the allegation, found it was based on false data and said there was no indication Jokowi had misappropriated funds.[45]

Governor of Jakarta[edit]

Jokowi's two versions of official portrait as Governor of Jakarta (2012)

Despite disappointment from some Surakarta residents that he would not complete his second term as mayor,[46] Jokowi ran in the 2012 Jakarta gubernatorial election and defeated the incumbent Fauzi Bowo in a runoff round.[6] His inner circle of advisers in Jakarta reportedly included people such as FX Hadi 'Rudy' Rudyatmo, Sumartono Hadinoto and Anggit Nugroho, who were colleagues while he was mayor of Surakarta, as well as Basuki Tjahaja Purnama ("Ahok"), his deputy as governor of Jakarta.[47][48] Jokowi continued the blusukan practice he had adopted as mayor of Surakarta by regularly visiting population centers, especially slums. During these visits, he wore simple, informal clothes and stopped at markets or walked along narrow Jakarta alleys to listen and witness firsthand issues addressed by residents, such as the price of food, housing difficulties, flooding, and transportation. Polling and media coverage suggested that his hands-on style proved very popular both in Jakarta and elsewhere across Indonesia.[49]

After taking office, taxes and Jakarta's provincial budget increased significantly from IDR 41 trillion in 2012 to IDR 72 trillion in 2014.[50][51] Both Jokowi and Ahok publicised their monthly salary and the provincial budget.[52][53] They also initiated programs aimed towards transparency, such as online taxes, e-budgeting, e-purchasing, and a cash management system.[52] Moreover, all meetings and activities that Jokowi and Ahok attended were recorded and uploaded on YouTube.[54]

Jokowi on a blusukan neighborhood visit in Jakarta

In healthcare, Jokowi introduced a universal health care program, the 'Healthy Jakarta Card' (Kartu Jakarta Sehat, KJS).[55] It involved an insurance program provided through state-owned insurance company PT Askes Indonesia (Persero) and a plan to regulate health charges for treatment for over 20,000 services and procedures.[56] The program was criticised for confusion over details of the implementation and long queues,[57] though Jokowi defended it and counselled patience. In education, Jokowi launched the 'Smart Jakarta Card' (Kartu Jakarta Pintar, KJP) on 1 December 2012 to help needy students. It gives an allowance that can be withdrawn from ATMs for buying school needs such as books and uniforms.[58]

His administration's other notable policies include a system of bureaucratic recruitment called lelang jabatan (literally 'auction of office position'), giving every civil servant the same opportunity to achieve a certain position by fulfilling the required qualifications,[59] regulation of the chaotic agglomeration of street vendors in Pasar Minggu and Pasar Tanah Abang,[60][61] the dredging and reservoir normalisation projects to reduce flooding,[62][63][64] and the inauguration of long-delayed Jakarta MRT and Jakarta LRT.[65][66] As governor, Jokowi also appointed a non-Muslim 'lurah' (subdistrict chief) for the Muslim-majority subdistrict of Lenteng Agung despite protests by some residents.[67] Former deputy governor Prijanto claimed that Widodo had carried out maladministration when abusing government certificate asset of BMW Park by formalising another expired certificate.[68]

In 2013, Jokowi was reported to the National Commission on Human Rights over the eviction of the squatters near Pluit. In previous "political contracts", he had vowed not to evict residents to distant locations.[69][70] Jokowi met with Pluit residents and Komnas HAM to explain the evictions were necessary for restoring water catchment to reduce flooding and that families were being relocated to low-cost apartments.[71][72]

Presidential candidacies[edit]

2014[edit]

Megawati Sukarnoputri nominated Jokowi to be the presidential candidate of her party.[9] During the campaign, a social media volunteer team, JASMEV, once made a provocative statement by threatening that Islam would not be given a space in Indonesia if Jokowi won the 2014 election.[73][74] The group was paid IDR 500 million to campaign for the Jokowi-Jusuf Kalla ticket during the 2014 election.[75]

Following the release of Quick Count results from many different polls, Jokowi declared victory on 9 July. However, his opponent Prabowo Subianto also declared victory, creating confusion among the population.[76] On 22 July, hours before the announcement of the election results, Prabowo withdrew.[77] Jokowi's victory was expected and realised hours later.[78][77] The General Elections Commission (KPU) gave him a close victory with 53.15% of the vote (almost 71 million votes), to Prabowo's 46.85% (62 million votes),[79] though Prabowo's camp disputed these totals.[80]

After his victory, Jokowi stated that growing up under the authoritarian and corrupt New Order regime, he would have never expected someone with a lower-class background to become president. The New York Times reported him as saying, "now, it's quite similar to America, yeah? There is the American dream, and here we have the Indonesian dream".[81] Jokowi was the first Indonesian president outside the military or the political elite, and the political commentator Salim Said gave the popular view of the politician as "someone who is our neighbour, who decided to get into politics and run for president".[81]

2019[edit]

In 2018, Jokowi announced that he would run for re-election next year. His vice president Jusuf Kalla was not eligible for another term because of the term limits set for president and vice president. Kalla had already served a five-year term as vice president during Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono's first term (2004-2009). Speculation surrounding Jokowi's choice of running mate focused on several candidates, including Mahfud MD, a former defence minister and chief justice of the Constitutional Court. In a surprise move, Jokowi announced that Ma'ruf Amin would be his running mate. Mahfud had reportedly been preparing for the vice-presidential candidacy. Ma'ruf was selected instead following a push by several constituent parties of Jokowi's governing coalition and influential Islamic figures.[82] Explaining his decision, Jokowi referred to Ma'ruf's extensive experience in government and religious affairs.[83]

The KPU officially announced that the Jokowi-Amin ticket had won the election in the early hours of 21 May 2019.[84] The official vote tally was 85 million votes for Jokowi (55.50%) and 68 million votes for Prabowo (44.50%).[85] Supporters of Prabowo protested in Jakarta against the result, and it turned into a riot which left eight people dead and over 600 injured.[86] Following the protests, Prabowo's campaign team launched a Constitutional Court lawsuit but was rejected in its entirety.[87]

Presidency of Indonesia[edit]

Jokowi recites the oath of office in 2014 (top) and 2019 (bottom)
Jokowi's official presidential portraits during his first term; released in 2014 (L) and 2016 (R)

Government and cabinets[edit]

Jokowi's initial cabinet lines-up in 2014 (up) and 2019 (down)

Despite vowing not to give government positions simply to political allies during the 2014 campaign, many members of political parties received ministerial positions in Jokowi's first cabinet.[88][89] The first year of Jokowi's administration saw him controlling a minority government until Golkar, the second-largest party in the People's Representative Council (DPR), switched from opposition to the government. Jokowi denied accusations of interfering with Golkar's internal affairs, although he admitted that Luhut might have influenced the change.[90] His cabinet's Minister of Industry Airlangga Hartarto was elected chairman of Golkar in 2018.[91] The National Mandate Party (PAN) had also switched sides beforehand but later returned to being the opposition in 2018.[92][93]

Jokowi announced the 34 names in his cabinet on 26 October 2014.[94] While it was praised for the inclusiveness of women, with Retno Marsudi becoming Indonesia's first female foreign minister, it received criticism for several perceived political inclusions, such as Puan Maharani (daughter of Megawati Sukarnoputri).[95] The Jokowi administration also saw the formation of two new ministries (Ministry of Public Works and Housing and Ministry of Environment and Forestry) from a merger of old ministries, in addition to renaming and reorganisation of other ministries.[96] He conducted a total of three cabinet reshuffles until 2018, removing ministers such as Rizal Ramli and Bambang Brodjonegoro while including ministers such as Luhut and World Bank Director Sri Mulyani Indrawati.[97] Another reshuffle occurred in December 2020, replacing six ministers including two apprehended by the KPK.[98]

He was criticised by PDI-P over perceived policy weaknesses, and PDI-P legislator Effendi Simbolon called for his impeachment.[99] On 9 April 2015, during a PDI-P Congress, party leader Megawati Sukarnoputri referred to Jokowi as a functionary. She noted that presidential candidates are nominated by political parties, hinting that Jokowi owed his position to the party and should carry out its policy line.[100][101] Several months prior, Megawati and Jokowi had disputed over the appointment of a new police chief, with Megawati supporting her former adjutant Budi Gunawan while Jokowi supported Badrodin Haiti.[90][102][103]

Following his re-election, Jokowi announced his second cabinet on 23 October 2019. He retained several ministers such as Sri Mulyani and Luhut but also included Gojek founder Nadiem Makarim and two-time presidential rival Prabowo Subianto as education and defence ministers, respectively.[104]

In the first year of his second presidential term, his approval rating fell to 45.2%, and the disapproval rating was 52%.[105][106] His deputy, Ma'ruf Amin, had a 67% disapproval rating. The low ratings were attributed to unpopular policies.

