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In political science, political particularism is the ability of policymakers to further their careers by catering to narrow interests rather than to broader national platforms. It is often characterized by its opponents as the politics of group identity that trumps universal rights and therefore the rights of minorities or any other kind of "other".
In a political system governed by particularism, sooner or later, the decisive factor of politics becomes religious and ethnic identity and the interests of the communities defined by these bonds. This stands in contrast with the ideas and values of political pluralism, with its emphasis on universal rights, separation of religion and the government, and an ethic of religious and ethnic tolerance.
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