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Michael Kirby (judge)

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Michael Kirby
Justice of the High Court of Australia
In office
6 February 1996 – 2 February 2009
Nominated byPaul Keating
Appointed byBill Hayden
Preceded bySir William Deane
Succeeded byVirginia Bell
Chancellor of Macquarie University
In office
Preceded byPercy Partridge
Succeeded byTim Besley
Personal details
Michael Donald Kirby

(1939-03-18) 18 March 1939 (age 85)
Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
SpouseJohan van Vloten
Alma materUniversity of Sydney
OccupationArbitrator, Mediator, UN Official

Michael Donald Kirby AC CMG (born 18 March 1939) is an Australian jurist and academic who is a former Justice of the High Court of Australia, serving from 1996 to 2009.[1] He has remained active in retirement; in May 2013 he was appointed by the United Nations Human Rights Council to lead an inquiry into human rights abuses in North Korea, which reported in February 2014.

Early life and education[edit]

Michael Donald Kirby was born on 18 March 1939 at Crown Street Women's Hospital to Donald and Jean Langmore (née Knowles) Kirby. He was the eldest of five siblings, followed by twins Donald William and David Charles (the latter died at 18 months from pneumonia), David, and Diana Margaret.[2] In 1943 his grandmother, Norma Gray, remarried and her second husband was Jack Simpson, National Treasurer of the Australian Communist Party. Although Kirby came to admire Simpson, neither he nor his immediate family embraced the ideology. His father supported the Australian Labor Party but never became a member. His mother, it is believed, voted for Robert Menzies (Liberal Party).

Kirby attended state schools, commencing at North Strathfield Public School, followed by Summer Hill Public School for Opportunity Classes, and then Fort Street High School (then Fort Street Boys High School) in Sydney.[2]

After graduating from high school, Kirby later attended the University of Sydney, where he earned a Bachelor of Arts (1959), Bachelor of Laws (1962), Bachelor of Economics (1965), and Master of Laws (First-Class Honours) (1967). At university, Kirby was elected President of the University of Sydney Students' Representative Council (1962–1963) and President of the University of Sydney Union (1965).[3][4]


Kirby commenced his legal career as an articled clerk for Ramon Burke at the small Sydney firm M. A. Simon and Co., assisting with Compensation Commission cases for plaintiffs. The firm had two principals, Maurice Arthur Simon and Ramon Burke, later a judge of the Compensation Court of New South Wales.[5][6] After graduation, he moved to Hickson, Lakeman and Holcombe (now Hicksons Lawyers) as a solicitor, practising in insurance litigation and property disputes. He was a partner of the firm from 1963 to 1967.[7][8]

Kirby was admitted to the New South Wales Bar in 1967.[9]

Judicial appointment[edit]

Kirby became the youngest man appointed to federal judicial office in 1975, when he was appointed Deputy President of the Australian Conciliation and Arbitration Commission, a tribunal which adjudicated labour disputes.[9] Later in 1984, the Hon Peter Gray took Kirby's mantle as the youngest man appointed to federal judicial office at 38 years old.[10]

In 1983, Kirby was appointed a judge in the Federal Court of Australia, before an appointment as President of the New South Wales Court of Appeal, a superior court in that state's legal system, in 1984. During that period, he was also the President of the Court of Appeal of Solomon Islands from 1995 to 1996.[11]

From 1984 until 1993, Kirby held the position of Chancellor at Macquarie University.[12]

In February 1996, Kirby was appointed to the High Court of Australia.[1] He has served on many other boards and committees, notably the Australian Law Reform Commission (ALRC) and the CSIRO. He is Patron of the Friends of Libraries Australia (FOLA) and many other bodies.

