1992 Summer Olympics

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
"Barcelona 1992" redirects here. For the Summer Paralympics, see 1992 Summer Paralympics.
Games of the XXV Olympiad
1992 Summer Olympics logo.svg
Host city Barcelona, Spain
Motto Friends For Life
(Catalan: Amics Per Sempre)
(Spanish: Amigos Para Siempre)
Nations participating 169
Athletes participating 9,356 (6,652 men, 2,704 women)
Events 257 in 25 sports
Opening ceremony July 25
Closing ceremony August 9
Officially opened by King Juan Carlos I
Athlete's Oath Luis Doreste Blanco
Judge's Oath Eugeni Asensio
Olympic Torch Antonio Rebollo (paralympic archer)
Stadium Estadi Olímpic Lluís Companys
Summer:
Seoul 1988 Atlanta 1996  >
Winter:
Albertville 1992 Lillehammer 1994  >

The 1992 Summer Olympic Games (Spanish: Juegos Olímpicos de Verano de 1992; Catalan: Jocs Olímpics d'estiu de 1992), officially known as the Games of the XXV Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event played in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain in 1992. Beginning in 1994, the International Olympic Committee decided to hold the games in alternating even-numbered years; as a result, the 1992 Summer Olympics were the last competition to be staged in the same year as the Winter Olympics.[1] The games were the first to be unaffected by boycotts since 1972.[2]

Host city selection[edit]

Barcelona is the second-largest city in Spain, and the birthplace of then-IOC president Juan Antonio Samaranch. The city was also a host for the 1982 FIFA World Cup. On October 17, 1986, Barcelona was selected to host the 1992 Summer Games over Amsterdam, Belgrade, Birmingham, Brisbane, and Paris, during the 91st IOC Session in Lausanne, Switzerland.[3] Barcelona had previously bid for the 1936 Summer Olympics, but they ultimately lost to Berlin.

1992 Summer Olympics bidding results[4]
City NOC Name Round 1 Round 2 Round 3
Barcelona  Spain 29 37 47
Paris  France 19 20 23
Brisbane  Australia 11 9 10
Belgrade  Yugoslavia 13 11 5
Birmingham  Great Britain 8 8
Amsterdam  Netherlands 5

Highlights[edit]

The 1992 Summer Olympics allowed NBA players to participate in the basketball competition for the first time; here David Robinson shoots a free throw for the gold-medal winning United States "Dream Team".

Records[edit]

Venues[edit]

Estadi Olímpic de Montjuïc
Palau Sant Jordi and Montjuïc Communications Tower

Medals awarded[edit]

The 1992 Summer Olympic programme featured 257 events in the following 25 sports:

Demonstration sports[edit]

Calendar[edit]

All times are in Central European Summer Time (UTC+2)
 ●  Opening ceremony     Event competitions  ●  Event finals  ●  Closing ceremony
Date July August
24th
Fri
25th
Sat
26th
Sun
27th
Mon
28th
Tue
29th
Wed
30th
Thu
31st
Fri
1st
Sat
2nd
Sun
3rd
Mon
4th
Tue
5th
Wed
6th
Thu
7th
Fri
8th
Sat
9th
Sun
Archery
Athletics







Badminton
Baseball
Basketball
Boxing

Canoeing

Cycling
Diving
Equestrian
Fencing
Field hockey
Football
Gymnastics

Handball
Judo
Modern pentathlon
Rowing


Sailing
Shooting
Swimming





Synchronized swimming
Table tennis
Tennis
Volleyball
Water polo
Weightlifting
Wrestling





Total gold medals 9 12 14 17 19 19 22 30 18 11 12 12 22 30 10
Ceremonies
Date 24th
Fri
25th
Sat
26th
Sun
27th
Mon
28th
Tue
29th
Wed
30th
Thu
31st
Fri
1st
Sat
2nd
Sun
3rd
Mon
4th
Tue
5th
Wed
6th
Thu
7th
Fri
8th
Sat
9th
Sun
July August

Participating National Olympic Committees[edit]

Participants
Participating countries by number of competitors

A total of 169 nations sent athletes to compete in the 1992 Summer Games.

With the dissolution of the Soviet Union, twelve of the fifteen new states formed a Unified Team, while the Baltic States of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania each had their own teams for the first time since 1936. For the first time, Croatia, Slovenia and Bosnia-Herzegovina competed as independent nations after their separation from Socialist Yugoslavia, and Namibia and the unified team of Yemen (previously North and South Yemen) also made their Olympic debuts.