Economy[edit]

Before taking office, Jokowi sought for outgoing President SBY to take responsibility for the decision to further increase fuel prices[107] by further removing subsidies.[108] Previous attempts by SBY to do so had resulted in civil unrest.[107] On 1 January 2015, Jokowi took measures that, on the surface, appeared to reduce fuel subsidies.[109][110] The policy stirred up some demonstrations, with Jokowi citing it as necessary to increase funding for the infrastructure, education and health sectors.[111] However, since March 2015, the government has set the price of Premium-branded gasoline far below the market price, causing the fuel subsidy to be incurred by state-owned oil company Pertamina instead of the direct government account.[112] Additionally, the government also implemented a single-price program, aiming to sell fuel through official channels at the same price nationally, including in isolated parts of Kalimantan and Papua. The government claimed that this was achieved in 2017.[113]

In the first quarter of 2015, year-on-year GDP grew 4.92%, and in the second quarter, it grew 4.6%, the lowest figure since 2009.[114][115][116] Since then, growth has remained above the 5% mark, which is still below what is considered a healthy economic growth mark of 6%.[117] The Indonesian rupiah (IDR) has also weakened throughout Jokowi's administration, with its exchange rate per US dollar briefly passing IDR 15,000 in 2018, the lowest level since the 1997 Asian financial crisis, and sank lower to 16,700 in 2020.[118][119] The year-on-year inflation in June 2015 was 7.26%, higher than in May (7.15%) and June the year before (6.7%).[120]

Jokowi's administration continued the resource nationalism policy of its predecessor, nationalising some assets controlled by multinational companies such as Freeport McMoRan, Total SA and Chevron. In 2018, in a move aimed to cut imports, oil companies operating in Indonesia were ordered to sell their crude oil to state-owned Pertamina.[121] A ban was also enforced on the exports of raw nickel ore, intended to help promote the development of local nickel-related industries such as smelters and battery factories.[122]

Infrastructure development has been a significant feature of the Jokowi administration, focusing on road and railway expansion, seaports and airports development, and irrigation. In 2016, the state budget allocated Rp 290 trillion (US$22 billion) for infrastructure, the biggest in Indonesian history.[123] In total, his administration planned 265 infrastructure projects starting in 2016.[124] In September 2015, Indonesia awarded a $5.5 billion high-speed rail project to China,[125][126] to Japan's disappointment, which is also vying for the project.[127] Indonesia's transportation ministry laid out a litany of shortcomings in plans for the project, casting doubt on the project and spotlighting Jokowi's limits in turning mega-projects into reality as he tries to draw foreign investors.[128] Other significant projects include the completion of the 4,325-kilometer Trans Papua road and the Trans-Java Toll Road,[129][130] initial construction of the Trans-Sulawesi Railway[131] and the Trans-Sumatra Toll Road,[132] a US$50 billion plan to develop the maritime sector including 24 "strategic ports",[133] and expansion of airport capacity in remote areas.[134] The ports' development and modernisation program, dubbed the "Sea Toll Road" program, was aimed to reduce price inequality between the better developed western parts of the country and the less populated eastern parts.[135]

In addition to the major projects, the Jokowi administration also implemented a village fund program in which villages across the country received funding to allocate on basic infrastructures such as roads and water supply, tourism development and village enterprises to improve rural economies.[136][137] The initial campaign promise was that IDR 1.4 billion (around US$100,000) would be allocated for every village annually,[138] though as of 2019, less than a billion was allocated.[139] Between 2015 and 2018, IDR 187 trillion (US$14 billion) had been reallocated through the program.[140] The administration has targeted to streamline land certification across the country, aiming to distribute certificates of land ownership across the country completely. It involved increasing the issuing rate of certificates from around 500,000 to several million annually.[141][142] In 2016, the administration signed into law a tax amnesty bill following a lengthy public debate and push back, giving wealthy Indonesians a chance to declare their unreported assets before the government would strengthen rules and oversight around imports and exports. It became the most successful program of its kind in history, with over IDR 4,865 trillion (approximately US$366 billion) of previously unreported assets declared to the tax office.[143][144]

The opposition criticised the aggressive spending on infrastructure as it increased Indonesia's national debt by 48% between 2014 and March 2018 to US$181 billion. They also pointed out that most of the debt was allocated for remunerations rather than infrastructure development.[145][146][147] In April 2018, Jokowi also issued a new policy that allows foreign workers in Indonesia without Indonesian language skills requirement,[148] reasoning that it would increase investments.[149] The policy faced significant opposition from local labour unions, who claimed that the policy would increase unemployment rates.[150][151]

In 2020, the DPR passed the Omnibus Law on Job Creation. Though intended to boost investment and reduce red tape, it is also perceived as weakening labour and environmental protections, causing a series of protests in major cities. Jokowi defended the law by saying that it would be needed to create jobs and called for protesters to lodge a challenge instead to the Constitutional Court of Indonesia.[152] The law, which revised over 70 previous laws and contained some 1,200 clauses, had been put forward by Jokowi following his 2019 re-election. Several groups had criticised the opaqueness of the government during the deliberation of the law.[153] In the same year, Indonesia hit the lowest inflation level in history[154] and faced the first economic recession since the 1997 Asian Financial crisis.[155]

Politics[edit]

Early in his first term, the opposition coalition within the DPR attempted to revoke a regulation (Perppu, Government Regulation in Lieu of Acts) issued by Jokowi's predecessor, which had guaranteed the holding of direct regional elections in Indonesia (and overrode a legislator-issued bill which arranged for indirect elections).[156] Jokowi supported the direct regional elections and opposed attempts to revoke the regulation, stating that "direct regional elections was, in principle, non-negotiable".[157] Within the first three years of his administration, Jokowi issued four such Perppu.[158]

Law and human rights[edit]

Judicial executions in Indonesia are carried out under a Presidential Decree following a death sentence imposed by a trial court.[159] Jokowi in 2015 said he would not grant clemency for drug offenders sentenced to death, arguing Indonesia was in a state of emergency over drug-related crimes, citing statistics the Jakarta Globe reported to be faulty.[160][161] His stance drew criticism as it could harm relations with the native countries of the condemned convicts,[162] and also imperil Indonesians facing the death penalty abroad.[163][164] Australia, Brazil and the Netherlands recalled their ambassadors from Indonesia following multiple executions in 2015.[15][165] Australia reduced its foreign aid to Indonesia by nearly half,[166] and Amnesty International issued a condemnation saying they showed a "complete disregard for due process and human rights safeguards".[167] Former Indonesian Constitutional Court chief justice Jimly Asshiddiqie, who was a key player in the anti-death penalty lobby in Jakarta, said the push for the execution of Australians Myuran Sukumaran and Andrew Chan had come from Jokowi personally.[168] The Sydney Morning Herald reported that Jokowi did not have or read related documents when he refused their clemency requests.[169] In the same year, Jokowi granted Frenchman Serge Atlaoui and Filipino Mary Jane Veloso temporary reprieves due to pending legal appeals.[169] As of 2017, around 260 people remain on death row in Indonesia.[170]

Regarding terrorism, Jokowi's administration in early 2016 proposed replacing the 2003 anti-terrorism law. Following the 2018 Surabaya bombings, the worst terrorist attack on Indonesian soil since the 2002 Bali bombings, the controversial bill passed, allowing the Indonesian National Armed Forces to participate in counter-terrorism activities upon police request and presidential approval.[171] It also allowed extended detention of terror suspects and permitted wiretapping without initial court approval.[172] Jokowi had threatened to issue a presidential regulation in lieu of law (perppu) if the bill did not pass the parliament by June that year.[173]

During Jokowi's administration, there have been numerous instances where people were arrested or reported to police for activities deemed insulting to the president.[174][175] Rights activists deem such arrests as a violation of the Constitution's guarantee of freedom of speech.[176][177] A group claiming to be Jokowi's supporters reported Tempo magazine to police over a caricature of Jokowi as Pinocchio,[178][179] after which the Presidential Palace issued a statement saying "the President respected freedom of press and speech".[180] A book about Jokowi titled Jokowi Undercover was banned upon release and its author sentenced to three years in prison[181] and buyers of the book being advised to surrender their copies to the authorities.[182] Tempo magazine described the 436-page book as "trashy and tasteless, a compilation of hoax reports on President Joko Widodo, scattered across the internet and cyber chatrooms".[183] The government's plans to resurrect a Dutch colonial law that would permit imprisonment for insulting the president resulted in widespread protests.[184][185] A Law Firm and Public Interest Law Office (AMAR) institution later reported following the protests that they received many complaints of students regarding threats and sanctions of expulsion or suspension from their schools and universities.[186] In addition, a remission granted to a journalist's murderer was revoked following media criticism.[187][188]

Since 2019, a series of mass protests and civil unrests were held across the country against some controversial policies.

In response to major protests, Jokowi's administration has generated some controversies. On 22 May 2019, amid post-election riots by supporters of losing presidential candidate Prabowo Subianto, the government limited the speed at which photos and videos could be shared on social media to stop people from being incited by fake news and calls for violence.[189][190] In the aftermath, Amnesty International's Indonesian office denounced repressive measures against the demonstrators, condemned them as a grave human rights abuse and demanded the government investigate the extrajudicial executions in the clashes.[191][192] In August and September 2019, the government blocked internet access in Papua and West Papua provinces amid violent protests against racism. Jakarta State Administrative Court in 2020 ruled the internet blocks in Papua illegal.[193]

In 2017, Jokowi supported a controversial bill on mass organisations, which upon passing resulted in the disbandment of the Indonesian branch of Hizb ut-Tahrir. He argued the law was necessary to defend the national ideology, Pancasila.[194] The 2020 banning of the Islamic Defenders Front (FPI) was also based on that law.[195] Twenty-three days' earlier, police had shot dead six FPI members during a confrontation.[196][197] The president's subsequent defence of the police during their duty and his statement that no citizens should break the law or harm the country[198][199] was criticised by FPI Secretary-General Munarman as a justification of human rights abuse and structural violence.[200] A police chief involved in the car chase and subsequent murder claimed that the members were armed.[196] After the passing of several controversial bills and repressive crackdowns from security officers on major protests since 2019,[201] his presidency has been criticised for "Neo-Authoritarianism".[202][203][204][205] South China Morning Post even named him a 'Little Suharto'[2]

A premium price hike of public health care BPJS Kesehatan through Executive Order (Perpres) 64/2020 was criticised as a flagrant breach of permanent Supreme Court (Mahkamah Agung) decision[206] that nullified the Perpres 82/2018 about the price hike. The Perpres 64/2020 itself was signed amid the COVID-19 pandemic that had caused hardship among the population.[207][208] His former Deputy Mayor of Surakarta, F. X. Hadi Rudyatmo, also voiced similar concerns.[209]

Jokowi's presidency coincided with the 50th anniversary of the Indonesian mass killings of 1965–66 in 2015. A government-supported symposium to resolve human rights violations surrounding the event was held in 2016, but Jokowi said his government would not apologise to the victims of the mass purge.[210][211] On LGBT rights, Jokowi stated that "there should be no discrimination against anyone", but added that "in terms of our beliefs, [the LGBT lifestyle] isn't allowed, Islam does not allow it."[212] Under his presidency, the controversial transmigration program was cut once more, when in 2015, it was decided to end the migration program to the Papuan provinces.[213]

Foreign policy[edit]