Dissent rate[edit]

Kirby was often at odds with his colleagues in the Gleeson High Court, and sometimes as the sole dissenter.[13][14] In 2004, he delivered a dissenting opinion on nearly 40% of the matters in which he participated, almost twice as many as any of his High Court colleagues; in constitutional cases, his rate of dissent was more than 50%.[15] His notable dissent rate has earned him the nickname the "Great Dissenter".[16] Future High Court Justices who have been considered in contention for the title include Dyson Heydon and Patrick Keane, though neither have dissent rates as high as Kirby's.[17][18]

Legal researchers Andrew Lynch and George Williams observed that "even allowing for 2004 as a year in which Kirby had a particularly high level of explicit disagreement with a majority of his colleagues, it is neither premature nor unfair to say that in the frequency of his dissent, his Honour has long since eclipsed any other Justice in the history of the Court... [Kirby] has broken away to claim a position of outsider on the Court which seems unlikely to pass with future years".[19]

Kirby has responded, stating that "on their own, statistics tell little"; to understand Kirby's rate of dissent, it is necessary to examine what his disagreements have been about and consider whom he has dissented from. Kirby explains "there have always been divisions, reflecting the different philosophies and perspectives of the office-holders", and that throughout the High Court's history, many dissenting opinions have ultimately been adopted as good law.[20] Further, Kirby argues that the rate of dissent, if seen within its context, is relatively small. Cases heard before the full bench of the High Court have proceeded through a series of lower courts and special leave hearings. They are thus likely to test the boundaries of the existing law, and raise opposing, though no less valid, views of the law.[21]

Retirement and post-retirement life[edit]

Kirby retired from the High Court on 2 February 2009, shortly before reaching the constitutionally mandatory retirement age of 70,[22] and was succeeded by Virginia Bell.[23]

After his retirement, Kirby was appointed to several honorary academic roles at Australian universities. These included appointments to: the Australian National University (ANU) in Canberra, as distinguished visiting fellow in February 2009;[24] the University of New South Wales Faculty of Law as visiting professorial fellow in March 2009;[25] the University of Tasmania Faculty of Law as adjunct professor in July 2009; and Victoria University as an adjunct professor. He has been appointed honorary visiting professor by 12 universities.


In November 2003, at the University of Exeter, Kirby delivered the Hamlyn Lectures[26][27] on the subject of judicial activism. Rejecting the doctrine of strict constructionism, Kirby declared that:

Clearly it would be wrong for a judge to set out in pursuit of a personal policy agenda and hang the law. Yet it would also be wrong, and futile, for a judge to pretend that the solutions to all of the complex problems of the law today, unresolved by incontestably clear and applicable texts, can be answered by the application of nothing more than purely verbal reasoning and strict logic to words written by judges in earlier times about the problems they then faced... contrary to myth, judges do more than simply apply law. They have a role in making it and always have.

These lectures sparked a debate in the Australian media, echoing an ongoing debate in the United States, as to whether judges have the right to interpret the law in the light of its intent and considerations of natural law or whether judges should (or can) simply follow the letter of the law, leaving questions of its intent and underlying principles to elected representatives.

Following increasing public scrutiny into, and characterisations of, High Court judgments as 'activist' in the late 1990s, a number of members of the Court agreed to give interviews in the 1998 documentary The Highest Court. Kirby was one of the few members of the Court who did not take part.[28][29] An insight into Kirby's jurisprudence and judicial style can be found in his engagement with Gavin Griffith QC in Kruger v Commonwealth, which is featured in the documentary.[29]

He had also addressed this topic in a 1997 speech to the Bar Association of India, in which he spoke approvingly of "a kind of 'judicial activism' that is often in tune with the deeply felt emotions of ordinary citizens".[30] Nonetheless, Kirby is critical of the term "judicial activism" when it is used as "code language", applied chiefly by conservative commentators to views and to people with which they disagree.[31]

UN Report into North Korean Human Rights Abuses[edit]

The commission of inquiry presided over by Kirby recommended that North Korean leadership be prosecuted for human rights violations.

