|A sketch of Kim Jong-un|
|3rd Supreme leader of North Korea|
17 December 2011
|Preceded by||Kim Jong-il|
|First Secretary of the Workers' Party of Korea|
11 April 2012
|Preceded by||Kim Jong-il (general secretary)|
|Chairman of the National Defence Commission|
13 April 2012
|Preceded by||Kim Jong-il (Chairman)|
|Supreme Commander of the Korean People's Army|
30 December 2011
|Preceded by||Kim Jong-il|
|Chairman of the Central Military Commission|
11 April 2012
Acting: 17 December 2011 – 11 April 2012
|Preceded by||Kim Jong-il|
|Deputy to the
13th Supreme People's Assembly
9 April 2014 – present
|Vice Chairman of the Central Military Commission|
28 September 2010 – 11 April 2012
Serving with Ri Yong-ho
|Preceded by||Position established|
|Succeeded by||Choe Ryong-hae
|Born||8 January 1983 (age 32)
Pyongyang, Democratic People's Republic of Korea
|Political party||Workers' Party of Korea|
|Alma mater||Kim Il-sung University
Kim Il-sung Military University
HELP University (honorary)
|Years of service||2010–present|
|Rank||Marshal of the Republic[a]|
|Revised Romanization||Gim Jeong(-)eun|
Kim Jong-un (Korean pronunciation: [ɡ̊imd͜zɔŋɯn]; born 8 January 1983; also romanized as Kim Jong-eun, Kim Jong Un or Kim Jung-eun) is the supreme leader of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea). He is the son of Kim Jong-il (1941–2011) and the grandson of Kim Il-sung (1912–1994). He has held the titles of the First Secretary of the Workers' Party of Korea, the Chairman of the Central Military Commission, Chairman of the National Defence Commission, the Supreme Commander of the Korean People's Army, and presidium member of the Politburo of the Workers' Party of Korea. He was officially declared the supreme leader following the state funeral of his father on 28 December 2011. He is the third and youngest son of Kim Jong-il and his consort Ko Yong-hui.
From late 2010, Kim Jong-un was viewed as heir apparent to the leadership of the nation, and following his father's death, he was announced as the "Great Successor" by North Korean state television. At Kim Jong-il's memorial service, North Korean Chairman of the Supreme People's Assembly Kim Yong-nam declared that "Respected Comrade Kim Jong-un is our party, military and country's supreme leader who inherits great comrade Kim Jong-il's ideology, leadership, character, virtues, grit and courage". On 30 December 2011, the Politburo of the Workers' Party of Korea formally appointed Kim as the Supreme Commander of the Korean People's Army. In April 2012, the 4th Party Conference elected him to the newly created post of First Secretary of the Workers' Party of Korea.
He was promoted to the rank of marshal of the DPRK in the Korean People's Army on 18 July 2012, consolidating his position as the supreme commander of the armed forces and is often referred to as Marshal Kim Jong-un or "the Marshal" by state media. He obtained two degrees, one in physics at Kim Il-sung University and another as an Army officer at the Kim Il-sung Military University. On 9 March 2014 Kim Jong-un was elected unopposed to the Supreme People's Assembly. At 32 years of age, he is the first North Korean leader born after the country's founding and the world's youngest head of state.
- 1 Name
- 2 Early life and education
- 3 Succession
- 4 Ruler of North Korea
- 5 Personality
- 6 Health
- 7 Human rights violations
- 8 Family
- 9 See also
- 10 Notes
- 11 References
- 12 External links
Kim was formerly known as Kim Jong-woon or Kim Jung-woon. His name was first reported as 김정운 (Hanja: 金正雲; lit. righteous cloud), possibly as a result of an error in transliteration; the Japanese language does not distinguish between 운 (/un/) and 은 (/ɯn/). The initial source of his name was Kim Jong-il's former personal chef, known by the pen name Kenji Fujimoto, who was among the few who had access to information about Kim's household from inside the government. Chinese media had named him as 김정은 (Hanja: 金正恩; lit. righteous grace).
In December 2014, South Korea’s KBS TV revealed that they had obtained an official "administrative order" originally circulated by Kim Jong-il in January 2011 mandating that anyone sharing Kim Jong-un's name needed to formally change their name. Similar edicts were issued regarding the names of the regime's previous leaders when they were coming to power. The 2011 document states, "All party organs and public security authorities should make a list of residents named Kim Jong-un ... and train them to voluntarily change their names."