Joko Widodo and Russian President Vladimir Putin, 20 May 2016
Joko Widodo and Salman of Saudi Arabia, 1 March 2017
Joko Widodo and Prime Minister of Malaysia Mahathir Mohamad in Putrajaya, 9 August 2019

Before Jokowi's election, Indonesia's foreign policy under former President SBY was moulded by the mission statement, "A thousand friends and zero enemies".[214] Jokowi has mandated a three-pronged policy of maintaining Indonesia's sovereignty, enhancing the protection of Indonesian citizens, and intensifying economic diplomacy.[13]

Jokowi aspires Indonesia to become a global maritime power (Indonesian: poros maritim dunia or global maritime axis). He sees the sea would have an increasingly important role in Indonesia's future and that as a maritime country, Indonesia must assert itself as a force between the two oceans: the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean. The five pillars of this maritime-axis doctrine are rebuilding Indonesia's maritime culture, maintaining and managing marine resources, developing maritime infrastructure and connectivity as well as developing the shipping industry and maritime tourism, inviting other nations to cooperate in the marine field and eliminate the source of conflicts at sea, and developing maritime defence forces.[215] As part of this vision, Jokowi has adopted a tougher stance on illegal fishing.[216] He stated that Jakarta could no longer tolerate a situation where over 5,000 ships are operating illegally in its waters every day, making a mockery out of Indonesian sovereignty and resulting in annual losses of over $20 billion.[217][218]

On the territorial disputes in the South China Sea, particularly in the Natuna Islands where China's nine-dash line intercepts Indonesian EEZ claims, Jokowi stated that "there will be no compromise on sovereignty",[219] and renamed Indonesia's section of the waters in the South China Sea as "North Natuna Sea".[220] In June 2016, he held a cabinet meeting off the islands aboard the Indonesian Navy corvette KRI Imam Bonjol, calling to step up maritime patrols in the area.[221] Under his administration, Indonesia has released an "Indo-Pacific Vision" for ASEAN countries, which calls for regional architecture and considers the Indian and Pacific Oceans as a single interconnected geostrategic area.[222] Indonesia also entered a trilateral cooperation agreement with Malaysia and the Philippines, allowing coordinated patrols in the pirate-infested Sulu Sea.[223]

In the Muslim world, Jokowi released a statement calling for the Muslim leaders at the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation summit meeting in Jakarta to unite in reconciliation and push for Palestinian independence.[224] Under Jokowi, Indonesia's Foreign Minister has visited Palestine but refused entreaties to establish bilateral diplomatic relations with Israel.[225] An honorary consul was established in Ramallah in the West Bank though it had to be inaugurated in Amman, Jordan.[226] Jokowi also condemned the persecution of Rohingya Muslims in Myanmar and oversaw the departure of four Indonesian Air Force transport planes with 34 tons of relief supplies for Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh.[227][228]

Capital relocation[edit]

By April 2019, it was made public that Jokowi had decided in a meeting with cabinet ministers to move the capital of Indonesia away from Jakarta to a location outside Java.[229] On 25 August 2019, it was further announced that the new capital would be located in Kalimantan, between the regencies of North Penajam Paser and Kutai Kartanegara.[230]

Family and personal life[edit]

Jokowi married his wife Iriana in 1986. The couple has two sons and one daughter. Their first son, Gibran Rakabuming Raka (born 1 October 1987), studied abroad in Sydney and Singapore (at the Management Development Institute of Singapore, MDIS) and currently runs a catering and wedding-planning business in Surakarta. Their only daughter, Kahiyang Ayu (born 20 April 1991), completed an undergraduate degree in food technology at the state-owned Sebelas Maret University in Surakarta. Their second son, Kaesang Pangarep (born 25 December 1994), completed his high school years in ACS International, Singapore,[231] and is an online vlogger. Jokowi has four grandchildren: a grandson and a granddaughter from Gibran (born in 2016 and 2019 respectively)[232] and a granddaughter and a grandson from Kahiyang (born in 2018 and 2020 respectively).[233]

Several members of Jokowi's family have declared their intentions to enter politics by running as candidates in 2020 local elections. Gibran has declared his candidacy for the mayorship of Surakarta, in addition to his son-in-law Bobby Nasution (Medan) and brother-in-law Wahyu Purwanto (Gunung Kidul Regency).[234]

Jokowi has been described as "Muslim but broadly secular in his outlook".[235] His statement in 2019 that religion and politics should be separated prompted a public debate on whether he was promoting secularism in the country.[236] In June 2013, a film titled Jokowi, depicting Jokowi's childhood and youth, was released.[237] He expressed some objections to the film, saying that he felt his life had been a simple one and was not worthy of being adapted into a film.[238]

According to The Economist, Jokowi "has a penchant for loud rock music" and owned a bass guitar signed by Robert Trujillo of heavy metal band Metallica which was confiscated by the KPK.[239] In November 2017, Danish Prime Minister Lars Løkke Rasmussen, who was on an official visit to Jakarta, gave Jokowi a Metallica Master of Puppets vinyl box set as a diplomatic gift. It was signed by the band's drummer and co-founder, Lars Ulrich, a Danish native.[240] Under his policy of transparency, Jokowi paid IDR 11 million ($800) out of his personal funds to claim the record, which had been declared a state asset to avoid accusations of gratification.[241]

Awards and honours[edit]

Coat of arms as member of the Order of the Seraphim.
National honours
Foreign honours
Other

2008: Listed by Tempo as one of the 'Top 10 Indonesian Mayors of 2008'.[251]

2012: Ranked 3rd at the 2012 World Mayor Prize for "transforming a crime-ridden city into a regional centre for art and culture and an attractive city to tourists".[252]

2013: Listed as one of "The Leading Global Thinkers of 2013" in Foreign Policy magazine. In February 2013, he was nominated as the global mayor of the month by the City Mayors Foundation, based in London.[253]

2014: Listed by Fortune as one of "The World's 50 Greatest Leaders".[254]

2016–2017: List by "The Muslim 500" as one of the most influential Muslims in the world, which ranked 11 in 2016 and 13 in 2017.[255][256]