In May 2013, the United Nations Human Rights Council appointed Kirby to lead a commission of inquiry into human rights abuses in North Korea, with Sonja Biserko and Marzuki Darusman.[32][33] The report is dated 7 February 2014. It identifies "[s]ystematic, widespread and gross human rights violations" by a "totalitarian state", including "unspeakable atrocities" in the political prison camps. It makes many recommendations for internal reform and international action, including prosecution of the North Korean leadership in the International Criminal Court or before an ad hoc international tribunal.[34] North Korea refused all co-operation with the inquiry and, just before the report was launched, issued a statement claiming that it was based upon "faked" material.[35]

As the report was being finalised, on 20 January 2014 Kirby wrote to North Korea's Supreme Leader, Kim Jong-un, informing him that he would be advising the United Nations to formally refer the situation in North Korea to the International Criminal Court, where Kim could be tried for his personal culpability as head of state and leader of the military, but proposing that the commission come to Pyongyang to discuss the issues with the North Korean government.[36][37] At a press conference to launch the report, on 17 February 2014, Kirby said that there were "many parallels" between the evidence he had heard and crimes committed by the Nazis and their allies in the Second World War.[38] On 22 April 2014 the official news agency of North Korea, KCNA, claimed that the "fabrications" are meant to "undermine the ideology and social system of the DPRK".[39] The KCNA also criticised Kirby for being gay: "it is ridiculous for such gay [sic] to sponsor dealing with others' human rights issue".[40][41]

Kirby remained involved in advocacy on issues of human rights in North Korea and the abduction of Japanese citizens, participating in symposia organised by the Japanese government in Geneva (September 2014) with a UN Human Rights Council Panel and in Tokyo (December 2015).[42] In May 2017,[43] he was awarded the Order of the Rising Sun, Gold and Silver Star, "in recognition of his contribution to promoting understanding of the situation of Human Rights in North Korea in the international society including the issue of the abductions of Japanese nationals".[42] The honour was presented by Japanese Prime Minister Shinzō Abe and Kirby received the additional honour of an audience with Akihito, the Emperor of Japan, at the Imperial Palace in Tokyo.[44] Kirby described the awarding of the honour to himself and former United Nations special rapporteur Marzuki Darusman[45] as "a clear signal that the Japanese Government has not abandoned its determination to pursue the crime against humanity involved in the abductions in the international community and other crimes revealed in our report."[44]

In January 2015, one of the key witnesses to Kirby's inquiry, Shin Dong Hyuk, admitted that he had given false testimony. Having sworn that he had spent his childhood entirely in the notorious Camp 14, he changed his story to say that he had been transferred at the age of six to the nearby Camp 18.[46] He said that he had changed his story after seeing his father (whom he had thought to be dead) on television. Shin apologised but gave few details.[47]

Public life[edit]

Michael Kirby was among the founders[48] of Australians for Constitutional Monarchy, an organisation which played a prominent part in the 1999 republic referendum.

Kirby has a reputation as an eloquent and powerful orator, having given a vast number of speeches over his career on a diverse range of topics.[49]

The annual Michael Kirby Lecture and Dinner has been conducted by the Faculty of Law and Justice, Southern Cross University, since 2007.[50]

Kirby is a fellow of the Hastings Center, an independent bioethics research institution in the United States. In 2006, he was elected an Honorary Bencher of the Inner Temple in London. In the same year, the Australian Academy of the Humanities elected him an Honorary Fellow.[51]

In July 2009, Kirby accepted a position as adjunct professor in law at the University of Tasmania Faculty of Law. He is also the (founding) Chairman of the Editorial Board of the Journal of Law, Information & Science, which is published by that faculty; a position he has held since 1981.[52]

Since 2010, Kirby has been one of the 11 members of the Eminent Persons Group set up to advise on reform of the Commonwealth of Nations.[53]

In 2011, Kirby, suggested that "There is nothing so powerful in the world as an idea whose time has come, and animal protection is just such an idea", becoming a patron of Voiceless, an animal protection institute.[54]

Kirby is an avid supporter of the arts. He has appeared in the University of Queensland Law Revue twice since 2004. In May 2007, he appeared in Melbourne alongside hip-hop impresario Elf Tranzporter at the launch of Victorian Arts Law Week, performing a rap of W. B. Yeats's poetry.[55][56] In August 2014 he featured in the Sydney Law Revue's finale performance, performing a dancing and singing number to Christina Aguilera's "Dirrty", retitled 'Kirby'.[citation needed]