Early life and education
No official comprehensive biography on Kim Jong-un has yet been released. Therefore, the only known information on his early life comes from defectors and people who have claimed to witness him abroad, such as during his school attendance in Switzerland. Some of the information has been conflicting and contradictory, perhaps conflating him with his brother Kim Jong-chul, who was also attending school in Switzerland around the same period. Nevertheless, there has been some consensus on information about his early life. North Korean authorities have stated that his birthdate is 8 January 1982, but South Korean intelligence officials believe the actual date is a year later. Dennis Rodman said that the birthdate is 8 January 1983 after meeting Kim in September 2013. Kim Jong-Un was the second of three children Ko Yong-hui borne to Kim Jong-il; his elder brother Kim Jong-chul was born in 1981, while his younger sister, Kim Yo-jong, is believed to have been born in 1987.
According to reports first published in Japanese newspapers, he went to school in Switzerland near Bern. First reports claimed he attended the private English-language International School in Gümligen near Bern under the name "Chol-pak" or "Pak-chol" from 1993 until 1998. He was described as shy, a good student who got along well with his classmates and was a basketball fan. He was chaperoned by an older student, who was thought to be his bodyguard.
Later, it was reported that Kim Jong-un attended the Liebefeld Steinhölzli school in Köniz near Bern under the name "Pak-un" or "Un-pak" from 1998 until 2000 as the son of an employee of the Embassy of North Korea. Authorities of Köniz confirmed that a student from North Korea, registered as the son of a member of the Embassy, attended the school from August 1998 until the autumn of 2000, but were unable to give details about his identity. Pak-un first attended a special class for foreign-language children and later attended the regular classes of the 6th, 7th, 8th, and part of the final 9th year, leaving the school abruptly in the autumn of 2000. He was described as a well-integrated and ambitious student who liked to play basketball. However, his grades and attendance rating are reported to have been poor. The ambassador of North Korea in Switzerland, Ri Tcheul, had a close relationship with him and acted as a mentor. One of Pak-un's classmates told reporters that he had told him that he was the son of the leader of North Korea. According to some reports, Jong-un was described by classmates as a shy child who was awkward with girls and indifferent to political issues but who distinguished himself in sports, and had a fascination with the American National Basketball Association and Michael Jordan. One friend claimed that he had been shown pictures of Pak-un with Kobe Bryant and Toni Kukoč.
In April 2012, new documents came to light indicating that Kim Jong-un had lived in Switzerland since 1991 or 1992, earlier than previously thought.
The Laboratory of Anatomic Anthropology at the University of Lyon, France, after comparing the picture of the boy Pak-un taken at the Liebefeld Steinhölzli school in 1999 with a picture of Kim Jong-un from 2012 came to the conclusion that the two faces show a conformity of 95%. The head of the institute, Raoul Perrot, a forensic anthropologist, considers it most likely that the two pictures show the same person.
It is believed that the student at the Gümligen International School was not Kim Jong-un but his elder brother Kim Jong-chol. It is not known whether the student known as Pak-un in Liebefeld Steinhölzli lived in Switzerland prior to 1998. All the children of Kim Jong-il are said to have lived in Switzerland, as well as the mother of the two youngest sons, who lived in Geneva for some time. The Kim clan is also said to organize family meetings in Switzerland at Lake Geneva and Interlaken.
For many years, only one confirmed photograph of him was known outside North Korea, apparently taken in the mid-1990s, when he was eleven. Occasional other supposed images of him surfaced but were often disputed. It was only in June 2010, shortly before he was given official posts and publicly introduced to the North Korean people, that more pictures were released of Kim, taken when he was attending school in Switzerland. The first official image of him as an adult was a group photograph released on 30 September 2010, at the end of the party conference that effectively anointed him, in which he is seated in the front row, two places from his father. This was followed by newsreel footage of him attending the conference.
Pre-2010 Party Conference speculation
His eldest half-brother, Kim Jong-nam, had been the favorite to succeed, but reportedly fell out of favor after 2001, when he was caught attempting to enter Japan on a fake passport to visit Tokyo Disneyland.
Kim Jong-il's former personal chef, Kenji Fujimoto, revealed details regarding Kim Jong-un, with whom he had a good relationship, stating that he was favored to be his father's successor. Fujimoto also claimed that Jong-un was favored by his father over his elder brother, Kim Jong-chul, reasoning that Jong-chul is too feminine in character, while Jong-un is "exactly like his father". Furthermore, Fujimoto stated that "If power is to be handed over then Jong-un is the best for it. He has superb physical gifts, is a big drinker and never admits defeat." Also, according to Fujimoto, Jong-un smokes Yves Saint Laurent cigarettes, loves Johnnie Walker whisky and has a Mercedes-Benz 600 Sedan. When Jong-un was 18, Fujimoto described an episode where Jong-un once questioned his lavish lifestyle and asked, "We are here, playing basketball, riding horses, riding Jet Skis, having fun together. But what of the lives of the average people?" On 15 January 2009 the South Korean news agency Yonhap reported that Kim Jong-il had appointed Kim Jong-un to be his successor.