2020: Sheikh Khalid bin Mohammed bin Zayed Al Nahyan renamed a street in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates after him.[257]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Presiden Joko Widodo" (in Indonesian). Presiden Republik Indonesia. Retrieved 24 December 2020.
  2. ^ a b Yuniar, Resty Woro (10 November 2020). "'Little Suharto'? Indonesian leader Widodo's places Twitter personalities, allies in key posts, sparking backlash". South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on 10 November 2020. Retrieved 10 November 2020.
  3. ^ a b c Kurniawan, Iwan (20 April 2016). "Bagaimana Jokowi Bangun Pabrik Mebel Rakabu yang Terbakar?" (in Indonesian). Tempo. Archived from the original on 24 June 2017. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  4. ^ "Asal Mula Basuki Tjahaja Purnama Dipanggil Ahok" (in Indonesian). Tempo. 30 October 2014. Archived from the original on 26 April 2019. Retrieved 21 October 2016.
  5. ^ "Naik Kopaja, Jokowi-Ahok Daftar Jadi Cagub DKI" (in Indonesian). Tempo. 19 March 2012. Archived from the original on 5 October 2018. Retrieved 20 February 2021.
  6. ^ a b "Editorial: Jokowi's real battle". The Jakarta Post. 22 September 2012. Archived from the original on 27 September 2012. Retrieved 3 December 2016.
  7. ^ Banyan (21 January 2014). "No ordinary Jokowi". The Economist. Archived from the original on 22 January 2014. Retrieved 31 August 2017.
  8. ^ "Indonesia's rock governor". Al Jazeera. 4 April 2014. Archived from the original on 26 January 2021. Retrieved 31 August 2017.
  9. ^ a b Cochrane, Joe (14 March 2014). "Governor of Jakarta Receives His Party's Nod for President". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 19 March 2014. Retrieved 20 February 2021.
  10. ^ "Jakarta governor Widodo wins Indonesian presidential election". Indonesia News. 22 July 2014. Archived from the original on 20 October 2014. Retrieved 23 July 2014.
  11. ^ Thatcher, Jonathan; Kapoor, Kanupriya (23 July 2014). "Indonesian president-elect Jokowi calls for unity after bitter election". Reuters. Archived from the original on 14 June 2016. Retrieved 31 August 2017.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  12. ^ "Jokowi chasing $196b to fund 5-year infrastructure plan". The Straits Times. 27 January 2018. Archived from the original on 1 February 2018. Retrieved 22 April 2018.
  13. ^ a b Parameswaran, Prashanth (9 January 2015). "The Trouble With Indonesia's Foreign Policy Priorities Under Jokowi". The Diplomat. Archived from the original on 14 February 2015. Retrieved 25 July 2015.
  14. ^ Chan, Francis (21 April 2017). "Indonesia blows up and sinks another 81 fishing boats for poaching". The Straits Times. Archived from the original on 6 April 2017. Retrieved 21 May 2019.
  15. ^ a b Topsfield, Jewel (29 April 2015). "Bali nine executions: Indonesia responds to Australia withdrawing ambassador". The Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 30 April 2015.
  16. ^ Halim, Haeril (22 July 2017). "Jokowi orders police to gun down foreign drug traffickers". The Jakarta Post. Archived from the original on 24 July 2017. Retrieved 31 August 2017.
  17. ^ Beech, Hannah; Suhartono, Muktita (20 May 2019). "Joko Wins Re-Election in Indonesia, Defeating Hard-Line Former General". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 27 May 2019. Retrieved 21 May 2019.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  18. ^ a b Deden Gunawan; Ibad Durohman (14 January 2017). "The Story of Mulyono Becoming Joko Widodo" (in Indonesian). detik. Archived from the original on 29 August 2020. Retrieved 27 July 2018.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  19. ^ Anggriawan, Fiddy (20 September 2012). "Jokowi Kenalkan Adik dan Ibu Kandungnya ke Publik" (in Indonesian). Okezone. Archived from the original on 20 September 2012. Retrieved 29 March 2014.
  20. ^ Hasyim Widhiarto and Kusumari Ayuningtyas (30 June 2014). "Furniture business propels Jokowi's path to prominence". The Jakarta Post. Archived from the original on 26 August 2014. Retrieved 20 February 2021.
  21. ^ Daryono, Adhi M (24 May 2014). "Dihadapan Pimpinan Muhammadiyah, Jokowi Bantah Anti Islam" (in Indonesian). MetroTV News. Archived from the original on 23 July 2015. Retrieved 26 May 2014.
  22. ^ Thayrun, Yon (11 April 2012). "Jokowi Anak Tergusur Mau Jadi Gubernur" (in Indonesian). Berita Satu. Archived from the original on 26 June 2012. Retrieved 29 March 2014.
  23. ^ a b Segu, Vinsensiu (16 July 2012). "Dari Bantaran Kali Menuju DKI-1" (in Indonesian). Inilahcom. Archived from the original on 18 July 2012. Retrieved 29 March 2014.
  24. ^ "Jokowi Kecil, Rumah Digusur, Tiga Kali Pindah Kontrakan" (in Indonesian). Tribunnews. 21 September 2012. Archived from the original on 25 September 2012. Retrieved 29 March 2014.
  25. ^ Alim, Abdul (22 September 2012). "Ratusan siswa SD Jokowi gelar aksi syukur" (in Indonesian). Sindo News. Archived from the original on 21 July 2018. Retrieved 21 July 2018.
  26. ^ Sunaryo, Arie (10 August 2013). "Sejak SMP, Jokowi sudah dikenal pendiam tapi pintar" (in Indonesian). Merdeka. Archived from the original on 12 August 2013. Retrieved 29 March 2014.
  27. ^ "Gagal Masuk SMA Favorit, Jokowi Sakit Tipus dan Pendiam" (in Indonesian). Tribunnews. 23 September 2012. Archived from the original on 27 March 2014. Retrieved 29 March 2014.
  28. ^ a b Samah, Kristin; Susanti, Fransisca Ria (2014). Saya Sujiatmi, Ibunda Jokowi (in Indonesian). Gramedia Pustaka Utama. ISBN 9786020304441.
  29. ^ Iqbal, M. (2 March 2016). "Jokowi Ajak Makan Siang Para Sahabat Lamanya Saat Bekerja di Aceh" (in Indonesian). detik. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  30. ^ Ananda Majni, Ferdian (13 January 2018). "Kisah Kehidupan Jokowi di Gayo" (in Indonesian). Media Indonesia. Archived from the original on 18 March 2018. Retrieved 10 March 2019.
  31. ^ Bayuni, Endy M.; Dewi, Sita W. (20 October 2014). "How a French connection gave Indonesia 'Jokowi'". The Jakarta Post. Archived from the original on 23 October 2014. Retrieved 21 October 2014.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  32. ^ Mulyana, Ade (30 March 2014). "Jokowi Sudah Lama Bekerjasama dengan Luhut Panjaitan" (in Indonesian). RMOL.ID. Archived from the original on 26 February 2021. Retrieved 28 September 2018.
  33. ^ Santoso, Teguh Budi (20 September 2018). "Mengapa Publik (Terpaksa) Harus Menerima Paket Jokowi-Ma'ruf Amin?" (in Indonesian). Tirto.id. Archived from the original on 28 September 2018. Retrieved 28 September 2018.
  34. ^ Mahardhika, Maulana (15 August 2018). "Ini Daftar Harta Kekayaan Jokowi" (in Indonesian). KOMPAS. Archived from the original on 1 December 2018. Retrieved 1 December 2018.
  35. ^ "Sejarah Pemerintahan" (in Indonesian). Pemerintah Kota Surakarta. 24 January 2017. Archived from the original on 23 January 2017. Retrieved 4 November 2017.
  36. ^ "Begini Perjalanan Politik Jokowi, Si 'Capres Kerempeng'" (in Indonesian). detik. 20 October 2014. Archived from the original on 12 October 2016. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  37. ^ a b c Indrananto, Cahyadi (June 2012). "Local Leaders as Agents: Dramaturgy on Political Communications of City Mayor Joko Widodo of Solo". Scribd. Retrieved 27 January 2014.
  38. ^ "Joko Widodo Raih Penghargaan Best City Award Asia Tenggara" (in Indonesian). Solo Pos. 9 August 2012. Archived from the original on 26 February 2021. Retrieved 26 February 2021.
  39. ^ "Poor Stagnate While City Thrives". The Jakarta Post. 18 November 2013. Archived from the original on 24 December 2013. Retrieved 24 December 2013.
  40. ^ Ayuningtyas, Kusumasari (3 January 2012). "Surakarta mayor uses car made by vocational schools students". The Jakarta Post. Archived from the original on 24 December 2013. Retrieved 24 December 2013.
  41. ^ N Raditya, Iswara (9 February 2019). "Sejarah Polemik Jokowi vs Bibit Waluyo yang Diklaim Dukung Prabowo" (in Indonesian). Tirto.id. Archived from the original on 24 December 2020. Retrieved 20 December 2020.
  42. ^ Ayuningtyas, Kusumasari (4 January 2012). "Residents of Surakarta accompany mayor to pay PLN". The Jakarta Post. Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 21 September 2013.
  43. ^ "Kemenangan Fenomenal Jokowi-Rudy" (in Indonesian). KOMPAS. 21 May 2010. Archived from the original on 22 August 2011. Retrieved 3 August 2018.
  44. ^ Sasmita, Ira (8 August 2012). "Fitnah Ibu Jokowi, Rhoma Terancam Dipidanakan". Republika. Archived from the original on 16 November 2012. Retrieved 3 March 2021.
  45. ^ "No Jokowi trails in education fund corruption, says KPK". The Jakarta Post. 15 October 2014. Archived from the original on 16 October 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2021.
  46. ^ Ayuningtyas, Kusumasari (20 March 2012). "Surakarta residents disappointed by Jokowi's Jakarta bid". The Jakarta Post. Archived from the original on 22 March 2012. Retrieved 22 March 2012.
  47. ^ Dewi, Sita W. (20 November 2013). "Man of the house, man of the moment". The Jakarta Post. Archived from the original on 21 November 2013. Retrieved 21 November 2013.
  48. ^ "Jokowi's star appeal: Making hay while sun shines". The Jakarta Post. 18 November 2013. Archived from the original on 20 November 2013. Retrieved 20 November 2013.
  49. ^ "Editorial: Start working, Jokowi". The Jakarta Post. 22 January 2013. Archived from the original on 25 January 2013. Retrieved 25 January 2013.
  50. ^ Suryowati, Estu (17 March 2014). "Dipimpin Jokowi, Pendapatan DKI Naik Rp 31 Triliun dalam Setahun" (in Indonesian). KOMPAS. Archived from the original on 28 March 2019. Retrieved 20 March 2014.
  51. ^ Pernyataan PAD 72 Triliun diralat sebagai APBD, bukan PAD oleh Kepala Dinas Pelayanan Pajak DKI Jakarta Iwan Setiawandi
  52. ^ a b "Menlu Inggris dukung transparansi Jokowi" (in Indonesian). BBC. 28 January 2014. Archived from the original on 10 September 2017. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