Personal life[edit]

Kirby has been openly gay since around 1984. He has lived since 1969 with Johan van Vloten, who migrated to Australia from the Netherlands in 1963, and in 1999 Kirby listed him as his long-term partner in Who's Who in Australia. Van Vloten helped people living with HIV and Kirby became involved in the issue both within Australia and internationally.[57] Kirby has often spoken publicly in support of gay rights.[58] While President of the International Commission of Jurists he encouraged that organisation to give more consideration to human sexuality as an aspect of human rights,[59] and as an Anglican he has expressed disappointment at his church's stance on gay rights.[60] In 2002, at the Sydney Gay Games VI, Kirby was the keynote speaker at the opening ceremony. "The movement for equality is unstoppable. Its message will eventually reach the four corners of the world," he told a crowd of 35,000.[61][62] In 2006, he attended the International Conference on LGBT Human Rights in Montreal, presiding over the Asia-Pacific Plenary.

Kirby is religious, describing himself as a "Protestant Anglican Christian" and criticising clerical opposition to homosexuality: "I don't want any old gent in frocks to take my religion from me and to me it is still an important aspect of my life".[63] In November 2007, he accused the Anglican and Catholic archbishops of Sydney, Peter Jensen and George Pell respectively, of hindering the acceptance of gay people in Australian society, stating that homophobia was "reinforced even to this day by religious instruction, and it has to be said, religious instruction from the two archbishops of Sydney".[64] Kirby also expressed disappointment in his "minority of one" status among his High Court of Australia colleagues, and conceded that "some of the justices perhaps have less liberal views than I have".[64]

Kirby was selected by readers of samesame.com.au as one of the 25 most influential gay or lesbian Australians in every year that this list was published, from 2007 to 2010.[65][66]

Kirby and van Vloten married on 11 February 2019, the 50th anniversary of their first meeting.[67][68]


Kirby's father, Donald, was the only child of Alma Caroline (Norma) Grey, a single working mother of English—Irish descent. Norma became pregnant at 15 with Donald Kirby[2] while in a relationship with a then-17-year-old Victor Kirby, a Catholic who had arrived after the Great Famine. Norma's parents were John Emmanuel Gray, an English brick- and boiler- maker and Annie Lyons. Annie's father, Harry Lyons, had emigrated from Dublin to Sydney in the 1850s, following the Great Famine and her mother's name was Mary.

His mother, Jean Langmore Knowles, was born in Berwick, Victoria to William Knowles, an Ulster Scot from Ballymena, and Margaret, as one of four daughters.[2] Jean was a graduate of Sydney Girls High School, obtaining a Leaving Certificate, a rarity for a woman at that time, and worked in numerous paid jobs by virtue of her own successes and ability.[2] Donald Kirby, aged 16, and Jean Knowles first met at Saint Martin's Anglican Church, Kensington. Donald attended Sydney Technical School in Ultimo, and afterwards worked as a general assistant, then tool and machinery salesman, at a hardware firm.[2] The two became engaged on Jean's 21st birthday and were married in March 1937, a month after Donald turned 21; their first home was in Bloomfield Street, South Coogee.[2]

Michael Kirby's brothers have also been lawyers: David was a judge of the Supreme Court of New South Wales, retiring in 2011; Donald was a solicitor until retiring in 2006.[69] Sister Diana was a nurse in the Colorectal Unit of the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital in Sydney, retiring in 2011.[70]

Recognition, honours, and awards[edit]

As a Supreme Court and High Court Justice, Kirby is styled "The Honourable" for life, according to Australian protocol.[citation needed]

Australian national honours[edit]

Other honours and awards[edit]

Honorary degrees[edit]