On 8 March 2009, the BBC reported rumors that Kim Jong-un was on the ballot for elections to the Supreme People's Assembly, the rubber stamp parliament of North Korea. Subsequent reports indicate that his name did not appear on the list of lawmakers, but he was later elevated to a mid-level position in the National Defense Commission, which is a branch of the North Korean military. Reports have also suggested that he is a diabetic and suffers from hypertension.
From 2009, it was understood by foreign diplomatic services that Kim was to succeed his father Kim Jong-il as the head of the Korean Workers' Party and de facto leader of North Korea. He has been named "Yŏngmyŏng-han Tongji" (영명한 동지), which loosely translates to "Brilliant Comrade". His father had also asked embassy staff abroad to pledge loyalty to his son. There have also been reports that citizens in North Korea were encouraged to sing a newly composed "song of praise" to Kim Jong-un, in a similar fashion to that of praise songs relating to Kim Jong-il and Kim Il-sung. Later, in June, Kim was reported to have visited China secretly to "present himself" to the Chinese leadership, who later warned against North Korea conducting another nuclear test. The Chinese Foreign Ministry has strongly denied that this visit occurred.
North Korea was later reported to have backed the succession plan, after Kim Jong-il suspended a propaganda campaign to promote his youngest son. His birthday has since become a national holiday, celebrated on 8 January, according to a report by a South Korean website. He was expected to be named on 28 September 2010 as successor to his father as leader of North Korea.
Former U.S. president Jimmy Carter visited China in early September 2010, and discussed the issue of the North Korean leadership succession with Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao. According to Carter, Kim Jong-il had said to Wen that Kim Jong-un's prospective promotion to paramount leader of North Korea was "a false rumor from the West".
Vice Chairman of the Central Military Commission
Kim Jong-un was made a daejang, the equivalent of general in the United States, on 27 September 2010, a day ahead of a rare Workers' Party of Korea conference in Pyongyang, the first time North Korean media had mentioned him by name and despite his having no previous military experience. Despite the promotion, no further details, including verifiable portraits of Kim, were released. On 28 September 2010, he was named vice chairman of the Central Military Commission and appointed to the Central Committee of the Workers' Party, in an apparent nod to become the successor to Kim Jong-il.
On 10 October 2010, alongside his father, Kim Jong-un attended the ruling Workers' Party's 65th anniversary celebration. This was seen as fully confirming his position as the next leader of the Workers' Party. Unprecedented international press access was granted to the event, further indicating the importance of Kim Jong-un's presence. In January 2011, the regime began purging around 200 protégés of both Jong-un's uncle-in-law Jang Sung-taek and O Kuk-ryol, the vice chairman of the National Defence Commission of North Korea, by either detention or execution to further prevent either man from rivaling Jong-un. In the following months, Kim Jong-un was given more and more prominence as he accompanied Kim Jong-il during several "guidance tours" and received gifts from foreign delegations and personages, an honor traditionally awarded only to the living supreme leader.
Ruler of North Korea
On 17 December 2011, Kim Jong-il died. Despite the elder Kim's plans, it was not immediately clear after his death whether Jong-un would in fact take full power, and what his exact role in a new government would be. Some analysts had predicted that when Kim Jong-il died, Jang Sung-taek would act as regent, as Jong-un was too inexperienced to immediately lead the country. On 25 December 2011, North Korean television showed Jang Sung-taek in the uniform of a general in a sign of his growing sway after the death of Kim Jong-il. A Seoul official familiar with North Korea affairs said it was the first time Jang has been shown on state television in a military uniform. His appearance suggested that Jang had secured a key role in the North's powerful military, which pledged its allegiance to Kim Jong-un.
North Korea's cult of personality around Kim Jong-un was stepped up following his father's death. He was hailed as the "great successor to the revolutionary cause of Juche", "outstanding leader of the party, army and people" and "respected comrade who is identical to Supreme Commander Kim Jong-il", and was made chairman of the Kim Jong-il funeral committee. The Korean Central News Agency described Kim Jong-un as "a great person born of heaven", a propaganda term only his father and grandfather had enjoyed, while the ruling Workers' Party said in an editorial: "We vow with bleeding tears to call Kim Jong-un our supreme commander, our leader."
He was publicly declared Supreme Commander of the Korean People's Army on 24 December 2011 and formally appointed to the position on 30 December when the Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Workers' Party "courteously proclaimed that the dear respected Kim Jong Un, vice-chairman of the Central Military Commission of the WPK, assumed the supreme commandership of the Korean People's Army".
