Prostitution in North Korea
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|Human rights in North Korea|
Prostitution in North Korea is illegal and is not visible to visitors. Allegedly, the kippumjo provides sexual entertainment to high-ranking officials. Meanwhile, some North Korean women who migrate to China become involved in prostitution.
Under Article 261 of the Criminal law, prostitution is punishable by up to two years labour if engaged in "multiple times". According to CIA analyst Helen-Louise Hunter, during the rule of Kim Il-sung, there was no organized prostitution, but some prostitution was still practiced discreetly near railroad stations and restaurants. While defectors currently report widespread prostitution, this is not experienced by visitors to the country.
The kippŭmjo is an alleged collection of groups of approximately 2,000 women and girls that is maintained by the head of state of North Korea for the purpose of providing pleasure, mostly of a sexual nature, and entertainment for high-ranking Workers' Party of Korea (WPK) officials and their families, as well as occasionally distinguished guests. Its prostitutes are known as manjokcho (만족조 "satisfaction team(s)") and are organised as a part of the kippŭmjo, who are drafted from among 14- to 20-year-old virgins, trained for about 20 months, and often "ordered to marry guards of [Kim Jong-il] or national heroes" when they are 25 years old. For a girl selected to serve in the kippŭmjo, it is impossible to refuse, even if she is the daughter of a party official. Manjokcho must have sex with male high-ranking party officials. Their services are not available to most North Korean men. Not all kippŭmjo work as prostitutes; other kippŭmjo activities are massaging and half-naked singing and dancing.
North Korea is a source country for women and children who are subjected to sex trafficking. The United States Department of State Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons ranks North Korea as a 'Tier 3' country.
Prostitution of North Koreans in China
Some North Korean women who migrate to China become prostitutes, either voluntarily or forcibly. According to the UN Commission of Inquiry on Human Rights, when the women are repatriated to North Korea, they are subjected to forced abortion and their mixed race children are subject to infanticide.
- Article 261 "The Criminal Law of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea" (PDF). Committee for Human Rights in North Korea. 2009. Retrieved 17 March 2018.
- Kim Il-song's North Korea by Helen-Louise Hunter.Greenwood Publishing Group, 1999, p 107
- Hyams, James (4 February 2015). "Does North Korea have sex trade and drug problem?". The Korea Observer. Retrieved 10 February 2018.
- "Intervention Agenda Item 12: Elimination of Violence Against Women (archived copy)" at the United Nations Commission on Human Rights in April 2004; speaker: Ji Sun JEONG for A Woman's Voice International"Archived copy". Archived from the original on July 23, 2008. Retrieved February 22, 2009."Archived copy". Archived from the original on July 23, 2008. Retrieved February 22, 2009.
- "Democratic People's Republic of Korea 2018 Trafficking in Persons Report". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 26 July 2018.
- Kirby, Michael Donald; Biserko, Sonja; Darusman, Marzuki (7 February 2014). "Report of the detailed findings of the commission of inquiry on human rights in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea - A/HRC/25/CRP.1". United Nations Human Rights Council. Archived from the original on February 27, 2014.
- Kim, Eunyoung, Mirang Park, Hue Williams. "A Case Study of Trafficking in North Korean Women in China". Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology, Nov 13, 2007
- Yoon, Bang-Soon. "Sex-Trafficking and Human Rights of North Korean Women Defectors". Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association 48th Annual Convention, USA, Feb 28, 2007