|United States Senator
August 4, 1964 – December 31, 1964
|Preceded by||Clair Engle|
|Succeeded by||George Murphy|
|White House Press Secretary|
January 20, 1961 – March 19, 1964
|President||John F. Kennedy
|Preceded by||James Hagerty|
|Succeeded by||George Reedy|
|Born||Pierre Emil George Salinger
June 14, 1925
San Francisco, California, U.S.
|Died||October 16, 2004
|Resting place||Arlington National Cemetery|
Nicole De Menthon
|Education||San Francisco State University
University of San Francisco (BS)
|Service/branch||United States Navy|
|Battles/wars||World War II|
Pierre Emil George Salinger (June 14, 1925 – October 16, 2004) was an American politician, author and journalist. He served as the White House Press Secretary to U.S. Presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson. Salinger served as a United States Senator in 1964 and was campaign manager for the 1968 Robert F. Kennedy presidential campaign.
He later became known for his work as an ABC News correspondent, and in particular for his coverage of the American hostage crisis in Iran, the bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland, and his claims as to the cause of the explosion of TWA flight 800.
Salinger was born in San Francisco, California. His father, Herbert Salinger, was a New York City-born mining engineer, and his mother, Jehanne (née Biétry), was a French-born journalist. Salinger's mother was Catholic and his father was Jewish.
His maternal grandfather was Pierre Biétry, a member of the French National Assembly, who became known for his "vigorous" defense of Capt. Alfred Dreyfus, who was wrongly convicted of treason in 1894. His defense of Dreyfus was so impassioned at times during the trial that the Assembly had to be shut down for the day and his grandfather forcibly removed. After the evidence and court found Dreyfus innocent and he was released from life-imprisonment on Devils Island, Dreyfus became a symbol of injustice and right-wing repression. Bietry died in Indochina at the age of thirty-nine.
Salinger was considered a child prodigy in music who played on a grand piano even before he learned to read. When they discovered his innate talent at the piano, after they had moved to Canada, his parents enrolled him in the Toronto Conservatory of Music, where he was groomed to become a concert pianist. He recalls: "Each weekday, a tutor came to the house for three hours of academic instruction, and when she left, I was "free" to practice the piano for four or five hours."
He gave his first public concert when he was six, and was considered a concert pianist. He continued studying piano after they returned to San Francisco where by that time he was able play scores by Bach, Debussy, Beethoven and George Gershwin, whom he once met.
But when he was twelve, his mother told him that his full-time piano studies was isolating him from society. She suggested he spend a year away from piano to engage in other social activities, including sports. He did, but never returned to his original goal of becoming a pianist, and instead now wanted to become a writer or journalist.
His talent and love of music nonetheless carried into his career as press secretary when, at the behest of first lady Jacqueline Kennedy,[a] he would invite musicians such as Pablo Casals and Igor Stravinsky to the White House. President Lyndon B. Johnson once had Salinger perform on the piano to 600 of his guests.:161 "If Jackie Kennedy was the one who thought maybe America was ready for a higher culture, her ally in it or her agent was Pierre," said Richard Reeves, author of President Kennedy: Profile of Power (1993).
Salinger attended public magnet Lowell High School in San Francico. At sixteen, he later went to San Francisco State University (then College) from 1941 to 1943, during which time he became managing editor and columnist for the student newspaper.
He left SF State to enlist in the United States Navy in July 1943, where he became skipper of a submarine chaser off Okinawar in World War II. He distinguished himself during Typhoon "Louise" in Okinawa by making a daring rescue of some men stranded on a reef. For this act he received the Navy and Marine Corps medal. After serving with the United States Navy to Lieutenant, junior grade during World War II, Salinger finished his studies at the University of San Francisco, earning a BS in 1947. Salinger then began his journalism career as a reporter for the San Francisco Chronicle and as a contributing Editor to Collier's in the 1940s and 1950s.
1960s: The Kennedy years, Presidential Press Secretary, U.S. Senator
After Salinger researched and wrote a number of articles in 1956 about labor union leader James Hoffa, Robert F. Kennedy hired him to be legal counsel for the Senate Select Committee investigating organized crime. Later, Kennedy wanted him to be press secretary to his brother John F. Kennedy (JFK), who was then a member of the Senate.
Salinger worked on Kennedy's presidential campaign in 1960, and became one of the leading figures in the campaign. He was at times described as being part of Kennedy's Kitchen Cabinet of unofficial advisers. In 1961, after JFK became President, he hired Salinger as his press secretary. When Kennedy became the first president to allow live television broadcasts of his news conferences, Salinger was said to have managed the press corps with "wit, enthusiasm and considerable disdain for detail,"  a skill which made him a "celebrity in his own right."
He accompanied Kennedy to conferences with other world leaders, including the 1961 meeting with Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev in Vienna. When an aid to Khrushchev invited Salinger to Moscow, the president assented to his going. Kennedy did, however, have to explain to the press corp why he was sending a young and inexperienced Salinger to the Soviet Union.
