This New World monkey is found within and just north of the city limits of Manaus, the capital of the Amazonas state of Brazil. The main distribution is in the rio Cuieiras and rio Preto da Eva interfluvium. Pied tamarins are also found in the adjacent rio Preto da Eva and rio Urubu interfluvium, but are comparatively rare. There appears to be interspecific competition between the pied tamarin and the red-handed tamarin with the red-handed tamarin gradually displacing the pied tamarin from areas of its historical distribution. There are therefore multiple threats to the long-term survival of the pied tamarin that stem from habitat destruction and from interspecific competition.
Behavior and reproduction
Individuals live in groups of 2 to 15 members with little intra-group competition. Average group size in the Reserva Florestal Adolpho Ducke is 4.8 individuals per group (n = 41), and other areas around Manaus reported mean group sizes of 6.19 ± 2.62 (n = 46).
Only the alpha female of the group will breed. Reproduction in other females of the group is behaviorally suppressed. The gestation lasts 140–170 days and mothers typically give birth to twins. Young tamarins are cared for primarily by the father and turned over to the mother only to nurse; however, the entire group helps with the care of the young.
Tamarins are omnivorous, their diet consisting of fruit, flowers, nectar, insects, spiders, small vertebrates and bird eggs. Its natural predators are small cats, birds of prey, and snakes. In urban setting main predators are domestic and feral cats and dogs. Because of the destruction of its natural habitat, the species is at risk. However, the species also occurs in several protected areas.
- The Rio Negro State Park South Section
- The Sauim-Castanheiras Wildlife Refuge (97 ha)
- The Adolfo Ducke Forest Reserve of the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA) (10,000 ha)
- The Walter Egler Forest Reserve of the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA) (630 ha)
- The Military training area of the Centro de Instrução de Guerra na Selva (CIGS) (115,000 ha)
- The Tupé Sustainable Development Reserve
- The Rio Negro Left Bank Environmental Protection Area – Tarumã-Açú/Tarumã-mirim Sector
- The campus of Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM) (670 ha)
- The buffer zone around the Eduardo Gomes international airport (800 ha)
- The buffer zone around the Ponte Pelada regional airport (57.6 ha)
- The Sumaúma State Park (51 ha)
- The Mindu Municipal Park (26.5 ha)
- The worker's country club SESCI (49.5 ha)
- The worker's country club SESI (100 ha)
- The 1ºBIS/CIGS military zoo and surrounding areas
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