Manaus

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"Manaos" redirects here. For other uses, see Manaos (disambiguation).
Manaus
Municipality
Município de Manaus
Municipality of Manaus
Top left: Meeting of Waters; top right: Teatro Amazonas; center: view of the city; bottom left: Manaus–Iranduba Bridge and Rio Negro; bottom right: Arena da Amazônia at night.
Top left: Meeting of Waters; top right: Teatro Amazonas; center: view of the city; bottom left: Manaus–Iranduba Bridge and Rio Negro; bottom right: Arena da Amazônia at night.
Flag of Manaus
Flag
Official seal of Manaus
Seal

Nickname(s): A Paris dos Trópicos (The Paris of the Tropics)

"The Jungle City"
Location in the state of Amazonas
Location in the state of Amazonas
Manaus is located in Brazil
Manaus
Manaus
Location in Brazil
Coordinates: 03°06′S 60°01′W / 3.100°S 60.017°W / -3.100; -60.017Coordinates: 03°06′S 60°01′W / 3.100°S 60.017°W / -3.100; -60.017
Country  Brazil
Region North
State Bandeira do Amazonas.svg Amazonas
Founded October 24, 1669
Government
 • Mayor Arthur Virgílio Neto (PSDB)
Area
 • Municipality 11,401.06 km2 (4,401.97 sq mi)
Elevation 92 m (301,837 ft)
Population (2014)
 • Municipality 2,020,301 (7th)
 • Density 158.06/km2 (450.29/sq mi)
 • Metro 2,316,173 (11th)
Demonym(s) Manauara, Manauense
Time zone AST (UTC-4)
Postal Code 69000-000
Area code(s) +55 (92)
Website Manaus, Amazonas

Manaus (Portuguese pronunciation: [mɐˈnaws] or [mɐˈnawʃ]) or Manaós before 1939 or (formerly) Lugar de Barra do Rio Negro, is the capital city of the state of Amazonas in the North Region of Brazil. It is situated at the confluence of the Negro and Solimões rivers. With a population of more than 2 million, it is the most populous city of Amazonas,[1] and also the most populous city of the Amazon rainforest.

The city was founded in 1693–94 as the Fort of São José do Rio Negro. It was elevated to a town in 1832 with the name of "Manaus", an altered spelling of the indigenous Manaós peoples, and legally transformed into a city on October 24, 1848, with the name of Cidade da Barra do Rio Negro, Portuguese for "The City of the Margins of the Black River". On September 4, 1856 it returned to its original name.[2]

Manaus is located in the middle of the Amazon rainforest, and access to the city is primarily by boat or airplane. This isolation helped preserve both the nature as well as the culture of the city. The culture of Manaus, more than in any other urban area of Brazil, preserves the habits of Native Brazilian tribes. The city is the main entrance to visit the fauna and flora of the Brazilian Amazon. Few places in the world afford such a variety of plants, birds, insects, and fishes.[3]

It was known at the beginning of the century, as "Heart of the Amazon" and "City of the Forest".[4] Currently its main economic engine is the Industrial Pool of Manaus, the famous Free Economic Zone. The city has a free port and an international airport. Its manufactures include electronics, chemical products, and soap; there are distilling and ship construction industries. Manaus also exports Brazil nuts, rubber, jute and rosewood oil. It has a cathedral, opera house, zoological and botanical gardens, an ecopark and regional and native peoples museums.[5]

With a population of 2 million people in 2014, Manaus is the most populous city in the Brazilian Amazon area and the 7th most populous in the country.[6] Located on the north bank of the Negro River, 18 km (11 mi) above the meeting of the rivers where the Negro merges with the Solimões, Manaus is 1,400 km (900 mi) inland from the Atlantic Ocean. It is the hub of tourism for the rivers, the jungle lodges and the river cruises.[7]

The Solimões and Negro rivers meet in Manaus and join to form the Amazon River (using the Brazilian definition of the river; elsewhere, Solimões is considered the upper part of the Amazon [8]). Rubber made it the richest city in South America during the late 1800s. Rubber also helped Manaus earn its nickname, the "Paris of the Tropics". Many wealthy European families settled in Manaus and brought their love for sophisticated European art, architecture and culture with them. Manaus is also a duty-free zone, which has encouraged development in the region.[9]

Manaus was one of the host cities of the 2014 FIFA World Cup. It was the only host city in the Amazon rainforest and the most geographically isolated, being further north and west than any of the other host cities.

History[edit]

Manaus in 1865
Public Library of the Amazon

Early settlement for Manaus[edit]

The history of the European colonization of Manaus began in 1499 with the Spanish discovery of the mouth of the Amazon River. The Spanish then continued to colonize the region north of Brazil. Development continued in 1668-1669 with the building of the Fort of São José da Barra do Rio Negro by Portugal in order to ensure its predominance in the region, especially against the Dutch, at that time headquartered in what is today Suriname. The fort was constructed in rock and clay, with four cannon guarding the curtains.[10] It continued to function for more than 100 years. Next to the fort there were many indigenous mestizos, who helped in its construction and began to live in the vicinity.[10]

The population grew so much that in 1695, the missionaries (Carmelite, Jesuit, Franciscan) built a nearby chapel dedicated as Nossa Senhora da Conceição (Our Lady of the Conception), who in time became the patron saint of the city.[11] The Royal Charter of March 3 of 1755, created the capitancy of São José do Rio Negro, with capital in Mariuá (now Barcelos), but the governor, Lobo D'Almada, fearing Spanish invasions, the seat went back to Lugar de Barra in 1791. Being located at the confluence of the Rio Negro and Amazon Rivers, it was a strategic point. On November 13 of 1832, Lugar da Barra was elevated to town and named Manaus. On October 24 of 1848, with Law 145 of the Provincial Assembly of Para, was renamed City of Barra do Rio Negro. On September 4 of 1856 the governor Herculano Ferreira Pena finally gave it the name "Manaus".[12]