In May 1962, Salinger went to Moscow alone to meet with the press, and after he landed was unexpectedly told he had been invited to spend time with Khrushchev at his dacha outside the city. There, they shared meals and took long hikes along country roads, as they discussed politics and world events, such as the Berlin crisis. Salinger describes in his Memoir and during an interview the 16 hours, over two days, that he spent with Khrushchev. After their first day together, Khrushchev said, "I have had such a good time today, I think I will do it again tomorrow.":149
In October 1962, Salinger briefed the press about what had been learned about Soviet missiles being stationed in Cuba. He later said that Kennedy's actions during that crisis were among the most incredible things a president had ever done in the twentieth century, noting how close the countries were to nuclear war.
At the time JFK was assassinated in November of 1963, Salinger was on a plane flying to Tokyo with six Cabinet members, including Secretary of State Dean Rusk. Salinger's visit was to have been for an economic conference, and to start working on a visit JFK was going to take in February 1964 as the first American president to visit Japan since World War II. Salinger was retained by President Lyndon Johnson as Press Secretary after JFK's death, and Johnson later said during a speech, "I don't have to tell you that Mr. Salinger was John F. Kennedy's press secretary ...and I don't know what I would have done without him, night and day, over this past month.":161 At one point in his career, Salinger briefly considered running for president, which he describes in an interview about his Memoir in 1995
Following his service in the Kennedy and Johnson administrations, Salinger returned to California and ran for the Senate. He defeated then California State Controller Alan Cranston in a contentious Democratic Primary. Governor of California Pat Brown, who had supported Cranston in the Primary, appointed Salinger a Democratic United States Senator to fill the vacancy resulting from the July 30, 1964 death of retiring Senator Clair Engle; he took office on August 4, 1964. In his bid for a full six-year term in the 1964 election, he was defeated by former actor (and vaudeville song and dance man) George Murphy following a campaign in which Salinger's only recent return to his native state became an issue, his legal residency even being challenged in court. Salinger was also hurt at the polls by his adamant support (despite advice from his political managers) of legislation banning racial housing discrimination. Salinger's loss made California the sole Democrat-held seat to go Republican in what was otherwise a Democratic landslide.
Salinger resigned from the Senate on December 31, 1964, only three days before his term was to expire. Senator-elect Murphy, who was to take office on January 3, 1965, was appointed to fill the remaining two days of Salinger's term, giving Murphy a slight advantage in seniority in the Senate over other members of the "class of 1964" at a time when seniority was even more vital in Senate affairs than now.
Salinger was one of the managers of Robert F. Kennedy's 1968 presidential campaign. When Senator Kennedy was shot to death in June, Salinger was 10 to 12 feet (3.0 to 3.7 m) away from him. Salinger claims that Jim McManus, who was also working on the campaign, said to him, "I've got to get the message to Los Angeles, under no circumstances should Bobby go through that (Ambassador Hotel) kitchen ... there's usually grease on the floor. He's going to fall or something." Salinger was devastated by RFK's assassination and moved to France as a correspondent for L'Express.
In 1968 he became director of Great America Management and Research Company (GRAMCO), a mutual investment fund in U.S. real estate aimed at foreigners.
Career in broadcast journalism
In 1976, ABC Sports employed Salinger as a features commentator for the network's coverage of the Olympic Winter Games in Innsbruck, and in 1978, he was hired by ABC News as its Paris bureau chief. He became the network's chief European correspondent based in London in 1983.
In 1989, Salinger provided commentary on the Tour de France for ABC Sports. In a November, 1989 report for ABC's Prime Time Live, Salinger claimed that Iran had paid Syria and Ahmed Jibril, head of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine-General Command (PFLP-GC), to carry out the Pan Am 103 bombing.
After the August 1990 invasion of Kuwait by Iraq, ABC started work on a special program about the invasion and sent Salinger to the Middle East, where he obtained a transcript in Arabic of a conversation between Saddam Hussein and U.S. Ambassador to Iraq April Glaspie, in which Glaspie infamously told Saddam: "We have no opinion on your Arab-Arab conflicts," interpreted by some as giving Saddam the green light to invade Kuwait, which he did days later.
After leaving ABC, Salinger moved back to Washington, D.C., and became an executive with the Burson Marsteller public relations firm before returning to France in 2000. Until the late 80s, Salinger had been a popular TV pundit in France, and was a frequent guest on French news and public affairs shows when someone was needed to explain or interpret American events for French viewers. Salinger even hosted a program for the cable network A&E in the early 1990s called Dining in France.
In November 2000, he became exasperated when he was denied permission to give exonerating evidence as part of his testimony before the Scottish Court in the Netherlands to try two Libyans for the downing on December 21, 1988, of Pan Am Flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland. Salinger stated that he knew who the real bombers were, but was told by trial judge, Lord Sutherland: "If you wish to make a point you may do so elsewhere, but I'm afraid you may not do so in this court."
On October 16, 2004, Salinger died of heart failure in Cavaillon hospital near his home, La Bastide Rose, in Le Thor, France, at the age of 79. He is buried in the Arlington National Cemetery across the Potomac River from Washington, DC.