  53. ^ Ray, Jordan (14 March 2013). "Transparansi Jokowi, Ini Dia Poster APBD 2013" (in Indonesian). detik. Archived from the original on 17 March 2013. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
  54. ^ Juwari, Ahmad (14 November 2012). "Ini Alasan Jokowi Setuju Rapat Pemprov DKI Ditampilkan di Youtube" (in Indonesian). detik. Archived from the original on 17 November 2012. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
  55. ^ McCawley, Tom (November 2013). "Overdue Antidote" (PDF). Asian Development Bank. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 December 2013. Retrieved 24 December 2013.
  56. ^ "'Jokowi-care' a pilot project for upcoming national health plan". The Jakarta Post. 22 December 2013. Archived from the original on 23 December 2013. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
  57. ^ "A report card for Jakarta'shealthcare program". The Jakarta Post. 22 December 2013. Archived from the original on 22 December 2013. Retrieved 22 December 2013.
  58. ^ "Kartu Jakarta Pintar diluncurkan" (in Indonesian). Antara News. 1 December 2012. Archived from the original on 4 December 2012. Retrieved 4 December 2012.
  59. ^ "Leading and shaping a unified, high performing APS". Australian Public Service Commission. Archived from the original on 25 July 2015. Retrieved 24 July 2015.
  60. ^ Sa'diyah, Halimatus (13 November 2013). "Jokowi Resmikan Lokasi Baru 'PKL' Pasar Minggu"" (in Indonesian). Republika. Archived from the original on 22 October 2018. Retrieved 22 October 2018.
  61. ^ "PKL: Jokowi Doang Gubernur yang Bisa Rombak Tanah Abang" (in Indonesian). detik. 21 August 2013. Archived from the original on 22 October 2018. Retrieved 22 October 2018.
  62. ^ "Diplomasi Makan Siang Jokowi dan Warga Waduk Pluit Berlanjut Pekan Depan" (in Indonesian). detik. 21 June 2013. Archived from the original on 14 January 2020. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
  63. ^ Riz (29 January 2014). "BPBD: Berkat Kerja Jokowi, Banjir 2014 Tak Separah 2013" (in Indonesian). Liputan6. Archived from the original on 9 October 2018. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
  64. ^ Lestari, Mustiana (21 November 2013). "Perdana Menteri Belanda nilai Jokowi pemimpin hebat" (in Indonesian). Merdeka. Archived from the original on 24 November 2013. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
  65. ^ "Proyek Pembangunan MRT Jakarta Resmi Dimulai" (in Indonesian). VOA Indonesia. 10 October 2013. Archived from the original on 29 July 2017. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
  66. ^ Margi, Raditya (9 September 2015). "Jokowi kicks off LRT construction". The Jakarta Post. Archived from the original on 12 September 2015. Retrieved 21 September 2015.
  67. ^ Dewi, Sita W. (29 August 2013). "Jokowi stands by Christian subdistrict head". The Jakarta Post. Archived from the original on 1 September 2013. Retrieved 9 October 2019.
  68. ^ Faqih, Mansyur (21 May 2014). "Prijanto: Jokowi Tak Paham Administrasi" (in Indonesian). Republika. Archived from the original on 4 August 2020. Retrieved 20 December 2020.
  69. ^ Buhori, Imam (27 August 2013). "Alami kekerasan, Warga Waduk Pluit laporkan Jokowi ke Komnas HAM" (in Indonesian). Merdeka. Archived from the original on 3 March 2021. Retrieved 18 May 2020.
  70. ^ "'Remember your promises,'city's poor tell Jokowi in daily rallies". The Jakarta Post. 16 March 2016. Archived from the original on 17 March 2016. Retrieved 9 October 2019.
  71. ^ Dewi, Sita W. (18 May 2013). "Governor and human rights body meet on Pluit, at long last". The Jakarta Post. Archived from the original on 7 June 2013. Retrieved 3 March 2021.
  72. ^ Dewi, Sita W. (22 May 2013). "Jokowi sits at same table with Pluit Dam residents". The Jakarta Post. Archived from the original on 7 June 2013. Retrieved 3 March 2021.
  73. ^ "Ancaman JASMEV: Jokowi Menang, Islam Gak Bakalan Kami Beri Ruang" (in Indonesian). detik Forum. 21 May 2014. Archived from the original on 24 May 2014. Retrieved 20 December 2020. Capture
  74. ^ "Ancaman Tim Pendukung Jokowi, JASMEV, terhadap Umat Islam!" (in Indonesian). Salam Online. 16 May 2014. Archived from the original on 17 May 2014. Retrieved 20 December 2020.
  75. ^ "Adu Strategi Pasukan Media Sosial" (in Indonesian). Tempo. 15 December 2014. Retrieved 20 December 2020.
  76. ^ Lamb, Kate (9 July 2014). "Jokowi and Prabowo both claim victory in early Indonesian election results". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 11 July 2014. Retrieved 22 July 2014.
  77. ^ a b Armindya, Yolanda Ryan (22 July 2014). "KPU Postpones Election Results Announcement". Tempo. Archived from the original on 6 May 2019. Retrieved 22 July 2014.
  78. ^ Manurung, Novrida; Rahadiana, Rieka; Rusmana, Yoga (22 July 2014). "Widodo Wins Indonesian Vote as Prabowo Withholds Concession". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 14 February 2015. Retrieved 22 July 2014.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  79. ^ "Indonesia elections: Jakarta governor 'Jokowi' wins but rival rejects final results". The Telegraph. 22 July 2014. Archived from the original on 24 July 2014. Retrieved 22 July 2014.
  80. ^ "Prabowo camp says PKS tally more accurate than KPU's". The Jakarta Post. 22 July 2014. Archived from the original on 23 July 2014. Retrieved 22 July 2014.
  81. ^ a b Cochrane, Joe (22 July 2014). "A Child of the Slum Rises as President of Indonesia". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 25 July 2014. Retrieved 22 July 2014.
  82. ^ Sapiie, Marguerite Afra (9 August 2018). "Jokowi may pick Mahfud MD as running mate". The Jakarta Post. Archived from the original on 9 August 2018. Retrieved 18 September 2018.
  83. ^ Dewi, Sita W. (9 August 2018). "Who is Ma'ruf Amin, Jokowi's running mate?". The Jakarta Post. Archived from the original on 11 August 2018. Retrieved 18 September 2018.
  84. ^ Ghina Ghaliya (21 May 2019). "KPU names Jokowi winner of election". The Jakarta Post. Archived from the original on 21 May 2019. Retrieved 9 March 2020.
  85. ^ Prasongko, Dias (21 May 2019). "KPU Menetapkan Jokowi-Ma'ruf Unggul 55,50 Persen" (in Indonesian). Tempo. Archived from the original on 21 May 2019. Retrieved 20 May 2019.
  86. ^ Medistiara, Yulida (23 May 2019). "Anies: 8 Orang Meninggal Dunia dalam Aksi 21-22 Mei" (in Indonesian). detik. Archived from the original on 23 May 2019. Retrieved 24 May 2019.
  87. ^ Sapiie, Marguerite Afra (27 June 2019). "BREAKING: Court rejects Prabowo's vote-rigging claims". The Jakarta Post. Archived from the original on 27 June 2019. Retrieved 28 June 2019.
  88. ^ Faqih, Fikri (31 March 2014). "Jokowi: Tidak ada namanya bagi-bagi kursi menteri" (in Indonesian). Merdeka. Archived from the original on 2 April 2014. Retrieved 9 October 2019.
  89. ^ Ihsanuddin (16 September 2014). ""Jokowi Tak Seberani Janjinya, 16 Kursi untuk Parpol Jelas Bagi-bagi Kekuasaan!"" (in Indonesian). Kompas. Archived from the original on 20 September 2014. Retrieved 9 October 2019.
  90. ^ a b Suzuki, Jun (9 June 2016). "Widodo gets second wind for reforms". Nikkei Asia. Archived from the original on 12 October 2018. Retrieved 12 October 2018.
  91. ^ McBeth, John (18 January 2018). "Can this man save Indonesia's Golkar?". Asia Times. Retrieved 12 October 2018.
  92. ^ "PAN joins the ruling collation". The Jakarta Post. 2 September 2015. Archived from the original on 13 October 2018. Retrieved 12 October 2018.
  93. ^ Putri, Parastiti Kharisma; Ramdhani, Jabbar (10 August 2018). "PAN Oposisi, Menteri PAN-RB Bakal Mundur?" (in Indonesian). detik. Archived from the original on 13 October 2018. Retrieved 12 October 2018.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  94. ^ Anam, Khairul (26 October 2014). "Jokowi Announces Names of Cabinet Members". Tempo. Archived from the original on 14 May 2019. Retrieved 12 October 2018.
  95. ^ Nazeer, Zubaidah (31 October 2014). "Jokowi praised for record number of women in Cabinet". The Straits Times. Archived from the original on 19 August 2015. Retrieved 12 October 2018.
  96. ^ Akuntono, Indra (23 October 2014). "Ini Nama Kementerian yang Berubah dalam Kabinet Jokowi-JK" (in Indonesian). Kompas. Archived from the original on 23 October 2014. Retrieved 12 October 2018.
  97. ^ Cook, Erin (27 January 2018). "What Does Indonesia's New Cabinet Reshuffle Mean for Jokowi's Future?". The Diplomat. Archived from the original on 26 January 2018. Retrieved 12 October 2018.
  98. ^ Hakim, Rakhmat Nur (23 December 2020). "Reshuffle Kabinet yang Akhirnya Terjadi..." (in Indonesian). Kompas. Archived from the original on 23 December 2020. Retrieved 15 February 2021.
  99. ^ Aritonang, Margareth S. (28 January 2015). "PDI-P lawmaker slams Jokowi's policies". The Jakarta Post. Archived from the original on 28 January 2015. Retrieved 6 June 2015.
  100. ^ Ginanjar, Ging (9 April 2015). "Megawati tegaskan posisi PDIP atas Pemerintah Jokowi" (in Indonesian). BBC News. Archived from the original on 13 July 2015. Retrieved 6 July 2015.
  101. ^ Hartcher, Peter (28 April 2015). "Indonesian President Widodo under corrupt thumb of Megawati". The Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 9 August 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
  102. ^ "Cerita Syafii Soal Kenapa Megawati Kukuh Sokong Budi Gunawan" (in Indonesian). Tempo. 4 March 2015. Archived from the original on 12 October 2018. Retrieved 12 October 2018.
  103. ^ "Budi Gunawan Batal Dilantik, Ternyata Ini Reaksi Megawati" (in Indonesian). Tempo. 22 February 2015. Archived from the original on 13 October 2018. Retrieved 12 October 2018.
  104. ^ Arys Aditya and Viriya Singgih (23 October 2019). "Jokowi's Cabinet Is a Blend of Politicians, Tycoons, and Technocrats". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 23 October 2019. Retrieved 3 November 2019.
  105. ^ Halim, Devina (20 October 2020). "Survei Litbang Kompas Setahun Jokowi-Ma'ruf: 52,5 Persen Tak Puas, 45,2 Persen Puas" (in Indonesian). Kompas. Archived from the original on 22 October 2020. Retrieved 24 December 2020.