Cabanagem[edit]

The Cabanagem was the revolt in which blacks, Indians and mestizos fought against the white political elite and took power in 1835. The Cabanagem reduced the population of Grão-Pará from about 100,000 to 60,000.[13] The entry of the High Amazonas (Manaus today, which was the cradle of the city in the Western Amazon) in Cabanagem was crucial for the birth of the current state of the Amazon. During the brief period of revolution, the Cabanos of the High Amazon, bands of rebels, roamed throughout the region, and in most settlements their arrival was greeted by the non-white population's spontaneously joining their ranks and there was a greater number of adherents to the movement. With that there was an integration of people in the region thus forming the state.[14]

Rubber boom[edit]

Manaus was at the center of the Amazon region's rubber boom during the late 19th century. For a time, it was "one of the gaudiest cities of the world".[15] Historian Robin Furneaux wrote of this period, "No extravagance, however absurd, deterred" the rubber barons. "If one rubber baron bought a vast yacht, another would install a tame lion in his villa, and a third would water his horse on champagne."[16] The city built a grand opera house, with vast domes and gilded balconies, and using marble, glass, and crystal, from around Europe. The opera house cost ten million (public-funded) dollars. In one season, half the members of one visiting opera troupe died of yellow fever.[17] The opera house, called the Teatro Amazonas, has been restored and was used in scenes of the Werner Herzog film Fitzcarraldo (1982). After a gap of almost 90 years, it is producing live opera again.[18]

When the seeds of the rubber tree were smuggled out of the Amazon region to be cultivated on plantations in Southeast Asia,[Note 1] Brazil and Peru lost their monopoly on the product. The rubber boom ended abruptly, many people left its major cities, and Manaus fell into poverty. The rubber boom had made possible electrification of the city before it was installed on many European cities, but the end of the rubber boom made the generators too expensive to run. The city was not able to generate electricity again for years.[18]

The Brazilian government declared a duty-free zone in Manaus, which helped stimulate the economy as it attracted more tourists. Today it is a center of ecotourism and biology tours, as visitors explore the Amazon Basin.[19]

Geography[edit]

The largest city in northern Brazil, Manaus occupies an area of 11,401.06 square kilometres (4,402 sq mi), with a density of 144.4 inhabitants/km². It is the neighboring city of Presidente Figueiredo, Careiro, Iranduba, Rio Preto da Eva, Itacoatiara and Novo Airão.

Climate[edit]

Manaus has a tropical monsoon climate (Am) according to the Köppen climate classification system, with more or less consistent temperatures all year round. Because the driest month, August, sees less than 60 mm (2.4 in) of precipitation, the city's climate falls under the tropical monsoon climate category instead of the tropical rainforest climate category.

Climate data for Manaus (1961–1990)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 35.4
(95.7)
36.1
(97)
36.2
(97.2)
35.1
(95.2)
33.8
(92.8)
33.7
(92.7)
35.1
(95.2)
37.6
(99.7)
38.0
(100.4)
37.5
(99.5)
38.2
(100.8)
35.4
(95.7)
38.2
(100.8)
Average high °C (°F) 30.5
(86.9)
30.4
(86.7)
30.6
(87.1)
30.7
(87.3)
30.6
(87.1)
31
(88)
31.3
(88.3)
32.6
(90.7)
32.9
(91.2)
32.8
(91)
32.1
(89.8)
31.3
(88.3)
31.4
(88.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) 26.1
(79)
25.9
(78.6)
26
(79)
26.2
(79.2)
26.2
(79.2)
26.4
(79.5)
26.5
(79.7)
27.3
(81.1)
27.7
(81.9)
27.7
(81.9)
27.2
(81)
26.6
(79.9)
26.7
(80.1)
Average low °C (°F) 23.1
(73.6)
23.1
(73.6)
23.2
(73.8)
23.3
(73.9)
23.3
(73.9)
23
(73)
22.7
(72.9)
23
(73)
23.5
(74.3)
23.7
(74.7)
23.7
(74.7)
23.5
(74.3)
23.26
(73.81)
Record low °C (°F) 18.5
(65.3)
19.5
(67.1)
20.0
(68)
18.5
(65.3)
19.5
(67.1)
19.5
(67.1)
12.1
(53.8)
18.1
(64.6)
20.3
(68.5)
20.8
(69.4)
18.3
(64.9)
19.5
(67.1)
12.1
(53.8)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 264.2
(10.402)
289.5
(11.398)
335.4
(13.205)
311.2
(12.252)
279.2
(10.992)
115.4
(4.543)
85.4
(3.362)
47.3
(1.862)
73.7
(2.902)
112.6
(4.433)
173.8
(6.843)
219.6
(8.646)
2,307.4
(90.843)
Average rainy days (≥ 1 mm) 19 18 20 18 17 11 8 6 6 9 12 16 160
Average relative humidity (%) 86 87 88 87 87 83 80 77 77 79 81 85 83.1
Mean monthly sunshine hours 114.3 87.7 98.5 111.9 148.6 184.8 214.2 225 200.5 171.2 140.9 130.9 1,828.5
Source: Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology (INMET).[20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28]