On 26 December 2011, the leading North Korean newspaper Rodong Sinmun announced that Kim Jong-un had been acting as chairman of the Central Military Commission, and supreme leader of the country, following his father's demise.
Assuming official titles
On 27 March 2012, Kim was elected to the Fourth Conference of the Workers' Party of Korea, that elected him first secretary, a newly made position, on 11 April. This position replaced the post of general secretary, which was awarded "eternally" to Kim Jong-il. At the conference, Kim Jong-un also took his father's seats as Politburo Presidium member and Chairman of the Central Military Commission. In a speech made prior to the Conference, Kim Jong-un declared that "Imbuing the whole society with Kimilsungism-Kimjongilism is the highest programme of our Party". On 13 April 2012, the 5th Session of the 12th Supreme People's Assembly appointed Kim Jong-un Chairman of the National Defence Commission.
On 15 April 2012, during a military parade to commemorate Kim Il-sung's centenary, Kim Jong-un made his first public speech. That speech became the basis of "Onwards Toward the Final Victory", a repeatedly aired propaganda hymn dedicated to him.
In July 2012, Kim Jong-un was promoted to wonsu, the highest active rank in the military. The decision was jointly issued on by the Central Committee and the Central Military Commission of the Workers' Party of Korea, the National Defence Commission, and the Presidium of the Supreme People's Assembly, the Korean Central News Agency subsequently announced. By this promotion, he is one of only two wonsu holders now alive in North Korea. The other is Lee Ul-sol, who received the rank in 1995. The only higher rank is Dae Wonsu (roughly translated as Grand Marshal or Generalissimo) which was held by Kim's grandfather, Kim Il-sung, and which was awarded posthumously to his father, Kim Jong-il, in February 2012. The promotion confirmed Kim's role as top leader of the North Korean military and came days after the replacement of Chief of General Staff Ri Yong-ho by Hyon Yong-chol.
During a 26 July 2012 performance marking the 59th anniversary of the armistice of the Korean War, security around Kim reportedly increased dramatically because Kim "is extremely nervous about the possibility of an emergency developing inside North Korea" caused by "mounting opposition to his efforts to rein in the military".
In November 2012, satellite photos revealed a half-kilometer-long propaganda message carved into a hillside in Ryanggang Province, reading, "Long Live General Kim Jong-un, the Shining Sun!". The message, located next to an artificial lake built in 2007 to serve a hydroelectric station, is made of Korean syllable blocks measuring 15 by 20 meters, and is located approximately 9 kilometers south of Hyesan near the border with China.
Kim Jong-il's personal chef Kenji Fujimoto stated, "Stores in Pyongyang were brimming with products and people in the streets looked cheerful. North Korea has changed a lot since Kim Jong-un assumed power. All of this is because of leader Kim Jong-un."
Officially, Kim Jong-un is part of a triumvirate heading the executive branch of the North Korean government along with Premier Pak Pong-ju and parliament chairman Kim Yong-nam (no relation). Each nominally holds powers equivalent to a third of a president's powers in most other presidential systems. Kim Jong-un commands the armed forces, Pak Pong-ju heads the government, and Kim Yong-nam handles foreign relations. Nevertheless, it is generally understood that Kim Jong-un, like his father and grandfather before him, exercises absolute control over the government and the country.
On 30 November 2012, Kim met with Li Jianguo, who "briefed Kim on the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China", according to the KCNA news agency. A letter from Xi Jinping was hand-delivered during the discussion.
In 2013, Kim re-established his grandfather's style when he made his first New Year's address, a break from the approach of his father. Kim Jong-il never made televised addresses during his 17 years in power. In lieu of delivering a speech, Kim Jong-il contributed to and approved a New Year's Day editorial, jointly published by Rodong Sinmun (the daily newspaper of the Korean Workers' Party), Joson Inmingun (the newspaper of the Korean People's Army), and Chongnyon Jonwi (the newspaper of the Kim Il-sung Socialist Youth League). At the extraordinary meeting with his top defense and security officials on 26 January 2013, Kim issued orders on preparations for a new nuclear test and introduced martial law in North Korea effective from 29 January.
In May 2014, following the collapse of an apartment building in Pyongyang, Kim Jong-un was said to be very upset at the loss of life that resulted. A statement issued by the country's official news agency the Korean Central News Agency used the rare expression "profound consolation and apology". An unnamed government official was quoted by the BBC as saying Kim Jong-un had "sat up all night, feeling painful". While the height of the building and the number of casualties was not released, media reports described it is a 23-story building and indicated hundreds of people may have died in the collapse.