  106. ^ Akbar, Nawir Arsyad (28 October 2020). "Survei IPO: Kepuasan Publik Terhadap Pemerintah Menurun" (in Indonesian). Republika. Archived from the original on 31 October 2020. Retrieved 24 December 2020.
  107. ^ a b "Indonesia fuel prices rocket by 44% sparking protests". BBC. 22 June 2013. Archived from the original on 21 March 2014. Retrieved 23 July 2015.
  108. ^ Jong, Hans Nicholas; Erviani, Ni Komang (28 August 2014). "Jokowi fails to persuade SBY on fuel subsidy". The Jakarta Post. Archived from the original on 30 August 2014. Retrieved 23 July 2015.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  109. ^ "IMF Survey: Indonesia—Moving in a New Direction". International Monetary Fund. 19 March 2015. Archived from the original on 19 August 2017. Retrieved 23 July 2015.
  110. ^ Fitri Wulandari; Eko Listiyorini; Sharon Chen (31 December 2014). "Widodo Makes Biggest Change to Indonesia Fuel Subsidies: Economy". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 28 February 2015. Retrieved 18 July 2015.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  111. ^ Bisara, Dion; Azhari, Muhamad Al (18 November 2014). "Jokowi Eyes Infrastructure Focus With Fuel Subsidy Cut". Jakarta Globe. Archived from the original on 20 November 2014. Retrieved 18 November 2014.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  112. ^ Cahyafitri, Raras (3 August 2015). "Jokowi worries 'big forces' hampering govt projects, policies". The Jakarta Post. Archived from the original on 23 August 2015. Retrieved 3 August 2015.
  113. ^ Syafril, Afut (8 January 2018). "Government achieves 2017 single-fuel price target: Minister". Antara News. Archived from the original on 8 January 2018. Retrieved 18 July 2018.
  114. ^ Brummitt, Chris (4 May 2015). "Indonesia's Slowing GDP a Wakeup Call for President Widodo". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 10 May 2015. Retrieved 25 July 2015.
  115. ^ Brown, Helen (7 August 2015). "Indonesian economic growth continues decline as Q2 figures show drop to 2009 levels". ABC News Australia. Archived from the original on 14 August 2015. Retrieved 7 August 2015.
  116. ^ Sheridan, Greg (25 June 2015). "Indonesia's Jokowi presidency is becoming a desperate mess". The Australian. Retrieved 25 July 2015.
  117. ^ Salna, Karlis (28 December 2017). "Jokowi Heads to 2018 With Backing of Stronger Indonesian Economy". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 28 December 2017. Retrieved 4 April 2018.
  118. ^ Halim, Fikri; Rachman, Arrijal (2 April 2020). "Rupiah Melemah ke Posisi Rp16.700 per Dolar AS, Ini Kata Gubernur BI" (in Indonesian). VIVA. Retrieved 20 December 2020.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  119. ^ Kiesche, Liz (5 September 2018). "Indonesian rupiah breaches 15,000 per U.S. dollar then eases off". Seeking Alpha. Retrieved 18 September 2018.
  120. ^ Asamosir (21 July 2015). "News Summary 27 June – 17 July 2015". ANU Indonesia Project Blog. Archived from the original on 25 July 2015. Retrieved 25 July 2015.
  121. ^ "Economic nationalism is back in Indonesia as election approaches". The Straits Times. 17 September 2018. Archived from the original on 18 September 2018. Retrieved 18 September 2018.
  122. ^ Listiyorini, Eko (2 September 2019). "Indonesia's Nickel Ban Shows Resource Nationalism on the March". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 21 August 2020. Retrieved 15 February 2021.
  123. ^ Amindoni, Ayomi (23 March 2016). "Jokowi policy attracts infrastructure-based mutual funds". The Jakarta Post. Archived from the original on 10 April 2016. Retrieved 18 April 2016.
  124. ^ Salna, Kalris (26 January 2018). "Indonesia Needs $157 Billion for Infrastructure Plan". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 26 January 2018. Retrieved 18 July 2018.
  125. ^ Kapoor, Kanupriya (29 September 2015). "Indonesia to award fast train contract to China - Japanese embassy official". Reuters. Archived from the original on 2 October 2015. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
  126. ^ "Indonesia awards multi-billion-dollar railway project to China over Japan". ABC News Australia. 30 September 2015. Archived from the original on 3 October 2015. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
  127. ^ "Japan cries foul after Indonesia awards rail contract to China". Financial Times. 1 October 2015. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
  128. ^ Otto, Ben; Anita Rachman (3 February 2016). "Indonesia's High-Speed Rail Plan Goes Off the Tracks". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 4 February 2016. Retrieved 13 June 2016.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  129. ^ McBeth, John (2 October 2017). "Rough road ahead for powder keg Papua". Asia Times. Retrieved 18 July 2018.
  130. ^ "Jokowi optimistic Trans Java toll road fully completed in 2019". Antara. 23 June 2018. Archived from the original on 23 June 2018. Retrieved 18 July 2018.
  131. ^ "Kereta Api Trans Sulawesi Beroperasi April 2018" (in Indonesian). Okezone. 7 March 2017. Archived from the original on 7 March 2017. Retrieved 18 July 2018.
  132. ^ "Groundbreaking Trans-Sumatra Toll Road; Infrastructure Projects Indonesia". Indonesia Investments. 30 April 2015. Archived from the original on 21 July 2015. Retrieved 27 September 2018.
  133. ^ Maulia, Erwida (14 June 2018). "Indonesia sneaks up on Singapore with flurry of port projects". Nikkei Asia. Archived from the original on 14 June 2018. Retrieved 18 July 2018.
  134. ^ Dahrul, Fathiya; Rahadiana, Rieka (10 November 2016). "Jokowi Seeks Investors for Indonesia's Airports to Curb Deficit". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 14 November 2016. Retrieved 18 July 2018.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  135. ^ Almanar, Alin (28 July 2016). "New Chief Maritime Minister to Speed up Sea Toll Road Program". Jakarta Globe. Archived from the original on 18 June 2017. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
  136. ^ Rakhmat, Muhammad Zulfikar; Tarahita, Dikanaya (21 March 2018). "Indonesia Tries Rural Development". Asia Sentinel. Archived from the original on 24 September 2020. Retrieved 18 July 2018.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  137. ^ Aisyah, Rachmadea (15 December 2017). "New village scheme risks quality". The Jakarta Post. Archived from the original on 18 July 2018. Retrieved 18 July 2018.
  138. ^ Anwar, Akhirul (3 July 2014). "PILPRES 2014 : 9 Program Nyata, Jokowi Janji Naikkan Kesejahteraan PNS" (in Indonesian). Solo Pos. Archived from the original on 18 December 2019. Retrieved 9 October 2019.
  139. ^ Miftahul Jannah, Selfie (15 January 2020). "Dana Desa Meningkat, Tiap Desa Rata-Rata Dapat Rp960 Juta Tahun Ini" (in Indonesian). Titro.id. Archived from the original on 2 August 2020. Retrieved 18 May 2020.
  140. ^ Kusuma, Hendra (14 May 2018). "Jokowi Kucurkan Rp 187 Triliun untuk Program Dana Desa" (in Indonesian). detik. Archived from the original on 18 July 2018. Retrieved 18 July 2018.
  141. ^ "Indonesian president hands over land certificates in Papua". Radio New Zealand. 12 April 2018. Retrieved 31 July 2018.
  142. ^ "Government to complete land certificate distribution by 2025: Jokowi". Antara News. 29 December 2017. Archived from the original on 28 December 2017. Retrieved 31 July 2018.
  143. ^ Setiaji, Hidayat (31 March 2017). "Late rush to join Indonesia tax amnesty after $360 billion declared". Reuters. Archived from the original on 9 October 2018. Retrieved 9 October 2018.
  144. ^ "Tax Amnesty Program Indonesia Ended, What Are the Results?". Indonesia Investments. 3 April 2017. Archived from the original on 3 April 2017. Retrieved 22 April 2018.
  145. ^ "Faisal Basri: RI Utang Banyak Bukan untuk Infrastruktur" (in Indonesian). Kumparan. 3 April 2018. Archived from the original on 3 March 2021. Retrieved 20 December 2020.
  146. ^ "Gerindra: Ternyata Utang Lebih Banyak Untuk Gaji Pegawai, Bukan Infrastruktur" (in Indonesian). RMOL.ID. 7 February 2019. Archived from the original on 3 March 2021. Retrieved 14 October 2020.
  147. ^ Soesmanto, Tommy; Tjoe, Yenny (28 June 2018). "Indonesia's government debt ahead of 2019 presidential election: a real economic concern?". The Conversation. Archived from the original on 28 June 2018. Retrieved 3 January 2019.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  148. ^ Ratya, Mega Putra (21 August 2015). "Jokowi Minta Syarat Bisa Bahasa Indonesia untuk Pekerja Asing Dihapus" (in Indonesian). detik. Archived from the original on 3 March 2021. Retrieved 9 October 2019.
  149. ^ Hermansyah, Anton (25 April 2018). "New regulation on foreign workers part of administrative reform: Jokowi". The Jakarta Post. Archived from the original on 27 April 2018. Retrieved 9 October 2019.
  150. ^ Ompusunggu, Moses (20 April 2018). "Opposition questions Jokowi's policy on foreign workers". The Jakarta Post. Archived from the original on 20 April 2018. Retrieved 9 October 2019.
  151. ^ Petriella, Yanita (12 September 2019). "Aturan Pekerja Asing Dilonggarkan, Jumlah TKA Tahun Ini Ditaksir Naik 20%". Bisnis. Archived from the original on 13 September 2019. Retrieved 18 May 2020.
  152. ^ Beo Da Costa, Agustinus (12 October 2020). "Indonesia protests against new jobs law enter second week". Reuters. Archived from the original on 12 October 2020. Retrieved 14 October 2020.
  153. ^ Arshad, Arlina (8 October 2020). "Indonesia's new omnibus law could make or break Jokowi's legacy". The Straits Times. Archived from the original on 8 October 2020. Retrieved 14 October 2020.
  154. ^ Setiaji, Hidayat (1 December 2020). "Inflasi Inti Terendah dalam Sejarah, Tanda Daya Beli Hancur!" (in Indonesian). CNBC Indonesia. Archived from the original on 1 December 2020. Retrieved 24 December 2020.
  155. ^ "Pandemic likely tipped Indonesia into first recession since 1998: Reuters poll". Reuters. 3 November 2020. Archived from the original on 3 November 2020. Retrieved 24 December 2020.
  156. ^ Asril, Sabrina (2 October 2014). "Batalkan Pilkada Tak Langsung, Presiden SBY Terbitkan 2 Perppu!" (in Indonesian). Kompas. Archived from the original on 3 October 2014. Retrieved 3 November 2019.