Vegetation[edit]

Aerial view of the Amazon Rainforest, near Manaus

The Amazon represents over half of the planet's remaining rainforests and comprises the largest and most species-rich tract of tropical rainforest in the world. Wet tropical forests are the most species-rich biome, and tropical forests in the Americas are consistently more species rich than the wet forests in Africa and Asia.[29] As the largest tract of tropical rainforest in the Americas, the Amazonian rainforests have unparalleled biodiversity. More than one-third of all species in the world live in the Amazon Rainforest.[30]

Green areas[edit]

Despite being located in the Amazon, Manaus was densely developed and has few green areas in the city. The largest green areas are:

  • Mindu Park, located in the center-south of the city, the district Park 10. The Park of Mindú, established in 1989, is one of the largest and most visited parks of the city.
  • Bilhares Park, established in 2005, located in the south-central region of Manaus, in the neighborhood of Plateau.
  • Area of the green hill of Aleixo, created in the 1980s, located in the east of the city and one of the largest urban green areas.
  • Sumaúma State Park, a state park located in the north of Manaus, in the New Town district. It is the smallest state park of the Brazilian Amazon Basin.
  • Castanheiras Pied Tamarin Wildlife Refuge, a 95 hectares (230 acres) refuge created in 1982 to protect a population of endangered pied tamarins.
  • Adolfo Ducke Forest Reserve.
  • Part of the Anavilhanas National Park, a 350,018 hectares (864,910 acres) conservation unit that was originally an ecological station created in 1981.[31]
  • About 75% of the Rio Negro Left Bank Environmental Protection Area, a 611,008 hectares (1,509,830 acres) sustainable use conservation area created in 1995.[32]
  • The 86,601 hectares (214,000 acres) Rio Negro State Park South Section, created in 1995, about 40 kilometres (25 mi) by boat to the north west of the city.[33]

Hydrology[edit]

The urban area covers all or part of four river basins, all of tributaries of the Rio Negro. The São Raimundo and Educandos streams are completely contained in the city. The Tarumã Açu forms the western boundary of the city in its lower reaches. and is fed by several tributaries that originate in the Ducke reserve and run through the north and west of the city. The Puraquequara forms the east boundary of the urban area in its lower section.[34]

Demographics[edit]

Amazon Opera House
Amazonas Philharmonic Orchestra

According to the IBGE of 2012, there were 1,861,906 people residing in the city, and 2,283,906 people residing in the Metropolitan Region of Manaus. The population density was 149.9 inhabitants per square kilometre (388/sq mi). The racial makeup of the city was 63.93% Mixed race, 31.88% White, 2.43% Black, 0.87% Asian or Amerindian.[35]

The population of Manaus is 1,861,838 inhabitants (as performed by counting IBGE in 2012), making it the seventh largest city in Brazil, after São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Salvador, Brasilia, Fortaleza and Belo Horizonte.

The city's population growth is above the national average, and 10% above the average for the capital of the country. Most of the population is located in the North and East regions of the city, and the New Town (northern area) the neighborhood is the most populous, with more than 260,000 residents.

According to the results of the last census, the city's population increased from 343,038 inhabitants in 1960 to 622,733 inhabitants in 1970. Hence by 1990 the population grew to 1,025,979 inhabitants, increasing its density to 90.0 inhabitants / km ².

According to a 2013 genetic study, the ancestry of the inhabitants of Manaus is 45.9% European, 37.8% Native American and 16.3% African.[36]

Religion[edit]

Although it has been developed along a predominantly Roman Catholic social matrix, both because of colonization and immigration – even today the majority of Manauenses are Catholic – nevertheless there are dozens of different Protestant denominations in the city, and Judaism, Candomblé, Islam and spiritualism, among others, are also practised.[10] The city is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Manaus.

The city has a very diverse presence of Protestant or Reformed faiths, such as the Presbyterian Church, Calvary Chapel, For Christ International Church of Grace of God, Pentecostal Church of God in Brazil, Methodist Church, the Episcopal Anglican Church, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, the Baptist Church, an Assembly of God Church, the Seventh-day Adventist Church, the Universal Church of the Kingdom of God, the Jehovah's Witnesses among others. These churches are experiencing considerable growth, mainly in the outskirts of the city. A LDS temple has been built in the city, the 6th in Brazil.[37]

Districts and regions[edit]

Metropolitan region[edit]

The Metropolitan Region of Manaus (RMM), which has 2,283,906 inhabitants (counting the population IBGE in 2012) is a metropolitan area of Brazil that comprises eight cities of the Amazonas state, but without conurbation.

Regions[edit]

Manaus is divided into seven regions: North, Southern, Central-South, East, West, Mid-West and Rural area. The eastern region of the city is the most populated, with approximately 600,000 inhabitants (2007).[38] The northern region of the city that has the highest rate of population growth in recent years, and has the largest neighborhood of the city, the New Town. The Center-South region has the highest per capita income.[39] The Eastern Zone is known for having a large amount of hills.

Neighborhoods[edit]

The first neighborhood (bairro) established in Manaus was Educandos. From there, other areas of the city began receiving human occupation, with the arrival of migrants from other regions of Brazil.

Manaus has the largest neighborhood of Latin America, the neighborhood of Cidade Nova, which has 264,449 inhabitants, but it is estimated that the population exceeds 300,000 inhabitants. Cidade Nova is larger than all the cities inside the Amazonas state.[40]

With the permanence and the strengthening of Free Economic Zone of Manaus, the city began to receive investments and constant migration of people from many parts of the state and northern Brazil.