  1. ^ a b "Hon Michael Kirby AC CMG". ALRC. Retrieved 9 October 2020.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Brown, A.J. (2011). Michael Kirby: Paradoxes and Principles. Leichhardt: Federation Press. ISBN 978-1862876507.
  3. ^ Biography: Hon. Justice Michael Kirby AC CMG
  4. ^ Punjabi, Ruchir (28 February 2009). "Transcript of Michael Kirby's talk". The University of Sydney.
  5. ^ Kirby, Michael (1999). "Lessons as a Solicitor". Law Society of New South Wales Journal.
  6. ^ Kirby, Michael. "Ten Parables for Freshly-Minted Lawyers". The University of Western Australia Blackstone Law Society.
  7. ^ Kirby, Michael. "Law firms and justice in Australia". High Court of Australia. Retrieved 5 May 2019.
  8. ^ Kirby, Michael. "Memories of Hicksons". High Court of Australia. Retrieved 5 May 2019.
  9. ^ a b "Biography: Hon. Justice Michael Kirby AC CMG". High Court of Australia.
  10. ^ "Ceremonial Sitting to Farewell Justice Peter Gray". 14 June 2013. Archived from the original on 9 April 2017.
  11. ^ Susan Boyd (2003), "Australian judges at work internationally", Australian Law Journal, vol. 77, p. 303 at 305.
  12. ^ High Court Bibliography Archived 18 September 2006 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 22 January 2010.
  13. ^ Dick, Tim (16 February 2007). "Kirby swims against tide as other judges go with flow". The Sydney Morning Herald. Fairfax Media.
  14. ^ Shanahan, Leo; Jackson, Andra (3 February 2009). "Kirby's last dissent: my fellow judges racially biased". The Age. Fairfax Media.
  15. ^ Merritt, Chris (16 February 2007). "It's unanimous: Kirby still the great dissenter". The Australian.
  16. ^ "Kirby set to retire". Herald Sun. 1 February 2009.
  17. ^ Byrne, Elizabeth (5 March 2013). "Justice Keane completes the new-look High Court". The Drum. ABC.
  18. ^ "Justice Heydon triples his dissent rate for 2011". Legal Research. TimeBase. 12 August 2011.
  19. ^ "News | Gilbert + Tobin Centre of Public Law". www.gtcentre.unsw.edu.au. Retrieved 12 April 2019.
  20. ^ Michael Kirby (26 February 2005). Judicial Dissent (Speech). James Cook University. Archived from the original on 18 September 2006. Retrieved 14 October 2006.
  21. ^ "Bold Enough: Justice Michael Kirby". Sunday Profile. 2 December 2007.
  22. ^ Constitution of Australia, section 72.
  23. ^ High Court gets fourth woman. Retrieved 15 December 2008.
  24. ^ Australian Associated Press (9 February 2009). "Kirby takes on new job at ANU law school". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 9 February 2009.
  25. ^ news@unsw Michael Kirby joins UNSW | UNSW Newsroom
  26. ^ Michael Kirby (19 November 2003). First Hamlyn Lecture 2003 – "Judicial Activism" – Authority, Principle and Policy in the Judicial Method (Speech). University of Exeter. Archived from the original on 18 September 2006. Retrieved 14 October 2006.
  27. ^ Michael Kirby (20 November 2003). Second Hamlyn Lecture 2003 – "Judicial Activism" – Authority, Principle and Policy in the Judicial Method (Speech). University of Exeter. Archived from the original on 18 September 2006. Retrieved 14 October 2006.
  28. ^ "The Highest Court". Film Art Media. Retrieved 23 April 2021.
  29. ^ a b The Highest Court (1998) - Documentary on the High Court of Australia, retrieved 23 April 2021
  30. ^ Michael Kirby (6 January 1997). Bar Association of India Lecture 1997 – Judicial Activism (Speech). New Delhi Hilton Hotel. Archived from the original on 18 September 2006. Retrieved 14 October 2006.
  31. ^ "The Great Dissenter: Justice Michael Kirby". Sunday Profile. 25 November 2007. Archived from the original on 28 November 2007. Retrieved 2 December 2007.
  32. ^ Council President appoints Members of Commission of Inquiry on the Democratic People’s Republic in Korea Retrieved 8 May 2013