  157. ^ Lumanauw, Novy (5 December 2014). "Jokowi: Pilkada Langsung Tidak Bisa Ditawar" (in Indonesian). Berita Satu. Archived from the original on 3 November 2019. Retrieved 3 November 2019.
  158. ^ Ainurrahman (15 July 2017). "Tiga Tahun Jadi Presiden, Ini Empat Perppu yang Diteken Jokowi" (in Indonesian). Akurat. Archived from the original on 2 August 2020. Retrieved 3 November 2019.
  159. ^ "Penetapan Presiden Nomor 2 Tahun 1964". Pidana. 17 April 1964. Retrieved 23 July 2015.
  160. ^ Ina Parlina; Margareth S. Aritonang; Severianus Endi (21 January 2015). "Jokowi refuses to budge on clemency issue". The Jakarta Post. Archived from the original on 23 January 2015. Retrieved 6 July 2015.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  161. ^ Stoicescu, Claudia (6 February 2015). "Commentary: Indonesia's Executions of Drug Convicts Based on Faulty Stats". Jakarta Globe. Archived from the original on 4 August 2015. Retrieved 16 July 2015.
  162. ^ Peter Alford; Brendan Nicholson (5 March 2015). "Diplomacy doomed to fail Andrew Chan and Myuran Sukumaran". The Australian. Retrieved 23 July 2015.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  163. ^ Gill, Sarah (5 March 2015). "Capital punishment 'Jokowi's twin policy positions". The Jakarta Post. Archived from the original on 9 March 2015. Retrieved 8 August 2015.
  164. ^ Coca, Nithin (3 March 2015). "Indonesia's Death Penalty Hypocrisy". The Diplomat. Archived from the original on 18 March 2015. Retrieved 2 April 2016.
  165. ^ Arshad, Arlina (19 January 2015). "Brazil and the Netherlands recall ambassadors after Indonesian executions". The Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 31 August 2018. Retrieved 6 June 2015.
  166. ^ Whyte, Sarah (13 May 2015). "Federal budget 2015: Foreign aid to Indonesia cut by nearly half, Africa aid down 70 per cent". The Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 31 August 2018. Retrieved 23 July 2015.
  167. ^ "Indonesia executes drug smugglers by firing squad". Al Jazeera. 29 April 2015. Archived from the original on 24 November 2020. Retrieved 16 July 2015.
  168. ^ Bachelar, Michael (12 August 2015). "Schapelle Corby made it harder to save Andrew Chan and Myuran Sukumaran". The Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 12 August 2015. Retrieved 12 August 2015.
  169. ^ a b Allard, Tom; Topsfield, Jewel (19 February 2015). "Bali nine executions: Indonesia's President did not have all the documents when he refused clemency". The Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 20 February 2015. Retrieved 16 July 2015.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  170. ^ "Republic of Indonesia (Indonesia)". Cornell Law School. 1 October 2013. Archived from the original on 25 February 2021. Retrieved 12 October 2018.
  171. ^ Diela, Tabita (25 May 2018). "Indonesia toughens up anti-terror laws days after worst attack in years". Reuters. Archived from the original on 25 May 2018. Retrieved 31 July 2018.
  172. ^ Soeriaatmadja, Wahyudi (25 May 2018). "Indonesia's anti-terror Bill to extend detention". The Straits Times. Archived from the original on 27 May 2018. Retrieved 12 October 2018.
  173. ^ Ihsanuddin (14 May 2018). "Jika pada Juni RUU Antiterorisme Belum Selesai, Jokowi Terbitkan Perppu" (in Indonesian). Kompas. Archived from the original on 31 July 2018. Retrieved 31 July 2018.
  174. ^ Aridha, Apriana Nurul (21 August 2017). "9 Kasus Penghinaan Presiden Jokowi Berujung Bui" (in Indonesian). Liputan6. Archived from the original on 30 March 2018. Retrieved 9 October 2019.
  175. ^ "11 Orang ini Ditahan karena Hina/Fitnah Jokowi?" (in Indonesian). Kompasiana. 24 March 2019. Archived from the original on 5 November 2019. Retrieved 9 October 2019.
  176. ^ Erdianto, Kristian (28 August 2019). "Pasal Penghinaan Presiden pada RKUHP Dianggap Bersifat Kolonial dan Tak Demokratis" (in Indonesian). Kompas. Archived from the original on 28 August 2019. Retrieved 9 October 2019.
  177. ^ Kami, Indah Mutiara (7 August 2015). "Pasal Penghinaan Presiden Warisan Kolonial, Dibatalkan MK dan Langgar UUD" (in Indonesian). detik. Archived from the original on 3 August 2020. Retrieved 9 October 2019.
  178. ^ Prabowo, Haris (18 September 2019). "Kontroversi Cover Tempo: Saat Kritik Lewat Karya Dinilai Menghina" (in Indonesian). Tirto.id. Archived from the original on 25 December 2019. Retrieved 9 October 2019.
  179. ^ Septianto, Bayu (16 September 2019). "PDIP Tak Terima Sampul Majalah Tempo Sandingkan Jokowi dan Pinokio" (in Indonesian). Tirto.id. Archived from the original on 2 August 2020. Retrieved 9 October 2019.
  180. ^ Sani, Ahmad Faiz Ibnu (26 September 2019). "Cover Majalah Tempo, Istana: Presiden Hormati Kebebasan Pers" (in Indonesian). Tempo. Archived from the original on 27 September 2019. Retrieved 18 May 2020.
  181. ^ Suherdjoko (29 May 2017). "'Jokowi Undercover' author sentenced to three years in prison". The Jakarta Post. Archived from the original on 29 May 2017. Retrieved 9 October 2019.
  182. ^ Aritonang, Margareth S. (6 January 2017). "Buyers urged to hand over copies of 'Jokowi Undercover' to authorities". The Jakarta Post. Archived from the original on 7 January 2017. Retrieved 9 October 2019.
  183. ^ "Much Ado over a Nothing Book". Tempo. 13 January 2017. Retrieved 3 March 2021.
  184. ^ Lamb, Kate (24 September 2019). "Thousands protest against new criminal code in Indonesia". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 24 September 2019. Retrieved 17 October 2019.
  185. ^ "Perjalanan Kasus Remaja yang Ancam Tembak Jokowi, Tak Ditahan dan Dikembalikan ke Orangtuanya" (in Indonesian). Tribunnews. 15 May 2019. Retrieved 9 October 2019.
  186. ^ Briantika, Adi (5 October 2019). "Pembungkaman ala Forum Rektor dan Jokowi: Larang Mahasiswa Demo" (in Indonesian). Tirto.id. Archived from the original on 2 August 2020. Retrieved 18 May 2020.
  187. ^ Erviani, Ni Komang (22 January 2019). "AJI Denpasar lambasts Jokowi for granting remission to journalist's murderer". The Jakarta Post. Archived from the original on 20 February 2020. Retrieved 9 October 2019.
  188. ^ Kuwado, Fabian Januarius (9 February 2019). "Presiden Jokowi Batalkan Remisi untuk Pembunuh Wartawan" (in Indonesian). Kompas. Archived from the original on 9 February 2019. Retrieved 9 October 2019.
  189. ^ Tehusijarana, Karina M.; Valentina, Jessicha (22 May 2019). "Jakarta riot: Government temporarily limits access to social media, messaging apps". The Jakarta Post. Archived from the original on 24 May 2019. Retrieved 3 March 2021.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  190. ^ Potkin, Fanny (22 May 2019). "Indonesia curbs social media, blaming hoaxes for inflaming unrest". Reuters. Retrieved 3 March 2021.
  191. ^ "Indonesia: Open letter on torture or other ill-treatment by the police in the mass protest following the election result announcement of 21-23 May 2019". Amnesty International. 25 June 2019. Retrieved 9 October 2019.
  192. ^ Cook, Erin (20 September 2019). "Is Indonesia Losing Its War on Corruption Under Jokowi?". The Diplomat. Archived from the original on 20 September 2019. Retrieved 20 December 2020.
  193. ^ Fiqih Prawira Adjie, Moch. (3 June 2020). "Internet ban during Papua antiracist unrest ruled unlawful". The Jakarta Post. Archived from the original on 3 June 2020. Retrieved 3 March 2021.
  194. ^ Stefanie, Christie (26 October 2017). "Jokowi Tegaskan UU Ormas untuk Lindungi Pancasila" (in Indonesian). CNN Indonesia. Archived from the original on 26 October 2017. Retrieved 27 September 2018.
  195. ^ Nurita, Dewi (30 December 2020). "FPI Dilarang, Pakar Hukum Kritik UU Ormas yang Khas Orde Baru" (in Indonesian). Tempo. Archived from the original on 31 December 2020. Retrieved 5 March 2021.
  196. ^ a b "Indonesia police kill six suspected supporters of hardline leader". Al Jazeera. 7 December 2020. Archived from the original on 7 December 2020. Retrieved 10 January 2021.
  197. ^ Renaldi, Erwin (10 December 2020). "Tewasnya Enam Orang Pendukung FPI Diminta Diusut Tanpa Menimbulkan Lebih Banyak Konflik" (in Indonesian). ABC News Australia. Archived from the original on 4 March 2021. Retrieved 24 December 2020.
  198. ^ Syambudi, Irwan (13 December 2020). "Jokowi Buka Suara soal Tewasnya Laskar FPI: Hukum Harus Ditegakkan" (in Indonesian). Tirto.id. Archived from the original on 13 December 2020. Retrieved 24 December 2020.
  199. ^ Candra, Sapto Andika (13 December 2020). "Soal Tewasnya 6 Laskar FPI, Ini Tanggapan Jokowi" (in Indonesian). Republika. Archived from the original on 15 December 2020. Retrieved 24 December 2020.
  200. ^ "FPI Kecam Pernyataan Jokowi Soal Tewasnya 6 Pengawal Habib Rizieq" (in Indonesian). Suara Merdeka. 15 December 2020. Retrieved 24 December 2020.
  201. ^ Putri, Budiarti Utami (19 September 2019). "Expert Deems Law Revisions as a Return of the New Order". Tempo. Archived from the original on 20 September 2019. Retrieved 24 December 2020.
  202. ^ Lindsey, Tim (7 November 2017). "Jokowi in Indonesia's 'Neo-New Order'". East Asia Forum. Archived from the original on 7 November 2017. Retrieved 24 December 2020.
  203. ^ "Akademisi Unair: Era Jokowi Menunjukan Neo Otoritarianisme" (in Indonesian). Demokrasi.co.id. 10 December 2020. Archived from the original on 10 December 2020. Retrieved 24 December 2020.
  204. ^ "LP3ES Sebut Indonesia Penuhi Empat Kriteria Negara Otoriter" (in Indonesian). CNN Indonesia. 14 June 2020. Archived from the original on 9 July 2020. Retrieved 24 December 2020.
  205. ^ Banyan (15 October 2020). "How not to reform Indonesia". The Economist. Archived from the original on 18 October 2020. Retrieved 20 December 2020.
  206. ^ "Putusan MA Batalkan Kenaikan Iuran BPJS Tidak Bisa Diganggu Gugat" (in Indonesian). Merdeka. 9 March 2020. Archived from the original on 10 March 2020. Retrieved 24 December 2020.
  207. ^ "BPJS Kesehatan Naik di Tengah Pandemi" (in Indonesian). Merdeka. 15 May 2020. Archived from the original on 15 May 2020. Retrieved 24 December 2020.