The wealthiest neighborhood in Manaus is Adrianópolis, located in the Central-South Area of the city. Downtown Manaus, despite what most people think, is actually located in the Southern area of the city, next to Rio Negro River. After years of development, the historical center has been neglected by the authorities and it has become an area mostly for commerce and poor housing. There is a plan made by the current Mayor to restore the city centre to its former glory by removing beggars and irregular sellers from sidewalks and by doing that provide more safety for tourists and locals who are trying to walk and encounter the history of the city. All these plans were made due to the World Cup and are currently being undertaken by the authorities.

Economy[edit]

Panoramic view of the England bridge

Although the main industry of Manaus through much of the 20th century was rubber, its importance has declined. Given its location, fish, wild fruits like Açai and Capuaçu, and Brazil-nuts make up important trades, as do petroleum refining, soap manufacturing, and chemical industries. Over the last decades, a system of federal investments and tax incentives have turned the surrounding region into a major industrial center (the Free Economic Zone of Manaus).

Manaus sprawls, but the center of town, the Centro where most of the hotels and attractions are located, rises above the river on a slight hill. As the largest city and a major port on the river, Manaus is commercial. Local industries include brewing, shipbuilding, soap manufacturing, the production of chemicals, computers, motorcycles and petroleum refining of oil brought in by barge and tourism.[41][42]

The mobile phone companies Nokia, Siemens, Sagem, Gradiente and BenQ-Siemens operate mobile phone manufacturing plants in Manaus.[43][44] Plastic lens manufacturer Essilor also has a plant here. The Brazilian sport utility vehicle manufacturer Amazon Veiculos is headquartered in Manaus.[45] Two airlines, Rico Linhas Aéreas and Manaus Aerotáxi, have headquarters on the grounds of Eduardo Gomes International Airport in Manaus.[46][47]

The GDP for the city was R$31,916,257,000 (2006).[48]

The per capita income for the city was R$18,902 (2006) or about US$10,661.[49]

Free Trade Zone[edit]

The Free Trade Zone of Manaus (Portuguese: Zona Franca de Manaus - ZFN) is located in the city of Manaus, the capital of the State of Amazonas, Northern Brazil. The initial idea, a Free Trade Port in Manaus, came from Deputy Francisco Pereira da Silva and was subsequently formalized by Law No. 3.173 on June 6, 1957. The project was approved by the National Congress on October 23, 1951 under No. 1.310 and regulated by Decree No. 47.757 on February 2, 1960. It was then amended by rapporteur Maurcio Jopper, engineer, who by agreement with the original author, justified the creation of a Free Trade Zone instead of a Free Trade Port.

For the first ten years the ZFM (Manaus Free Trade Zone) was located in a warehouse rented from Manaus Harbour, in the Port of Manaus, and relied on federal funds. It was perhaps due to this lack of its own resources that there was little credibility in the project. On February 28, 1967, President Castello Branco signed whose draft accompanied the Exposition of Motives. Decree-Law No. 288 amended the provisions of Law No. 3.173/57 and redefined the Manaus Free Trade Zone in more concrete terms. The new Decree-Law stipulated that the Manaus Free Trade Zone would have a radius of 10,000 km (6,200 mi) with an industrial centre as well as an agricultural center and that these would be given the economic means to allow for regional development in order to lift the Amazon out of the economic isolation that it had fallen into at that time.

On August 28, 1967, the Manaus Free Trade Zone Authority, SUFRAMA, was created. SUFRAMA is an independent body with its own legal status and assets and having financial and administrative autonomy. Tax incentives and the subsequent complementary legislation created comparative advantages in the region with respect to other parts of the country and as a result the Manaus Free Trade Zone attracted new investment to the area. These incentives constituted tax exemptions administered federally by SUFRAMA and SUDAM.

Education[edit]

Educational Institute of the Amazon

As in all Brazilian cities, according to the Brazilian Constitution, education is a basic right given by the government for free to the population. Unfortunately, the public education for children is very weak and wealthier inhabitants normally enroll their children in the numerous private schools of the city.

Although there are several private universities, not only in Manaus, but throughout Brazil, Public Institutions are the most prestigious and the hardest ones to be accepted due to a lot of competition, and also, some believe they are the best regarding the level of the students and teachers, although sometimes the infrastructure can be poor.

  • Federal University of Amazonas - Universidade Federal do Amazonas;
  • University of the State of Amazonas - Universidade do Estado do Amazonas;
  • Federal Center of Technological Education - Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológica;
  • Centro Universitário do Norte - UNINORTE;
  • Lutheran University of Brazil - Universidade Luterana do Brasil;
  • Centro de Educação Integrada Martha Falcão;
  • Universidade Nilton Lins;
  • Centro Universitário de Educação Superior do Amazonas - CIESA;
  • Escola Superior Batista do Amazonas;
  • Faculdade Boas Novas;
  • Faculdade Metropolitana de Manaus;
  • Universidade Paulista.

Transportation[edit]

Airports[edit]

Eduardo Gomes International Airport is the airport serving Manaus. The airport has two passenger terminals, one for scheduled flights and the other for regional aviation. It also has three cargo terminals.

Eduardo Gomes International Airport is Brazil's third largest in freight movement,[50] handling the import and export demand from the Manaus Industrial Complex. For this reason, Infraero invested in construction of the third cargo terminal, opened on December 14, 2004. TAM Airlines also inaugurated their own cargo terminal near the airport in 2008, which boasts to be their largest cargo terminal in Brazil. The country's major dedicated freight route is between Manaus and Viracopos, which is operated by wide-body jets. Other routes include North America and Europe.