- A Tribute to John F. Kennedy (editor, with Sander Vanocur), 1964
- With Kennedy (1966)
- An Honorable Profession: A Tribute to Robert F. Kennedy (editor with Edwin Guthman, Frank Mankiewicz, and John Seigenthaler), 1968
- On Instructions of My Government, 1971
- Je Suis un Américain (I am an American), 1975
- La France et Le nouveau Monde, 1976
- Venezuelan Notebooks, 1979
- America Held Hostage: The Secret Negotiations, 1981
- Reporting U.S.-European Relations (with Michael Rice, Jonathan Carr, Henri Pierre, and Jan Reifenberg), 1982
- The Dossier (with Leonard Gross), 1984
- Above Paris: A New Collection of Aerial Photographs of Paris, France (author of text), 1984
- Mortal Games (co-author with Leonard Gross), 1988
- Secret Dossier: The Hidden Agenda Behind the Gulf War (co-author with Éric Laurent), 1991
- Tempete du Desert: Les Secrets de la Maison Blanche, 1991
- P.S., A Memoir, 1995
- John F. Kennedy, Commander in Chief: A Profile in Leadership, 1997
- Escape to Hell and other stories (foreword, collection authored by Muammar Gaddafi), 1998
- Jacqueline Kennedy, unlike husband John F. Kennedy, loved music-related culture, as she had studied piano and ballet in her early years and as a student at Vassar. But her husband, on the contrary, did not appreciate or enjoy most kinds of music, which he said hurt his ears. She said that symphonies put him to sleep. After he became president, she relied on Salinger to suggest and invite artists to appear at the While House. Toward the end of his life, Kennedy's opinion had changed somewhat, and he "came to feel that progress in the arts was intimately related to all that he wanted America to be," which led to his supporting the creation of what became the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts in Washington D.C.
- Salinger, Pierre (2001). P. S.: A Memoir. St. Martins Press. p. 2. ISBN 0-312-30020-4.
- Yollin, Patricia (October 17, 2004). "Pierre Salinger – press secretary to presidents". The San Francisco Chronicle.
- Purdum, Todd S. (October 18, 2004). "Pierre Salinger, Press Secretary to Kennedy, Dies at 79". The New York Times. Retrieved May 22, 2010.
- Pierre Salinger discusses his Memoir, C-Span
- Spann, Edward C. Presidential Praise: Our Presidents and Their Hymns, Mercer Univ. Press (2008) p. 241
- Whitcomb, John. Real Life at the White House: Two Hundred Years of Daily Life at America's Most Famous Residence, Psychology Press (2000) p. 352
- "Watch". Booknotes. November 12, 1995. Retrieved October 5, 2013.
- Historical resources, John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum (2004). "Pierre Salinger Biography". Retrieved November 11, 2008.
- "Pierre Salinger, Kennedy Aide, Dies at 79", New York Times, Oct. 17, 2004
- Taylor Branch, Parting the Water: America in the King Years 1954–63 (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1988) p. 362
- President John F. Kennedy answers question regarding Pierre Salinger's upcoming trip to the Soviet Union
- video: Pierre Salinger briefs the press about Soviet missiles in Cuba
- Pierre Salinger: A Participant In and An Observer of History, from JFK to Castro (1996)
- Rusk, Dean (1990). Rusk, Richard; Papp, Daniel S., eds. As I Saw It. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. p. 296. ISBN 0-393-02650-7.
- Bradley, Don. "Managing Democratic Campaigns, 1943–1966" (Oral History, Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley, 1977–79)
- "'Lucky Pierre' Gets To Be On 'Batman,'" St. Petersburg Times, Saturday, December 16, 1967.
- Korengold, Robert J. (March 10, 1969) "Salinge finds niche in business". Washington Post.
- "Americas | JFK's press secretary dies at 79". BBC News. 2004-10-17. Retrieved 2016-01-14.
- Root, John Frick (1989-12-19). "A Year After Lockerbie, Murder Still Pays". Wall Street Journal. p. 1. ISSN 0099-9660.
- "Obituary: Pierre Salinger | Media". The Guardian. Retrieved 2016-01-14.
- "WORLD | Lockerbie trial adjourns". BBC News. Retrieved 2016-01-14.
- "Star Trek". Snopes.com. Retrieved 2016-01-14.
- "Former Kennedy aide Pierre Salinger dies". Usatoday.Com. 2004-10-18. Retrieved 2016-01-14.
- DEVANEY, ROBERT (July 18, 2013). "Salinger's Accusations About TWA Flight 800 Resurface in New Documentary". The Georgetowner. Retrieved 13 January 2017.
- United States Congress. "Pierre Salinger (id: S000016)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pierre Salinger.|
- Poppy And Pierre Salinger Foundation
- Appearances on C-SPAN
- Pierre Salinger Museum
- The Story of Pierre Salinger, Le SUPERMAN de la communication., Illustrated by Alex Di Gregorio.
- Oral history interview on California politics 
|White House Press Secretary
|United States Senate|
|United States Senator (Class 1) from California
Served alongside: Thomas Kuchel
|Party political offices|
|Democratic nominee for U.S. Senator from California
John V. Tunney