On 9 March 2014, Kim Jong-un was elected to the Supreme People's Assembly. He was unopposed, but voters had the choice of voting yes or no. There was a record turnout of voters, and according to government officials, all voted yes. The election was significant as it was the first time Kim Jong-un had faced a popular election since inheriting power following the death of his father in 2011. The Supreme People's Assembly subsequently elected him chairman of the National Defense Commission.
In August 2012, Kim Jong-un announced economics reforms similar to China. Kim began to be mentioned by the North Korean state media as "Supreme Leader" (chego ryongdoja) at this time.
A set of comprehensive economic measures, the "Socialist Corporate Responsible Management System", were introduced in 2013. The measures increase the autonomy of enterprises by granting them "certain rights to engage in business activities autonomously and elevate the will to labor through appropriately implementing the socialist distribution system". Another priority of economic policies that year was agriculture, where the pojon (vegetable garden) responsibility system was implemented. The system reportedly achieved a major increase in output in some collective farms.
North Korean media were describing the economy as a "flexible collectivist system" where enterprises were applying "active and evolutionary actions" to achieve economic development. These reports reflect Kim's general economic policy of reforming management, increasing the autonomy and incentives for economic actors. This set of reforms known as the "May 30th measures" reaffirms both socialist ownership and "objective economic laws in guidance and management" to improve living standards. Other objectives of the measures are to increase the availability of domestically manufactured goods on markets, introduction of defence innovations into the civilian sector and boost international trade.
On 7 March 2013, North Korea threatened the United States with a "pre-emptive nuclear attack", and Kim Jong-un issued a detailed threat to "wipe out" Baengnyeong Island, the scene of previous naval clashes. North Korea has revealed its plans for conducting nuclear strikes on U.S. cities, including Los Angeles, and Washington, D.C.
At a plenary meeting of the WPK Central Committee held on 31 March 2013 in the wake of war threats with South Korea, Kim Jong-un announced that North Korea will adopt "a new strategic line on carrying out economic construction and building nuclear armed forces simultaneously".
Ri Yong-ho, Kim Yong-chun, U Tong-chuk and Kim Jong-gak were handpicked to groom the young leader and were close confidants of Kim Jong-il. They have either been demoted or disappeared. One South Korean government official said Kim Jong-un is trying to "erase all traces of his father's rule" 11 months after stepping into power and "replacing top brass with officers who are loyal to him alone". By the end of 2013, three defense ministers and four chiefs of the army's general staff had been replaced and five of the seven men who had escorted his father's hearse two years earlier had been purged, with his uncle Jang Sung-taek one of the most prominent. Jang Sung-taek is believed to have been executed by machine gun. It has been claimed that Kim Jong-un has also put to death members of Jang's family. According to multiple sources, Kim is attempting to completely destroy all traces of Jang's existence through "extensive executions" of his family, including the children and grandchildren of all close relatives. Those reportedly killed in Kim's purge include Jang's sister Jang Kye-sun, her husband and ambassador to Cuba, Jon Yong-jin, and Jang's nephew and ambassador to Malaysia, Jang Yong-chol. The nephew's two sons were also said to have been killed. At the time of Jang's removal, it was announced that "the discovery and purge of the Jang group... made our party and revolutionary ranks purer..." and after his execution on 12 December 2013 state media warned that the army "will never pardon all those who disobey the order of the Supreme Commander."
Kenji Fujimoto, a Japanese chef who used to work as Kim Jong-il's personal cook, described Kim Jong-un as "a chip off the old block, a spitting image of his father in terms of face, body shape, and personality".
The Washington Post reported in 2009 that Kim Jong-un's school friends recalled he "spent hours doing meticulous pencil drawings of Chicago Bulls superstar Michael Jordan." He was obsessed with basketball and computer games. On 26 February 2013, Kim Jong-un met ex-NBA star Dennis Rodman, leading many reporters to speculate that Rodman was the first American that Kim had met. Rodman described his trip to Kim Jong-un's private island, "It's like Hawaii or Ibiza, but he's the only one that lives there." Kim Jong-un is reportedly a fan of Eric Clapton.
In July 2012, Kim Jong-un showed a change in cultural policy from his father by attending a Moranbong concert. The concert contained several elements of pop culture from the West, particularly the United States. Kim used this event to debut his wife to the public, an unprecedented move in North Korea.
In a 2012 news story, Business Insider reported, "Signs of a rise in luxury goods have been creeping out of North Korea since Kim Jong-un took over as last year. Just recently, Kim's wife Ri Sol-ju was photographed holding what appeared to be an expensive Dior handbag, worth almost $1,594 — an average year's salary in North Korea." According to diplomatic sources, "Kim Jong-un likes to drink and party all night like his father and ordered the [imported sauna] equipment to help him beat hangovers and fatigue."