The 1992 Summer Olympics notably marked Germany competing as a unified team for the first time since 1964, while South Africa returned to the Games for the first time in 32 years.

The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was banned due to UN sanctions, but individual Yugoslav athletes were allowed to take part as Independent Olympic Participants. Four National Olympic Committees did not send any athletes to compete: Afghanistan, Brunei, Liberia and Somalia.

Participating National Olympic Committees
  • Brunei participated in the Opening Ceremony, but its delegation consisted of only one official. This also occurred in the 1988 Games[13][14]
  • Afghanistan Afghanistan didn't send their athletes to compete, but the country took part in the Parade of Nations.[15]
  • Liberia[16] and Somalia[17] also participated in the Opening Ceremony, but its accredited athletes (five and two, respectively) did not enter to compete.[13]

Medal count[edit]

The following table reflects the top ten nations in terms of total medals won at the 1992 Games (the host nation is highlighted).

Rank Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total
1 Unified Team 45 38 29 112
2 United States 37 34 37 108
3 Germany 33 21 28 82
4 China 16 22 16 54
5 Cuba 14 6 11 31
6 Spain 13 7 2 22
7 South Korea 12 5 12 29
8 Hungary 11 12 7 30
9 France 8 5 16 29
10 Australia 7 9 11 27

Broadcast rights[edit]

The 1992 Summer Olympics were covered in many countries by the following television and radio broadcasters:[18]

Effect on the city[edit]

Frank Gehry's Fish sculpture in front of the Hotel Arts (left) and the Torre Mapfre (right) in the Olympic Village neighbourhood

The celebration of the 1992 Olympic Games had an enormous impact on the urban culture and external projection of Barcelona. The Games provided billions of dollars for infrastructure investments, which are considered to have improved the quality of life and attraction of the city for investment and tourism.[19] Barcelona became one of the most visited cities in Europe after Paris, London, and Rome.[20][21]

Barcelona's nomination for the 1992 Summer Games sparked the application of a previously elaborated ambitious urban plan.[22] Barcelona opened to the sea with the construction of the Olympic Village and Olympic Port in Poblenou. New centres were created, and modern sports facilities were built in the Olympic zones of Montjuïc, Diagonal, and Vall d'Hebron. Hotels were also either built or refurbished. The construction of ring roads around the city helped reduce the density of the traffic, and El Prat airport was modernized and expanded as two new terminals were opened.[23]

Cost and cost overrun[edit]

The 1992 Summer Olympics cost Barcelona a total of USD 11.4 billion (in 2009 dollars), with a cost overrun of 417 percent in real terms. This compares with an average cost of USD 5.7 billion (in 2009 dollars) for other Summer Olympics over the past 50 years, with an average cost overrun of 252 percent. Costs here includes only sports-related costs and does not include other public costs including road, rail, or airport infrastructure; and private costs, such as hotel upgrades or other business investments incurred during the preparation for the Games. Though the non-sports-related costs are typically substantial, their necessity varies drastically from city to city. Therefore, they are difficult to compare consistently.[24]

Songs and themes[edit]

There were two main musical themes for the 1992 Games. The first one was "Barcelona", a classical crossover song composed five years earlier by Freddie Mercury and Mike Moran; Mercury was an admirer of lyric soprano Montserrat Caballé, both recorded the official theme as a duet. Due to Mercury's death eight months earlier, the duo was unable to perform the song together during the opening ceremony. A recording of the song instead played over a travelogue of the city at the start of the opening ceremony, seconds before the official countdown.[25][26] "Amigos Para Siempre" (Friends for Life) was the other musical theme. It was written by Andrew Lloyd Webber and Don Black, and sung by Sarah Brightman and José Carreras during the closing ceremonies.

Ryuichi Sakamoto composed and conducted the opening ceremony musical score.[27] The Opening Olympic fanfare was composed by Angelo Badalamenti and with orchestrations by Joseph Turrin.