  208. ^ "Iuran BPJS Kesehatan Naik, Demokrat Sebut Jokowi Permainkan Putusan MA" (in Indonesian). Merdeka. 14 May 2020. Archived from the original on 19 May 2020. Retrieved 24 December 2020.
  209. ^ "BPJS Naik, Walkot Solo Anggap Jokowi Sengsarakan Rakyat" (in Indonesian). CNN Indonesia. 14 May 2020. Archived from the original on 15 May 2020. Retrieved 24 December 2020.
  210. ^ Wardi, Robertus; Prasetyo, Eko (28 June 2016). "Jokowi Rules Out Apology to Defunct Communist Party for 1965". Jakarta Globe. Archived from the original on 3 January 2019. Retrieved 3 January 2019.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  211. ^ Kwok, Yenny (19 April 2016). "There Were No Apologies at Indonesia's First Hearing Into the Savage Killings of 1965". Time. Archived from the original on 20 April 2016. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
  212. ^ Parmar, Tekendra (20 October 2016). "Indonesia's President Finally Speaks Out Against Worsening Anti-LGBT Discrimination". Time. Archived from the original on 12 November 2016. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
  213. ^ Asril, Sabrina (4 June 2015). "Jokowi Hentikan Transmigrasi ke Papua" (in Indonesian). Kompas. Archived from the original on 7 June 2015. Retrieved 20 August 2019.
  214. ^ Puspitasari, Irfa (23 August 2010). "Indonesia's New Foreign Policy - 'Thousand friends- zero enemy'". Institute for Defence Studies and Analysis. Archived from the original on 26 August 2010. Retrieved 25 July 2015.
  215. ^ Witular, Rendi A. (13 November 2014). "Jokowi launches maritime doctrine to the world". The Jakarta Post. Archived from the original on 17 November 2014. Retrieved 14 April 2016.
  216. ^ Chan, Francis (2 April 2017). "Indonesia blows up and sinks another 81 fishing boats for poaching". The Straits Times. Archived from the original on 2 April 2017. Retrieved 10 October 2018.
  217. ^ Parameswaran, Prashanth (13 January 2015). "Explaining Indonesia's 'Sink The Vessels' Policy Under Jokowi". The Diplomat. Archived from the original on 25 January 2015. Retrieved 18 July 2015.
  218. ^ "Terapi Kejut Jokowi Bagi Pencuri Ikan Asing" (in Indonesian). Okezone. 10 December 2014. Archived from the original on 13 July 2015. Retrieved 15 April 2018.
  219. ^ "No compromise on sovereignty over Natuna Islands despite China claims: Indonesia's Jokowi". The Straits Times. 5 November 2016. Archived from the original on 6 November 2016. Retrieved 21 August 2018.
  220. ^ Allard, Tom; Munthe, Bernadette Christina (14 July 2017). "Asserting sovereignty, Indonesia renames part of South China Sea". Reuters. Archived from the original on 16 January 2021. Retrieved 21 August 2018.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  221. ^ Kapoor, Kanupriya; Jensen, Fergus (23 June 2016). "Indonesia president visits islands on warship, makes point to China". Reuters. Archived from the original on 21 August 2018. Retrieved 21 August 2018.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  222. ^ Laksamana, Evan A. (20 November 2018). "Indonesia's Indo-Pacific vision is a call for Asean to stick together instead of picking sides". South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on 20 November 2018. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
  223. ^ Weatherbee, Donald E. (2017). "Indonesia's Foreign Policy in 2016: Garuda Hovering". Southeast Asian Affairs: 172. ISSN 0377-5437. JSTOR 26492600.
  224. ^ Yosephine, Liza (7 March 2016). "Jokowi calls for unity for reconciliation in Palestine". The Jakarta Post. Archived from the original on 8 March 2016. Retrieved 7 March 2016.
  225. ^ "Indonesia rejects Israel's latest call for bilateral relations". The Jakarta Post. 31 March 2016. Archived from the original on 2 April 2016. Retrieved 18 April 2016.
  226. ^ Weatherbee 2017, p. 173.
  227. ^ "The Latest: Indonesia sends 34 tons of aid for Rohingya". ABC News. 12 September 2017. Archived from the original on 22 September 2017. Retrieved 14 September 2017.
  228. ^ "Indonesian President Jokowi deplores violence against Rohingya". Channel News Asia. 4 September 2017. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 14 September 2017.
  229. ^ Marguerite Afra, Sapiie (29 April 2019). "Jokowi wants to move capital out of Java". The Jakarta Post. Archived from the original on 30 April 2019. Retrieved 25 September 2019.
  230. ^ Aditya, Arys; Sipahutar, Tassia; Rahadiana, Rieka (26 August 2019). "Indonesia Picks Borneo for New Capital Amid Jakarta Gridlock". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 27 August 2019. Retrieved 25 September 2019.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  231. ^ Widhiarto, Hasyim; Dewi, Sita W. (20 October 2014). "First Family stays cool, won't parade wealth". The Jakarta Post. Archived from the original on 21 October 2014. Retrieved 14 April 2017.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  232. ^ Ganug Nugroho Adi (17 November 2019). "Jokowi welcomes third grandchild, girl named La Lembah Manah". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 12 April 2021.
  233. ^ Ghaliya, Ghina (5 August 2020). "It's a boy: Jokowi welcomes fourth grandchild". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 12 April 2021.
  234. ^ Yuwono, Markus, Dewantoro; Zamani, Labib (19 January 2020). "Ini Alasan 4 Keluarga Jokowi Berniat Maju Pilkada 2020" (in Indonesian). Kompas. Archived from the original on 19 January 2020. Retrieved 16 June 2020.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  235. ^ "Indonesian politics are becoming less predictable". The Economist. 5 October 2017. Archived from the original on 11 October 2018. Retrieved 5 October 2017.
  236. ^ La Batu; Safrin (27 March 2017). "Jokowi accused of promoting secularism". The Jakarta Post. Archived from the original on 27 March 2017. Retrieved 9 October 2017.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  237. ^ "Jokowi (2013)". IMDb. Archived from the original on 26 December 2013. Retrieved 3 January 2014.
  238. ^ Aziza, Kurnia Sari (22 May 2013). "Tak Ada Izin, Jokowi Keberatan Film "Jokowi"" (in Indonesian). Kompas. Archived from the original on 11 June 2013. Retrieved 3 January 2014.
  239. ^ Banyan (8 June 2013). "Mr Joko goes to Jakarta". The Economist. Archived from the original on 11 October 2018. Retrieved 8 June 2013.
  240. ^ Maine, Samantha (29 November 2017). "Danish Prime Minister gives gift of Metallica boxset to Indonesian President". NME. Archived from the original on 29 November 2017. Retrieved 30 November 2017.
  241. ^ Meixler, Eli (22 February 2018). "Indonesia's President Paid $800 to Keep a Limited-Edition Metallica Album". Time. Archived from the original on 9 November 2020. Retrieved 23 February 2018.
  242. ^ "Inilah 30 Nama Penerima Bintang Tanda Jasa 2011" (in Indonesian). Tempo. 12 August 2011. Archived from the original on 28 September 2018. Retrieved 27 September 2018.
  243. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Museum Kepresidenan (10 May 2019). "Tanda Kehormatan yang dimiliki Presiden" (in Indonesian). Ministry of Education of Culture: Directorate General of Culture. Archived from the original on 23 August 2019. Retrieved 23 August 2019.
  244. ^ "HM confers state decoration on Indonesian President". The Brunei Times. 8 February 2015. Archived from the original on 8 February 2015. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
  245. ^ "Jokowi meets Indonesian migrant workers in Brunei". Thai PBS. 9 February 2015. Archived from the original on 12 March 2017. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
  246. ^ "Ke Brunei, Jokowi Hadiri Perayaan 50 Tahun Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah Bertahta" (in Indonesian). Tribunnews. 6 October 2017. Archived from the original on 12 October 2017. Retrieved 9 June 2019.
  247. ^ Teresia, Ananda (12 September 2015). "Jokowi Receives King Abdul Azis Medal". Tempo. Archived from the original on 25 February 2019. Retrieved 12 September 2015.
  248. ^ Angriani, Desi (26 January 2016). "President Jokowi Receives Highest Medal of Honour from Timor Leste". MetroTv News. Archived from the original on 5 March 2017. Retrieved 26 January 2016.
  249. ^ "Jokowi bestows highest medal to Swedish king". The Jakarta Post. 22 May 2017. Archived from the original on 26 May 2017. Retrieved 19 June 2017.
  250. ^ Sani, Ahmad Faiz Ibnu (30 January 2018). "Jokowi Receives Ghazi Amanullah Medal from Afghan President". Tempo. Archived from the original on 28 December 2019. Retrieved 30 January 2018.
  251. ^ "Sedikit Orang Baik di Republik yang Luas" (in Indonesian). Tempo. 22 December 2008. Archived from the original on 25 February 2021. Retrieved 27 September 2018.
  252. ^ Hove vom, Tann (8 January 2013). "World Mayor: The 2012 results". World Mayor. Archived from the original on 11 January 2013. Retrieved 22 August 2018.
  253. ^ Baker, Brian (1 February 2013). "Mayor of the Month for February 2013". City Mayors. Archived from the original on 27 April 2013. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
  254. ^ Colvin, Geoff; Dunn, Catherine; Fry, Erika; Fortune Staff (20 March 2014). "The World's 50 Greatest Leaders". CNN. Archived from the original on 23 March 2014. Retrieved 24 March 2014.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  255. ^ "The Muslim 500". themuslim500.com.
  256. ^ Hasan, Rizki Akbar (21 May 2017). "Jokowi di Peringkat 13 Muslim Paling Berpengaruh di Dunia" (in Indonesian). Liputan6. Archived from the original on 25 May 2019. Retrieved 29 May 2017.
  257. ^ "Presiden: Joko Widodo Street di Abu Dhabi Penghargaan dan Kehormatan Bagi Indonesia". Cabinet Secretary of the Republic of Indonesia. 2020. Retrieved 12 April 2021.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by
Slamet Suryanto
Mayor of Surakarta
2005–2012
Succeeded by
F. X. Hadi Rudyatmo
Preceded by
Fauzi Bowo
Governor of Jakarta
2012–2014
Succeeded by
Basuki Tjahaja Purnama
Preceded by
Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono
President of Indonesia
2014–present
Incumbent