Kim Jong-un did not appear in public for six weeks in September and October 2014. State media reported that he was suffering from an "uncomfortable physical condition". Previously he had been seen limping. When he reappeared he was using a walking stick.
Human rights violations
Human rights violations under the leadership of Kim Jong-Il were condemned by the UN General Assembly. Press reports indicate that they are continuing under Kim Jong-un. It is believed by some that Kim Jong-un was involved in the Cheonan sinking and the bombardment of Yeonpyeong to strengthen his military credentials and facilitate a successful transition of power from his father.
The 2013 report on the situation of human rights in North Korea by United Nations Special Rapporteur Marzuki Darusman proposed a United Nations commission of inquiry to document the accountability of Kim Jong-un and other individuals in the North Korean government for alleged crimes against humanity. The report of the commission of inquiry was published in February 2014 and recommends to make him accountable for crimes against humanity at the International Criminal Court.
One report by the Japanese Asia Press agency in January 2013 claimed that in North and South Hwanghae provinces more than 10,000 people had died of famine. Other international news agencies have begun circulating stories of cannibalism. One informant, based in South Hwanghae, said: "In my village in May, a man who killed his own two children and tried to eat them was executed by a firing squad."
On 25 July 2012 North Korean state media reported for the first time that Kim Jong-un is married to Ri Sol-ju (리설주). Ri, who appears to be in her early 20s, had been accompanying Kim Jong-un to public appearances for several weeks prior to the announcement. The BBC, quoting an analyst who spoke to The Korea Times of South Korea, reported that Kim Jong-il had hastily arranged his son's marriage after suffering a stroke in 2008. According to some sources, the two married in 2009 and Ri gave birth to a daughter in 2010.
Kim Jong-un has one half-brother, one half-sister and an older full-brother (see below). He also has a younger full-sister, Kim Yo-jong, who was believed to be about 23 in 2012. She sometimes accompanies him.
In March 2013, former NBA basketball player Dennis Rodman visited Kim Jong-un in North Korea and on his return reported that Ri had given birth to a daughter named Ju-ae in 2012.
|Select[α] family tree of North Korea's ruling[β] Kim family[γ][δ]|
- Chosongul: 공화국원수, Konghwaguk wonsu.
- "N.Korea declares Kim Jong-Un commander of military". Agence France-Presse. 30 December 2011. Retrieved 30 December 2011.
- "Rodman Gives Details on Trip to North Korea". The New York Times. 9 September 2013. Retrieved 10 September 2013.
- [北 막오른 김정은 시대]조선중앙통신 보도, 金正銀(Ｘ) 金正恩 (in Korean). Naver. 2 October 2010. Retrieved 2 December 2010.
- "청년대장 김정은"... 북 후계자 시사 벽보 찍혔다. Kyunghyang Shinmun (in Korean). 25 September 2009. Retrieved 2 December 2010.
- Note: until recently, Jong Eun's name had been spelled differently in both Korean and English, causing him to become known as Jong-Woon. The Korean News Service refers to him as Kim Jong Un, while South Korean media is using Eun presently. Daily NK.
- North Korea tells rival SKorea and other nations not to expect any change, despite new leader. The Associated Press (via Yahoo! News). 29 December 2011. Retrieved 1 January 2012.
- Moore, Malcolm. Kim Jong-un: a profile of North Korea's next leader. The Daily Telegraph. 2 June 2009
- Alastair Gale (18 December 2011). "Kim Jong Il Has Died". The Wall Street Journal Asia. Retrieved 19 December 2011.
- "Kim Jong Il son declared 'supreme leader' of North Korea's people, party and military". The Washington Post. 28 December 2011. Retrieved 29 December 2011.[dead link]
- "North Korea's Kim Jong-un named 'marshal'". BBC News. 18 July 2012. Retrieved 18 July 2012.
- "North Korean leader orders to turn armed forces into elite revolutionary army". ITAR-TASS. December 2, 2014. Retrieved December 28, 2014.
- "Kim Jong-un’s latest no-show fuels further health rumours". The Guardian. October 10, 2014. Retrieved December 28, 2014.
- Kim Jong Un makes first appearance since father's death. Los Angeles Times (20 December 2011). Retrieved 1 January 2012.
- Powell, Bill. (22 December 2011) The Generals Who Will Really Rule North Korea. Time, 22 December 2011. Retrieved 1 January 2012.
- Kim Jong-un (Kim Jong Woon) – Leadership Succession. Global Security.org. 3 July 2009
- Agence France-Presse, North Korea directive reveals apparent ban on sharing Kim Jong-un’s name, The Guardian, 3 December 2014.