The passenger terminal had been fully refurbished and expanded in time for the 2014 FIFA Football World Cup, which held 4 games in Manaus.

The airport currently operates daily international flights to Miami, United States, by American Airlines and TAM, to the city of Panama, by Copa Airlines and to Lisbon, Portugal, by TAP Airlines. The airport has direct flights to all major airports in Brazil operated by the three major carriers: Gol Transportes Aéreos, TAM Airlines and Azul Brazilian Airlines. The airport's IATA code is MAO.

Manaus Air Force Base, a base of the Brazilian Air Force is at the former Ponta Pelada Airport.

Apart from the Eduardo Gomes International Airport and Ponta Pelada Airport, Manaus still has an operational airstrip used by small propeller aircraft and helicopters about 6 kilometres (4 miles) north of the city centre, simply known as the "Aeroclube" ("airclub"). On Sundays, it is used for parachuting and where flying classes can be hired. Due to the fact that it is surrounded by residential areas, and has a recent history of crashes, it is under constant pressure to be moved.

Highways[edit]

There are two federal highways that intersect Manaus. There is a paved road heading North (BR-174) connecting Manaus to Boa Vista, capital of the State of Roraima and to Venezuela. Strictly speaking, Manaus is connected by road to the rest of Brazil, as it is possible to drive continuously from Manaus into Venezuela, and then reenter Brazil in the state of Acre by passing through the countries of Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. As such a route is essentially impractical for most motorists, the vast majority of transportation to and from Manaus is by boat or plane, except for journeys to Roraima. The Independent noted that "there are still no roads to Manaus" from the rest of the country.[51]

The BR-319 heads South connecting Manaus to Porto Velho, the state capital of Rondônia. However, the access to this highway requires a ferry crossing to Careiro, across the Rio Negro and River Amazon, which takes about 40 minutes, and then is only paved for about another 100 km (62 mi) to Castanho. After that, the highway is not paved, and can not be used. Various governments have promised to recover this land-link with the rest of the country, but environmental issues, high costs and complicated logistics have impeded any progress so far.

The two major state highways are the AM-010 and the AM-070. The AM-010 heads east, to Itacoatiara, Amazonas at the banks of the River Amazon, which is the third largest city of the state. The AM-070 heads south, starting on the other side of the new bridge spanning the Rio Negro at Manaus, and reaching Manacapuru which lies at the banks of the Solimoes River, also known as the upper River Amazon, and which is the fourth largest city of the state. Both roads are paved and operate all year round.

Port[edit]

Main article: Port of Manaus

Ships dock at the main port in Manaus directly downtown. Lying on the banks of the Negro River, it is 1,450 kilometers (900 mi) inland in the heart of the Amazon rain forest. The terraced city is home to a network of bridged channels that divide it into several compartments. Several mobile phone companies have manufacturing plants in the Port of Manaus, and other major electronics manufacturers have plants there. Major exports include Brazil nuts, chemicals, petroleum, electrical equipment, and forest products, and eco-tourism is an increasingly important source of income for the city. The recent discovery of petroleum in the area brings great promise of further wealth and commerce to the Port of Manaus.[52]

Today, the Port of Manaus is an important commercial center for ocean-going vessels travelling the Amazon. In fact, it is the main transport hub for the entire upper Amazon Basin. It imports beef from the hinterlands and exports hides and leather. Important industries in the Port of Manaus include manufacturing of soap, chemicals, electronics equipment as well as shipbuilding, brewing, and petroleum refining. With so much industry and commerce, the Port of Manaus has become a sophisticated cosmopolitan center. Located next to the Amazon rain forest, it also attracts crowds of tourists who find a variety of land and boat trips into the jungle. Wildlife is plentiful, even within the city, and it is home to the Pied Tamarin, one of Brazil's most endangered primates. Tour boats take visitors to see the point where the black waters of the Rio Negro meet the Solimões River's brown waters, flowing together without mixing for nine kilometers (5.6 miles).[53]

Getting around[edit]

Taxis[edit]

Manaus regular taxis are white and can be stopped anywhere. They're organised into separate cooperatives, each with their own contact phone numbers. All taxis are metered, which doesn't necessarily mean it will be used, but assuming it is the rate is R$2.60 or R$3.20, depending on the time of day.

The 'especial' taxi cars are typically black and of a higher quality than the white taxis, and will charge a fixed rate for all journeys or daily hire. Most can only be booked locally, however the reputable Brazil Airport Transfers[54] has recently started providing airport transfer and general transportation services in Manaus.

Bus[edit]

The bus system in Manaus is quite extensive and there are buses and vans that will take you to most of the popular tourist destinations. There is a very simple bus website that will allow you to plan your routes if you do attempt to take the bus. If you do use the bus service be aware of those around you as crime is pervasive in Manaus.

Events and holidays[edit]

Tropical Hotel

The annual calendar of festivals in Manaus starts in late February/early March, the Manaus carnival (carnaval) celebrations are a good start to upcoming events and include traditional processions and samba dancing at the Sambódromo in the Centro de Convenções (Convention Centre). May is a popular time to pay a visit to Manaus, since the city hosts both the Ponta Negra Music and the Amazonas de Opera festivals during this month, each of which are extremely popular events in their own right. Staged at the famous Teatro Amazonas, the Opera Festival lasts around three weeks and usually runs into early June. Festival Floclorico do Amazonas (Amazonas Folklore Festival) is in June, which has grown to become a major event in Manaus. Expect a huge array of folk dancing and music, culminating in the Procissao Fluvial de São Pedro (St. Peter River Procession), when literally hundreds of riverboats sail along the Rio Negro, honouring the patron saint of fishermen.