  33. ^ "UN appoints Kirby to head inquiry into human rights abuses in North Korea". Sydney Morning Herald. 9 May 2013. Retrieved 9 May 2013.
  34. ^ "Report of the Commission of Inquiry on Human Rights in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea". United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. 7 February 2014. Retrieved 20 February 2014.
  35. ^ "North Korea says UN report based on 'faked' material". Sydney Morning Herald. 18 February 2014. Retrieved 20 February 2014.
  36. ^ Walker, Peter (18 February 2014). "UN panel accuses North Korea of human rights abuses resembling Nazis". The Guardian. Retrieved 18 February 2014. The letter is appended to the report; there was no reply.
  37. ^ UN inquiry chairman's letter to Kim Jong-un on North Korean rights abuses
  38. ^ Nebehay, Stephanie (18 February 2014). "North Korea crimes evoke Nazi era, UN inquiry finds". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 18 February 2014.
  39. ^ "KCNA Commentary Slams Artifice by Political Swindlers". Korean Central News Agency. 22 April 2014. Archived from the original on 29 July 2014.
  40. ^ Taylor, Adam (22 April 2014). "North Korea slams U.N. human rights report because it was led by gay man". Washington Post. Retrieved 23 April 2014.
  41. ^ "KCNA Commentary Slams Artifice by Political Swindlers". kcna.co.jp. the Korean Central News Agency (KCNA). 22 April 2014. Archived from the original on 29 July 2014. Retrieved 17 August 2015.
  42. ^ a b c "The Hon. Mr. Michael Kirby AC CMG – The Order of the Rising Sun, Gold and Silver Star" (PDF). Consulate-General of Japan in Sydney.
  43. ^ "Reception in honour of the Hon. Michael Kirby AC CMG" (PDF). The Consulate-General of Japan in Sydney's Quarterly Newsletter. 52 (2): 3. October 2017.
  44. ^ a b c Kirby, Michael (July 2017). "2017 Spring Imperial Decorations: the Hon. Michael Kirby AC CMG" (PDF). The Consulate-General of Japan in Sydney's Quarterly Newsletter. 52 (1): 2.
  45. ^ a b Hurst, Daniel (21 May 2017). "Finding Megumi: Michael Kirby calls for 'peaceful initiatives' on North Korea". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 12 February 2017.
  46. ^ Mundy, Simon (19 January 2015). "North Korea defector admits falsehoods in prison camp story". Financial Times. Retrieved 15 August 2023.
  47. ^ "North Korean defector changes story after seeing father in video". The Guardian. Reuters. 19 January 2015. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 12 April 2019.
  48. ^ Michael Kirby (27 May 2006). Recollections of Sir Harry Gibbs (PDF) (Speech). Canberra. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 September 2006. Retrieved 14 October 2006.
  49. ^ High Court of Australia – Publications – Speeches
  50. ^ "School of Law and Justice Annual Michael Kirby Lecture Series" < http://scu.edu.au/law-justice/index.php/57 >
  51. ^ "Fellows". Australian Academy of the Humanities. Retrieved 6 October 2020.
  52. ^ See "Contributions to the JLIS by Hon. Prof Michael Krby AC CMG." < http://www.jlisjournal.org/briefs/kirbypapers.html >
  53. ^ Commonwealth (of Nations) Secretariat (2011). "Who's in the EPG?". Archived from the original on 22 May 2013. Retrieved 28 October 2011.
  54. ^ "Voiceless, the animal protection institute".
  55. ^ Nguyen, Kenneth (8 May 2007). "'Judge Jerry' gives artists the word". The Age. Fairfax Media.
  56. ^ "Performances: Top judge beats rap". The Sydney Morning Herald. Fairfax Media. 8 May 2007. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016.
  57. ^ "The Pettifogger Issue 3 2017". The Pettifogger. Hobart, Tasmania, Australia: The University of Tasmania Law Society. 26 May 2017.