- Lee Young-jong; Kim Hee-jin (8 August 2012). "Kim Jong-un’s sister is having a ball". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 15 October 2014.
- "Kim Yo Jong". North Korea Leadership Watch. 11 July 2012. Retrieved 15 October 2014.
- Blaine Harden (3 June 2009). "Son Named Heir to North Korea's Kim Studied in Switzerland, Reportedly Loves NBA". The Washington Post.
- Peter Foster (8 June 2010). "Rare photos of Kim Jong-il's youngest son, Kim Jong-un, released". The Daily Telegraph (London).
- Hall, Allan (25 November 2010). "Dim JongUn". The Sun (London).
- "North Korean leader Kim Jong-il 'names youngest son as successor'". The Guardian. 2 June 2009. Retrieved 1 January 2012.
- Elisalex Henckel (24 June 2009). "Kim Jong-un und sein Unterricht bei den Schweizern". Welt Online (in German). Retrieved 2010-10-14.
- "Weitere nordkoreanische Spuren in Bern". Neue Zürcher Zeitung (in German). 16 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-12-19.
- "Poor school marks of North Korea's Kim Jong-un exposed". Irish Independent. 2 April 2012.
- "Kim Jong-un's poor marks exposed". The Daily Telegraph (London). 2 April 2012.
- "Kim Jong-un : une éducation suisse entourée de mystères". Le Figaro (in French). Retrieved 19 December 2011.
- "North Korea: Nuclear Tension". CNN. 18 July 2006.
- Bernhard Odenahl (29 September 2009). "Mein Freund, der zukünftige Diktator Nordkoreas". Tages-Anzeiger (in German). Retrieved 2010-09-29.
- "The Chosun Ilbo (English Edition): Daily News from Korea – Classmates Recall Kim Jong-un's Basketball Obsession". English.chosun.com. 17 July 2009. Retrieved 19 December 2011.
- Titus Plattner (21 April 2012). "Kim Jong-un est resté neuf ans en Suisse". Le Matin (in French). Retrieved 24 April 2012.
- Titus Plattner, Daniel Glaus, Julian Schmidli (1 April 2012). "Der Diktator aus Liebefeld". SonntagsZeitung (in German). Retrieved 2 April 2012.
- Titus Plattner: «Der Schüler Un Pak ist identisch mit Kim Jong-un.» Interview in: SonntagsZeitung, 1 April 2012, p. 17.
- Julie Zaugg und Titus Plattner (8 May 2009). "Der Diktator spricht Deutsch". Cicero (in German). Retrieved 2012-04-02.
- Choe Sang-Hun and Martin Fackler (14 June 2009). "North Korea's Heir Apparent Remains a Mystery". The New York Times. Retrieved 2012-04-02.
- "Tales of starvation and death in North Korea". BBC. 22 September 2010. Retrieved 28 September 2010.
- Profile: Kim Jong-un, BBC News, 2 June 2009
- Martin Fackler (24 April 2010). "North Korea Appears to Tap Leader's Son as Enigmatic Heir". The New York Times.
- "The Chosun Ilbo (English Edition): Daily News from Korea – Confusion Over Photo of N. Korean Leader-to-Be". English.chosun.com. Retrieved 28 September 2010.
- "The son also rises". JoongAng Daily. 9 June 2010.
- Peter Foster (8 June 2010). "Rare photos of Kim Jong-il's youngest son, Kim Jong-un, released". The Daily Telegraph (London).
- New images of North Korea's heir apparent Kim Jong-un, BBC News, 30 September 2010
- Kim Jong-il's grandson seen at concert. RTHK. 18 July 2009
- Lynn, Hyung Gu. (2007). Bipolar orders: the two Koreas since 1989. Zed Books. p. 122. ISBN 978-1-84277-743-5.
- Sang-hun, Choe; Fackler, Martin. North Korea's Heir Apparent Remains a Mystery. The New York Times. 14 June 2009
- The Chosun Ilbo (English Edition): Daily News from Korea – Kim Jong-un 'Loves Nukes, Computer Games and Johnny Walker'. English.chosun.com (20 December 2010). Retrieved 23 April 2013.
- North Korea Newsletter No. 38. Yonhap. 22 January 2009.
- "N Korea holds parliamentary poll". BBC News. Retrieved 8 March 2009.
- "Kim Jong Il's Son, Possible Successor, Isn't Named as Lawmaker". Bloomberg L.P..
- James Rosen (1 May 2009). "In North Korea, Ailing Kim Begins Shifting Power to Military". Fox News Channel.