October 24 is another date to add to your calendar, since it was on this day in 1848 that Manaus legally became a city. This anniversary is always cause for a party or two, culminating in fireworks at the end of the day. Those in the city during November may like to check out a screening or two at the week-long Amazonas Film Festival, with films and documentaries often emphasising ecology, ethnology and human relationships.[55]

  • February – Amazonas Carnival – samba schools parade at the "sambódromo" in the Convention Center
  • May – Ponta Negra’s Music Festival
  • May - Amazonas Opera Festival
  • June – Amazonas Folklore Festival
  • June 29 – São Pedro Fluvial Procession
  • July - Amazonas Jazz Festival
  • September 5 - Elevation of Amazonas to the category of Brazilian Province
  • October 24 – Anniversary of Manaus
  • November - Amazonas Film Festival
  • December 31 – Ponta Negra's New Year's Eve Party

Sights and attractions[edit]

Amazonas Theatre

Because of Manaus' location next to the Amazon rain forest, it attracts a substantial number of Brazilian and foreign tourists, who come to see wildlife on land and in the rivers. It is also home to one of the most endangered primates in Brazil, the Pied tamarin.

Tour boats leave Manaus to see the Meeting of the Waters, where the black waters of the Negro River meet the brown waters of the Solimoes River, flowing side by side without mixing for about 9 km (6 mi). Visitors can also explore river banks and "igarapes", swim and canoe in placid lakes or simply walk in the lush forest or stay at hotels in the jungle.

About 18 km (11 mi) from downtown is Ponta Negra beach, a neighbourhood that has a beachfront and popular nightlife area.[56] A luxurious hotel is located at the west end of Ponta Negra; its zoo and orchid greenhouse as well as preserved woods and beach are open for public visits.

The Mercado Adolpho Lisboa, founded in 1882, is the city's oldest marketplace, trading in fruit, vegetables, and especially fish. It is a copy of the Les Halles market of Paris.[57] Other interesting historical sites include the customs building, of mixed styles and medieval inspiration; the Rio Negro Palace cultural center; and the Justice Palace, right next to the Amazonas Opera House.

Manaus has also many large parks with native forest preservation areas, such as the Bosque da Ciência and Parque do Mindú. The largest urban forest in the world is located within Federal University of Amazonas, which was founded on January 17, 1909 and is the oldest federal university of Brazil.

Manaus also has several Malls such as Manauara Shopping, Amazonas Shopping Center, Millennium Shopping, Shopping Ponta Negra, Studio 5 Festival Mall, Shopping Cidade Nova, Manaus Plaza Shopping, Shopping Sao José and other small Shopping Areas. Most of these malls include large food courts and movie theaters.

The city's cultural calendar throughout the year includes the Opera, Theater, Jazz and Cinema festivals, as well as Boi Manaus (usually held around Manaus' anniversary on the 24th of October), which is a great celebration of Northern Brazilian culture through Boi-Bumbá music.

Amazonas Opera House[edit]

Main article: Amazon Theatre
Amazonas Opera House

The Amazonas Opera House, inaugurated in 1896, has 700 seats and was constructed with bricks brought from Europe, French glass and Italian marble. Several important opera and theater companies, as well as international orchestras, have already performed there. The Theater is home to the Amazonas Philharmonic Orchestra which regularly rehearses and performs there along with choirs, jazz bands, dance performances and more.[58]

Parks[edit]

Ponta Negra Cultural, Sport and Leisure Park

Ponta Negra beach, located 13 km (8.1 mi) from downtown Manaus, is one of the city's most important tourist attctions. It also has an amphitheater with capacity for 15.000 people.

Adolpho Ducke Botanical Garden

The Adolpho Ducke Botanical Garden, inside a 100 square kilometres (39 sq mi) ecological reserve, holds a huge number of plant and animal species.[59]

Municipal Park of Mindú

It is located in an urban area, in the November 10 Park district. It was created in 1992 to be an area of ecological interest. It covers an area of 330,000 m2 (3,552,090 sq ft) of forest remaining from the Township, and is used for scientific, educational, cultural and tourist activities. It is one of the last habitats for the sauim-de-coleira, a species of monkey that only exists in the Manaus region and is threatened with extinction. It is possible to walk through four distinct ecosystems in the park: land covered by secondary growth, firm ground brush, sandbanks and degraded areas that were illegally cleared in 1989. It also has an amphitheater for 600 people, gardens planted with medicinal and aromatic herbs, orchid nursery, aerial trails and signs aiming to develop environmental education programs.[60]

Public swimming areas[edit]

The Tarumã, Tarumãzinho and Cachoeira das Almas bayous (branches of rivers), located near the city, are leisure spots for the population on weekends. Manaus has several public swimming areas that are being remodeled and urbanized lately. There are also many private clubs that can be visited.