  58. ^ Australian Broadcasting Corporation News (19 August 2006). "Kirby calls for united effort on gay rights". Archived from the original on 23 August 2006. Retrieved 14 October 2006.
  59. ^ Michael Kirby (4 March 2004). "Leadership" (Interview). Interviewed by Michele Boyle. Canberra. Archived from the original on 20 August 2006.
  60. ^ Michael Kirby (16 November 2003). "Michael Kirby". Sunday Profile (Interview). Interviewed by Monica Attard. Canberra. Archived from the original on 20 August 2006.
  61. ^ Margo Kingston (5 November 2002). "Kirby Courage". Archived from the original on 18 December 2007. Retrieved 17 February 2009.
  62. ^ Andrew West (10 November 2002). "Thanks for having us Sydney, say gays". The Sydney Morning Herald. Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 17 February 2009.
  63. ^ Leach, Anna (15 June 2012). "High Court judge Michael Kirby talks about religion and sexuality". Gay Star News.
  64. ^ a b Pritchard, Gemma (27 November 2007). "Archbishops fuel homophobia says gay judge". Pink News.
  65. ^ "Samesame 25". samesame. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 22 November 2014.
  66. ^ "Samesame 25". samesame. Archived from the original on 2 April 2011. Retrieved 31 March 2011.
  67. ^ Bellinda Kontominas (11 February 2019). "Michael Kirby marries partner Johan van Vloten on 50th anniversary of first meeting". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 11 February 2019.
  68. ^ Pitt, Helen (11 February 2019). "Justice Michael Kirby weds 50 years after that summer of '69". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 12 February 2019.
  69. ^ A. J. Brown (18 November 2011). "Extraordinary impacts of a family man's 'ordinary' life". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 12 February 2013.
  70. ^ Michael Kirby (2 February 2009). "Judicial Farewell: The Hon. Justice Michael Kirby AC CMG, Justice of the High Court of Australia" (PDF). Michael Kirby. Retrieved 12 February 2013.
  71. ^ Companion of the Order of Australia, CMG, 26 January 1991, itsanhonour.gov.au
  72. ^ Companion of the Order of St Michael and St George, CMG, 31 December 1982, itsanhonour.gov.au
  73. ^ Centenary Medal, 1 January 2001, itsanhonour.gov.au
    Citation: For service to law reform and as a Justice of the High Court of Australia
  74. ^ "Hon. Justice Michael Kirby AC, CMG". Australian Human Rights Commission. 24 November 1991. Retrieved 3 April 2024.
  75. ^ "1991 Human Rights Medal and Awards Winners". Australian Human Rights Commission. 24 November 1991. Retrieved 3 April 2024.
  76. ^ Media Release: Justice Michael Kirby wins inaugural Australian Privacy Medal. Retrieved 9 February 2009.
  77. ^ "Media Release". Landcare Australia. 22 October 2021. Retrieved 3 April 2024.
  78. ^ "Launch of exciting new Law School". Macquarie University. 15 November 2017. Retrieved 15 November 2017.
  79. ^ Australian National University, Michael Donald Kirby, Citation for an Honorary Degree Archived 21 July 2008 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 9 February 2009.
  80. ^ AAP (2008). Kirby urges lawyers to think globally. Retrieved 10 September 2008.
  81. ^ Monash News (2015). Honorary Doctorate to former High Court Judge. Retrieved 27 May 2015.
  82. ^ USQ (2017) Graduations continue with inspiring talks

External links[edit]

External videos
video icon Michael Kirby calls for freedom from religion, Matter Of Fact With Stan Grant, ABC News
Legal offices
New title Chairman of the Australian Law Reform Commission
Succeeded by
Preceded by Judge of the Federal Court of Australia
Succeeded by
Preceded by President of the New South Wales Court of Appeal
Succeeded by
Preceded by Puisne Justice of the High Court of Australia
Succeeded by
Academic offices
Preceded by
Percy Partridge
Chancellor of Macquarie University
Succeeded by