Alternative Democratic Pole

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Alternative Democratic Pole
President Clara Lopez
Senate leader Jorge Enrique Robledo
Founded December 2005 (December 2005)
Headquarters Bogotá, Colombia
Ideology Social democracy[1][2]
Political position Centre-left[3][4][5] to Left-wing[6]
International affiliation Foro de São Paulo
Colours Yellow
Seats in the Chamber of Representatives
3 / 166
Seats in the Senate
5 / 102
Website
www.polodemocratico.net

The Alternative Democratic Pole (Spanish: Polo Democrático Alternativo or PDA) is a social democratic and democratic left party in Colombia[7] political party in Colombia.

It was founded as an political alliance of the Independent Democratic Pole (PDI) and the Democratic Alternative (AD) in December 2005. Both parties opposed the neoliberal economic program, securitization and (para-)militarization of Colombia under then-President Álvaro Uribe.[6] Nowadays, it is the only parliamentary party that has declared opposition to government of Juan Manuel Santos.

As 2009, a considerable part of PDA politicians consists of former guerrilla fighters who gave up armed struggle and demobilized during the late 1980s and early 1990s.[8] As 2012, a considerable part of PDA politicians including the former guerrilla fighters, are affiliated by will to Green Party (Colombia)[9] or to Movimiento Progresistas,[10] or by disciplinary action to Marcha Patriótica,[11] instead of PDA.

Political development[edit]

The PDI and AD initially had their own pre-candidates for the 2006 presidential race. PDI had nominated Antonio Navarro (former leader of M-19) and AD had nominated Carlos Gaviria.

In a primary election held on March 12, 2006, Gaviria won the presidential nomination of the PDA.

In the simultaneous legislative elections of 2006, the party won 9 out of 166 Deputies and 11 out of 100 senators.

At the presidential elections of 28 May 2006, Carlos Gaviria came second with 22.04% of the vote, 2,613,157 votes.[12] This was the highest ever result for a left-wing candidate in Colombia's history.[7] Thus, the party replaced the long-standing Liberal Party as the country's second force and main opposition party.[4]

After the election, the PDA was successful in gaining the support of groups representing the indigenous movement which affiliated with the coalition.[3] Also, on its fourth national congress, the guerrilla group National Liberation Army (ELN) commented favorably about the PDA's electoral performance and declared that political action should take precedence over armed struggle.[13] Though, PDA is not related to guerrillas or any other armed factions as they clearly state in their founding doctrine: "We oppose to war and to the exercise of violence as means to political action".[14]

The PDA could further consolidate its organization and gain support on a local level.[15] In October 2007, the PDA's candidate, Samuel Moreno Rojas won the mayoral election in Colombia's capital Bogotá.[16]

In the 2010 congressional election, PDA's support declined. It won 7.8% of votes and 8 of 100 seats in the Senate, and 5.9% of the vote and 4 of 164 seats in the House of Representatives, demoting it to the sixth rank among parliamentary parties. Before the election, a faction of the PDA had split off and joined the Green Party.[17]

Clara Lopez was the party's candidate for the 2014 presidential election;[18][19] she placed fourth in the first round of the election, receiving 1,958,414 votes, representing 15.23%.[20]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Schirmer, Jennifer (2009), "A Norwegian-Supported Peace Building Project: Conversations among Security Forces, Former Guerillas, and Civil Society", Colombia: Building Peace in a Time of War, United States Institute of Peace, p. 407 
  2. ^ Rochlin, James F. (2007), Social Forces and the Revolution in Military Affairs: The Cases of Colombia and Mexico, Palgrave Macmillan, p. 90 
  3. ^ a b Houghton, Juan (2008), "Colombia", The Indigenous World 2008, International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs (IWGIA), p. 136 
  4. ^ a b Taylor, Steven L.; Botero Jaramillo, Felipe; Crisp, Brian F. (2008), "Precandidates, Candidates, and Presidents: Paths to the Colombian Presidency", Pathways to Power, Pennsylvania State University Press, p. 291 
  5. ^ Roldán, Mary (2010), "End of Discussion: Violence, Participatory Democracy, and the Limits of Dissent in Colombia", Violent Democracies in Latin America, Duke University Press, p. 64 
  6. ^ a b Hristov, Jasmin (2009), Blood & Capital: The Paramilitarization of Colombia, Ohio University Press, p. 144 
  7. ^ a b Rochlin, James F. (2007), Social Forces and the Revolution in Military Affairs: The Cases of Colombia and Mexico, Palgrave Macmillan, p. 83 
  8. ^ Schirmer, Jennifer (2009), "A Norwegian-Supported Peace Building Project: Conversations among Security Forces, Former Guerillas, and Civil Society", Colombia: Building Peace in a Time of War, United States Institute of Peace, p. 406 
  9. ^ Diario, El Espectador. "El M19 está apoderándose del Partido Verde". 
  10. ^ Diario, El Universal. "Gustavo Petro renuncia a filas del Polo Democrático". 
  11. ^ Revista, Semana. "Partido Comunista "sí está fuera del Polo": Comité Ejecutivo Nacional". 
  12. ^ National Registry of Civil State, results of the 2006 presidential election. http://www.registraduria.gov.co/resprelec2006/0528/index.htm
  13. ^ Valencia, León (2009), "The ELN's Halting Moves toward Peace", Colombia: Building Peace in a Time of War, United States Institute of Peace, p. 99 
  14. ^ Partido, Polo Democrático Alternativo. "Ideario de Unidad". 
  15. ^ Hudson, Rex A. (2010), Colombia: A country study (Fifth ed.), Library of Congress Federal Research Division, p. xli 
  16. ^ Hudson, Rex A. (2010), Colombia: A country study (Fifth ed.), Library of Congress Federal Research Division, p. xxvi 
  17. ^ Kline, Harvey F. (2012), Historical Dictionary of Colombia, Scarecrow Press, p. 404 
  18. ^ "Clara López es la candidata a la Presidencia por el Polo Democrático". El Tiempo (in Spanish). Bogotá, Colombia. November 9, 2012. Retrieved March 1, 2014. 
  19. ^ "Clara López, candidata del Polo para presidenciales de 2014". El Espectador (in Spanish). Bogotá, Colombia. November 9, 2012. Retrieved March 1, 2014. 
  20. ^ "Resolución No. 10368: Por la cual se establece el calendario Electoral para las elecciones de Presidente y Vicepresidente de la República (primera vuelta) para el período Constitucional 2014–2018" (PDF). Registraduría Nacional del Estado Civil. October 10, 2013. Retrieved March 1, 2014. 

External links[edit]