Meeting of Waters[edit]

Main article: Meeting of Waters
The natural phenomenon of the confluence of the Rio Negro's water and the Solimões River's water

This natural phenomenon is caused by the confluence of the Negro River's dark water and the Solimões River's muddy brown water that come together to form the Amazonas River. For 6 km (3.7 mi) or more, both rivers waters run side by side without mixing. The reason for this is not clear, although it is likely that the main factors are differences in the speed of the current, the volumes of water and the different densities of the two rivers. It is not thought that other differences between the two rivers (temperature and acidity) affect the mixing process significantly.[61] The Negro River flows approximately 2 km/h (1.2 mph) at 28 °C (82 °F), while the Solimões River flows 4 to 6 km/h (2.5 to 3.7 mph) at 22 °C (72 °F).[62]

CIGS Zoo[edit]

The zoo is open to the public. It is managed by the Brazilian Army and has approximately 300 species of animals from the Amazon fauna.[63]

Beaches and waterfalls[edit]

For outings to beaches and parks situated near the city, it is often necessary to use boats. The beaches are formed right after the river water level starts dropping, which lasts from August to November. Starting in December, as the river rises, the waters invade the sand and the woods on the banks. The Paricatuba Waterfall, located on the right bank of the Negro River, along a small tributary, is formed by sedimentary rocks, surrounded by abundant vegetation. Access is by boat. The best time to visit is from August to February. Love Cascade located in the Guedes bayou, with cold and crystal clear water, is accessible only by boat and, then, hiking through the forest.

Tupé Beach is approximately 34 km (21 mi) from Manaus. This beach is well frequented by bathers on holidays and weekends. It is accessible only by boat. Moon Beach is located on the left bank of the Negro River, 23 km (14 mi) from Manaus. It is accessed only by boat. The beach is shaped like a crescent moon and is surrounded by rare vegetation. Lion waterfall is located on km 34 of the AM-010 highway (Manaus-Itacoatiara).

Sports[edit]

Internal view of arena

Football[edit]

The leader club in Manaus is the Nacional Futebol Clube, founded on January 13, 1913, and called "Leão da Vila". Participant of the serie A (first division) for several times between 1970 and 1990. Nacional is 40-times state champion, the great state champion in Amazon state, and one of the greatest state champion in Brazil, and is the best amazonian football club ranked in the CBF ranking, the official Brazilian football entity.

Other club is the Atlético Rio Negro Clube, called "Galo da Praça da Saudade" (Remembrance Square Rooster) or "Barriga Preta" club (Black Belly), also founded in 1913, but in November, which is the second largest holder of state titles, and the National Fast Club, the Tricolor of the Boulevard" or "roll", founded in the early 40 years from a dissident's National Football Club, which has won six state championships, in addition to being Northern Region champion and North-Northeast Championship runner-up in 1970.

There is also San Raimundo Sports Club – the Typhoon Hill (Tufão da Colina), founded on November 18, 1918, participant of the Series B (2nd division) of the Brazilian Championship until 2006, when it was demoted. It is a 7-times states champion, 3-times North Cup champion.

2014 FIFA World Cup[edit]

Manaus was chosen in 2009 to be a host city for the 2014 FIFA World Cup, after a competition to represent the North Region of Brazil with neighboring state capital Belém.

Manaus has been restructured in order to host such a big event. A new airport has been built, streets throughout the city have been repaved and new and improved sidewalks have been built. The communications infrastructure of the city has been improved with 4G networks installed by the biggest mobile phone carriers in Brazil.

The Vivaldão, previously the largest stadium in Manaus, was inaugurated in 1970 by the Brazilian national team in their last game in the country before they headed to the World Cup in Mexico. It was demolished to be replaced by the 44,000 seater Arena Amazônia for the 2014 World Cup.[64]

The first 2014 World Cup match held in Manaus was England vs Italy on June 14. The second match was Cameroon vs Croatia on June 18, to be followed by USA vs Portugal on June 22. The last was Honduras vs Switzerland on June 25. Manaus, known for its intense heat and humidity, was the site of the World Cup's first ever official water break on June 22 in the match between Portugal and the United States.

Brazilian jiu-jitsu[edit]

Manaus is the origin of several world-champion Brazilian jiu-jitsu black belts, mixed martial artists and submission grapplers. Champions such as Fredson Paixao, Wallid Ismail, Saulo Ribeiro, Cristiane De Souza, Alexandre Ribeiro, Ronaldo Souza, and Bibiano Fernandes hail from Manaus. Brazilian jiu-jitsu is a major component of MMA (mixed martial arts). Jose Aldo (born September 9, 1986) is a black-belt in Brazilian jiu-jitsu. Aldo defeated Mike Brown at WEC 44 to win the title and has since successfully defended his title against Urijah Faber, Manvel Gamburyan, Mark Hominick and Kenny Florian.

International relations[edit]

Twin towns – sister cities[edit]

Manaus is twinned with:

Notable people[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ For an account, see The Thief at the End of the World: Rubber, Power, and the Seeds of Empire, by Joe Jackson.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Dados do Amazonas (Portuguese)
  2. ^ About Manaus
  3. ^ Manaus Guide
  4. ^ Heart of The Amazon and City of the Forest
  5. ^ Manaus - The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. 2013
  6. ^ Manaus tem população estimada em 1,9 milhão de habitantes, diz IBGE (Portuguese)
  7. ^ Manaus Go South America
  8. ^ National Geographic
  9. ^ Manaus, Brazil - Amazon River
  10. ^ a b c About Manaus
  11. ^ History of Manaus
  12. ^ Manaus History
  13. ^ Renato Cancian. "Cabanagem (1835–1840): Uma das mais sangrentas rebeliões do período regencial". Universo Online Liçao de Casa (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 2 November 2007. Retrieved 12 November 2007. 
  14. ^ Cabanagem History
  15. ^ David Grann. The Lost City of Z. Random House. New York: 2009. Page 87.
  16. ^ Robin Furneaux. The Amazon: the Story of a Great River. London: Hamish Hamilton, 1969. Page 153.
  17. ^ Grann 87.
  18. ^ a b Christina Lamb, "A night at the opera - and 14 days on the Amazon to get there", The Sunday Telegraph, London, 17th June 2001
  19. ^ "Google Nieuws". News.google.com. Retrieved 2013-03-26. 
  20. ^ "Temperatura Média Compensada (°C)" (in Portuguese). Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology. 1961–1990. Archived from the original on May 4, 2014. Retrieved August 19, 2014. 
  21. ^ "Temperatura Máxima (°C)" (in Portuguese). Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology. 1961–1990. Archived from the original on May 4, 2014. Retrieved August 19, 2014. 
  22. ^ "Temperatura Mínima (°C)" (in Portuguese). Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology. 1961–1990. Archived from the original on May 4, 2014. Retrieved August 19, 2014. 
  23. ^ "Precipitação Acumulada Mensal e Anual (mm)" (in Portuguese). Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology. 1961–1990. Archived from the original on May 4, 2014. Retrieved August 19, 2014. 
  24. ^ "Número de Dias com Precipitação Mayor ou Igual a 1 mm (dias)". Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology. Archived from the original on May 4, 2014. Retrieved August 19, 2014. 
  25. ^ "Insolação Total (horas)". Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology. Archived from the original on May 4, 2014. Retrieved August 19, 2014. 
  26. ^ "Umidade Relativa do Ar Média Compensada (%)". Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology. Archived from the original on May 4, 2014. Retrieved August 19, 2014. 
  27. ^ "Temperatura Máxima Absoluta (ºC)". Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology (Inmet). Archived from the original on June 21, 2014. Retrieved August 19, 2014. 
  28. ^ "Temperatura Mínima Absoluta (ºC)". Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology (Inmet). Archived from the original on June 21, 2014. Retrieved August 19, 2014. 
  29. ^ Turner, I.M. 2001. The ecology of trees in the tropical rain forest. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. ISBN 0-521-80183-4
  30. ^ Amazon Rainforest, Amazon Plants, Amazon River Animals
  31. ^ PARNA de Anavilhanas (in Portuguese), ISA: Instituto Socioambiental, retrieved 2016-04-30 
  32. ^ APA Margem Esquerda do Rio Negro (in Portuguese), ISA: Instituto Socioambiental, retrieved 2016-06-28 
  33. ^ PES do Rio Negro Setor Sul (in Portuguese), ISA:Instituto Socioambiental, retrieved 2016-06-24 
  34. ^ Rovere, Ana Lúcia Nadalutti La; Crespo, Samyra; Velloso, Rui (2002), Projeto geo cidades: relatório ambiental urbano integrado: informe GEO: Manaus (PDF) (in Portuguese), Rio de Janeiro: PNUMA; Brasil. Ministério do Meio Ambiente. Secretaria de Qualidade Ambiental nos Assentamentos Humanos; Consórcio Perceria 21, p. 68, retrieved 2016-06-28 
  35. ^ Síntese de Indicadores Sociais 2000 (PDF) (in Portuguese). Manaus, Brazil: IBGE. 2000. ISBN 85-240-3919-1. Retrieved 2009-01-31. 
  36. ^ Dennis O'Rourke, University of Utah (20 September 2013). "Revisiting the Genetic Ancestry of Brazilians Using Autosomal AIM-Indels". Plos One. Retrieved 25 February 2015. 
  37. ^ "Brazil Manaus Mission" (in Spanish). January 24, 2009. 
  38. ^ East zone of Manaus
  39. ^ Center-South region of Manaus
  40. ^ Amazonas City Populations, Retrieved on June 20, 2012
  41. ^ "Manaus, Brazil". Gosouthamerica.about.com. 2012-04-09. Retrieved 2013-03-26. 
  42. ^ Terry Wade of Reuters (2006-09-30). "Jets collide, 155 feared dead". Courier Mail. Retrieved 2011-03-04. 
  43. ^ Nokia in Manaus
  44. ^ Siemens
  45. ^ Industries in Manaus
  46. ^ Home page. Rico Linhas Aéreas. Retrieved on February 9, 2010.
  47. ^ "Fale Conosco." Manaus Aerotáxi. Retrieved on October 13, 2009.
  48. ^ GDP (PDF) (in Portuguese). Manaus, Brazil: IBGE. 2006. ISBN 85-240-3919-1. Retrieved 2009-07-21. 
  49. ^ per capita income (PDF) (in Portuguese). Manaus, Brazil: IBGE. 2006. ISBN 85-240-3919-1. Retrieved 2009-07-21. 
  50. ^ Cargo movement in International Airport of Manaus
  51. ^ [1]
  52. ^ Port of Manaus
  53. ^ Port of Manaus
  54. ^ Brazil Airport Transfers
  55. ^ Events in Manaus
  56. ^ "Photos from Ponta Negra Beach - Manaus". 
  57. ^ Manaus
  58. ^ Facts - Amazon Theatre
  59. ^ Adolpho Ducke Botanical Garden
  60. ^ About Mindú Park
  61. ^ Maguire, T. C., 2012. 'The Amazon Handbook' 2nd Ed., ISBN 978-0-9565741-2-1
  62. ^ Natural phenomenon of confluence
  63. ^ Zoo of Manaus
  64. ^ Vivaldão Stadium
  65. ^ http://www.correiodominho.com/noticias.php?id=94926

External links[edit]