Pratt & Whitney PW4000

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PW4000
PW4000-112 (cropped).jpg
The 112 inch (2.8 m) fan diameter PW4098 powers the Boeing 777
Type Turbofan
National origin United States
Manufacturer Pratt & Whitney
First run April 1984[1]
Major applications Airbus A300-600/A310
Airbus A330
Boeing 747-400
Boeing 767/KC-46
Boeing 777
McDonnell Douglas MD-11
Produced 1984–present
Number built 2,500 (June 2017)[2]
Developed from Pratt & Whitney JT9D
Developed into Engine Alliance GP7000

The Pratt & Whitney PW4000 is a family of high-bypass turbofan aircraft engines produced by Pratt & Whitney as a JT9D successor. It made its first run in April 1984, was FAA certified in July 1986 and was introduced in June 1987. With thrust ranging from 50,000 to 99,040 lbf (222 to 441 kN), it is used on many wide-body airliners.

Development[edit]

A PW4098 from behind

The 52,000-62,000lb (230-275kN), 94 in (2.4 m) -fan PW4000 made its first run in April 1984, was FAA certified in July 1986 and was introduced in June 1987. It powers the Airbus A300-600 and A310-300, the Boeing 747-400, 767-200/300, and MD-11 widebodies.[1]

The 64,000–68,000 lbf (280–300 kN), 100 in (2.5 m)-fan version development began in December 1991 for the A330, was FAA certified in August 1993 and made its first flight two months later. It received 90min ETOPS approval at introduction in December 1994, and 180min ETOPS approval in July 1995. In January 2000, it was the A330 market leader with more than half of the installed base and one million hours, more than twice that of each competitor.[1] The Advantage70 program was launched at the 2006 Farnborough Airshow, increasing thrust to 70,000 lbf (311 kN), reducing fuel burn by about 1% and maintenance costs by around 15%.[citation needed]

For the Boeing 777, the 84,000–98,000 lbf (370–440 kN), 112 in (2.8 m)-fan version development began in October 1990, achieved 100,000 lbf (440 kN) in May 1993, and was approved for 180min ETOPS at service entry in June 1995. The 90,000 lbf (400 kN) PW4090 entered service in March 1997, the 98,000 lbf (440 kN) PW4098 received FAA certification in July 1998 and introduced on the Boeing 777-300 in September 1999.[1] The 777 launch engine, it entered service on June 7, 1995, with United Airlines.

In 2000, over 2,000 PW4000 engines had accumulated over 40 million hours of service with 75 operators.[1] In 30 years between June 1987 and 2017, more than 2,500 engines have been delivered, logging more than 135 million flight hours.[2]

Design[edit]

Single-crystal alloys allows higher temperature capability and PW's Floatwall combustor liners improve durability and maintainability. The Talon ("Technology for Affordable Low NOx") single-row combustor improves fuel-air mixing, for over 10% better NOx, CO and HC emissions. It was approved for 180min Extended-range Twin-engine Operations (ETOPS) and has a dispatch reliability rate of 99.96%. The average engine stays on wing 13,500 flight hours before a shop visit (a Shop Visit Rate of 0.073 per thousand hours). The PW4000 is up to 1.7 to 3.4 dB (cumulative) quieter than competitors.[1]

It has a Full Authority Digital Engine Control (FADEC), for better fuel economy and reliability.[3]

Variants and applications[edit]

A -94 powering the Boeing 767 with 38 fan blades
A -100 powering the Airbus A330 with 34 fan blades
A -112 powering the Boeing 777 with 22 fan blades

PW4000-94[edit]

Thrust range: 231–276 kN (52,000 lbf – 62,000 lbf)[4]

PW4000-100[edit]

Thrust range: 287–311 kN (64,500 lbf – 70,000 lbf)[5]

PW4000-112[edit]

Thrust range: 329–436 kN (74,000 lbf – 98,000 lbf)[6]

Specifications[edit]

The PW4000 is produced in three distinct models, with differing LP systems to address different thrust needs.

Variant -94[7] -100[8] -112[9]
Type Two spool high bypass ratio Turbofan
Length 153.6 in (390 cm) 167.2 in (425 cm) 190.4 in (484 cm)
Weight 9,420 lb
4,273 kg
12,900 lb
5,851 kg
15,095–15,741 lb
6,847–7,140 kg
16,260 lb
7,375 kg
Compressor 1 fan, 4 LP, 11 HP 1 fan, 5 LP, 11 HP 1 fan, 6 LP, 11 HP 1 fan, 7 LP, 11 HP
Combustor Annular
Turbine 2 HP, 4 LP 2 HP, 5 LP 2 HP, 7 LP
Thrust 50,000–62,000 lbf
222–276 kN
64,500–70,000 lbf
287–311 kN
77,440–91,790 lbf
344–408 kN
91,790–99,040 lbf
408–441 kN
Variant -94[10] -100[11] -112[12]
Fan 94 in (239 cm) 100 in (254 cm) 112 in (284 cm)
Bypass ratio 4.8-5:1 4.9:1 5.8-6.4:1
Overall pressure ratio 27.5-32.3 32.0-34.1 34.2-42.8
Fan pressure ratio 1.65-1.80 1.75-1.76 1.70-1.80
Applications B747-400, B767, MD-11
A300-600, A310
A330 B777

See also[edit]

Related development

Comparable engines

Related lists

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f "PW4000 derivatives continue to drive engine success story". Flight Daily News. 23 February 2000.
  2. ^ a b "Pratt & Whitney Commemorates 30 Years of PW4000-94 Engine Power" (Press release). Pratt & Whitney. 21 June 2017.
  3. ^ Jeff Schweitzer, Pratt & Whitney (14–17 July 2003). "Propulsion Technology Readiness for Next Generation Transport Systems". AIAA International Air and Space Symposium and Exposition. doi:10.2514/6.2003-2787.
  4. ^ Pratt & Whitney. "PW4000-94". Retrieved 20 July 2019.
  5. ^ Pratt & Whitney. "PW4000-100". Retrieved 20 July 2019.
  6. ^ Pratt & Whitney. "PW4000-112". Retrieved 20 July 2019.
  7. ^ "TCDS E24NE" (PDF). FAA. 23 November 2015.
  8. ^ "TCDS E36NE" (PDF). FAA. 28 May 2014.
  9. ^ "TCDS E46NE" (PDF). FAA. 23 January 2012.
  10. ^ "PW4000 94-inch-fan" (PDF). Pratt & Whitney.
  11. ^ "PW4170 Engine for the A330" (PDF). Pratt & Whitney.
  12. ^ "PW4000 112-inch-fan" (PDF). Pratt & Whitney.

Further reading[edit]