Mascot[edit]

Main article: Cobi

The official mascot was Cobi, a Catalan sheepdog in cubist style designed by Javier Mariscal.[28]

Corporate image and identity[edit]

A renewal in Barcelona's image and corporate identity could be seen in the publication of posters, commemorative coins, stamps minted by the FNMT in Madrid, and the Barcelona 1992 Olympic Official Commemorative Medals, designed and struck in Barcelona.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Albertville 1992". www.olympic.org. Archived from the original on 28 March 2010. Retrieved March 12, 2010. 
  2. ^ "Barcelona 1992 Summer Olympics | Olympic Videos, Photos, News". Olympic.org. Retrieved 2011-12-04. 
  3. ^ "IOC Vote History". Aldaver.com. Retrieved 2011-12-04. 
  4. ^ http://www.webcitation.org/5xFvf0ufx?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.gamesbids.com%2Feng%2Fpast.html
  5. ^ http://hemeroteca.lavanguardia.com/preview/1992/07/27/pagina-36/33525453/pdf.html
  6. ^ "Ceremonial hall of shame". BBC News. 2000-09-15. Retrieved 2010-03-27. 
  7. ^ Official Report of the 1992 Summer Olympics, Vol. 4 (LA84Foundation.org). Note p. 70 (confirming arrow lit the gas above the cauldron).
  8. ^ "Barcelona 1992 Summer Olympics | Olympic Videos, Photos, News". Olympic.org. Retrieved 2011-12-04. 
  9. ^ Fermin Cacho Ruiz, Olympic.org. Retrieved 25 August 2013
  10. ^ Hassiba Boulmerka: Defying death threats to win gold, BBC, 2012-02-11. Retrieved 2012-02-11.
  11. ^ "Hall of Famers: 1992 United States Olympic Team". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. Retrieved 15 October 2015. 
  12. ^ "On the Bright Side". Sports Illustrated. 1996-07-30. Retrieved 2012-07-20. 
  13. ^ a b 1992 Olympics Official Report. Part IV (PDF). Retrieved October 24, 2012. List of participants by NOC's and sport. 
  14. ^ Barcelona 1992 Opening Ceremony Parade of Nations 2/8 on YouTube
  15. ^ Barcelona 1992 Opening Ceremony Parade of Nations 1/8 on YouTube
  16. ^ Barcelona 1992 Opening Ceremony Parade of Nations 4/8 on YouTube
  17. ^ Barcelona 1992 Opening Ceremony Parade of Nations 6/8 on YouTube
  18. ^ Miquel de Moragas, Nancy Kay Rivenburgh, ed. (1995). Television in the Olympics : international research project (illustrated ed.). James F. Larson. pp. 257–260. ISBN 0861965388. Retrieved 27 April 2013. 
  19. ^ Brunet i Cid, Ferran. "The economic impact of the Barcelona Olympic Games 1986-2004" (PDF). Autonomous University of Barcelona. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2009-07-21. Retrieved 2009-06-22. 
  20. ^ Payne, Bob. "The Olympics Effect". msnbc.com. Retrieved 2009-06-22. 
  21. ^ Bremner, Caroline. "Top 150 City Destinations (2006)". Euromonitor. Archived from the original on 2009-09-04. Retrieved 2009-08-27. 
  22. ^ Brunet i Cid, Ferran. "An economic analysis of the Barcelona'92 Olympic Games:resources, financing and impact" (PDF). Autonomous University of Barcelona. Retrieved 2009-06-22. 
  23. ^ Beard, Matthew (2011-03-22). "Lessons of Barcelona: 1992 Games provided model for London... and few warnings". London Evening Standard. Retrieved 2011-03-31. 
  24. ^ Flyvbjerg, Bent; Allison Stewart (2012). "Olympic Proportions: Cost and Cost Overrun at the Olympics 1960-2012". Working Paper. Saïd Business School, University of Oxford. 
  25. ^ "Barcelona 92: 11 momentos inolvidables de aquellos Juegos Olímpicos (VÍDEOS, FOTOS)" (in Spanish). The Huffington Post. Retrieved 7 September 2016. 
  26. ^ "Barcelona 92: inicio de la ceremonia". YouTube. Retrieved 2011-03-23. 
  27. ^ Illness, Critical (2010-09-03). "Doreen D'Agostino Media » Ryuichi Sakamoto and Decca". Doreendagostinomedia.com. Retrieved 2011-03-23. 
  28. ^ "Barcelona 1992 - Summer Games Mascots". Olympic.org. IOC. Retrieved 15 October 2015. 

External links[edit]

Preceded by
Seoul
Summer Olympic Games
Barcelona

XXV Olympiad (1992)
Succeeded by
Atlanta

Coordinates: 41°21′51″N 2°09′08″E / 41.36417°N 2.15222°E / 41.36417; 2.15222