- Kim Jong-un: North Korea's Kim Anoints Youngest Son As Heir. Huffington Post. 2 June 2009.
- "N Korea names Kim's successor named". BBC. 2 June 2009. Retrieved 14 June 2009.
- North Korean leader's son is 'Brilliant Comrade', The Jakarta Post, 13 June 2009
- North Koreans sing praises of dynastic dictatorship – AM, Australian Broadcasting Corporation
- Kim Jong Il's son 'made secret visit to China'. The Times. 16 June 2009.
- China Dismisses Reports of Kim Jong-un Visit. The Chosun Ilbo. 19 June 2009
- Harden, Blaine. North Korea's Kim Jong Il Chooses Youngest Son as Heir. The Washington Post. 3 June 2009
- Chang-Won, Lim (6 September 2009). N Korea backs Kim's succession plan: analysts. AFP.
- "North Korea declare Kim Jong-un's birthday a public holiday". The Daily Telegraph (London). 23 December 2010. Retrieved 6 January 2012.
- Sources: Kim chooses third son as heir, JoongAng Daily, 2 June 2009.
- Sources: Is North Korea's Kim poised to name his successor?, BBC News, 1 September 2010.
- John Sudworth (21 September 2010). "North Korea sets date for rare leadership conference". BBC. Retrieved 28 September 2010.
- "Trip Report by Former U.S. President Jimmy Carter to China, Sept. 4–10, 2010". The Carter Center. 28 September 2010. Retrieved 28 September 2010.
- "Is North Korea following the Chinese model?". BBC News. 29 September 2010. Retrieved 30 September 2010.
- "North Korea sets date for rare leadership conference". BBC News. 21 September 2010. Retrieved 27 September 2010.
- "North Korean leader Kim Jong-il's son 'made a general'". BBC News. 28 September 2010. Retrieved 28 September 2010.
- "North Korea's Kim paves way for family succession". BBC News. 28 September 2010. Retrieved 28 September 2010.
- Matt Negrin (28 September 2010). "N. Korean leader promotes his son". Politico.com. Retrieved 28 September 2010.
- "North Korea leader's son given key party posts". BBC News. 28 September 2010.
- Mark McDonald (9 October 2010). "Kim Jong-il's Heir Attends Parade". The New York Times.
- "N.Korea 'Purging Proteges of the Old Guard'". The Chosun Ilbo. 10 January 2011. Retrieved 19 December 2011.
- Tania Branigan (19 December 2011). "Kim Jong-il, North Korean leader, dies". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 19 December 2011.
- Wallace, Rick; Sainsbury, Michael (29 September 2011). "Kim Jong-il's heir Kim Jong-un made general". The Australian. Retrieved 19 December 2011.
- North Korean power-behind-throne emerges as neighbors meet. Reuters (25 December 2011). Retrieved 1 January 2012.
- Notice to All Party Members, Servicepersons and People (KCNA, 19 December 2011). Kcna.co.jp. Retrieved 1 January 2012.
- We Are under Respected Kim Jong Un (KCNA, 19 December 2011). Kcna.co.jp. Retrieved 1 January 2012.
- Associated Press (19 December 2011). NKorea grieves Kim Jong Il, state media hails son. Houston Chronicle. Retrieved 1 January 2012.
- N. Korea Media Begins Calling Kim Jong Un Supreme Commander. Bloomberg Businessweek, (24 December 2011) Retrieved 1 January 2012.
- "North Korea: Kim Jong-un hailed 'supreme commander'". BBC News. 24 December 2011. Retrieved 24 December 2011.
- N. Korean newspaper refers to successor son as head of key party organ Yonhap News Agency, 26 December 2011.
- Scott McDonald (30 December 2011). "North Korea vows no softening toward South". USA Today.
- So Yeol Kim. "Military Rallies in Keumsusan Square". Retrieved 10 January 2012.
- Chris Green. "Kim Takes More Top Posts". Retrieved 12 April 2012.
- "N Korea's Kim Jong-un speaks publicly for first time". BBC. 14 April 2012. Retrieved 14 April 2012.
- Tania Branigan (6 July 2012). "North Korea's Kim Jong-un gets new official theme song". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 7 July 2012.
- "Kim Jong Eun Promoted to Marshal". Korean Central News Agency. 18 July 2012. Retrieved 18 July 2012.
- "Kim Jong-un Beefs Up Security Amid Fear of Unrest". Chosun Ilbo. 6 December 2012. Retrieved 6 December 2012.
- "Half-kilometre long Kim Jong-un propaganda message visible from space". National Post. Retrieved 23 November 2012.
- Justin McCurry (10 August 2012) Kim Jong-il's personal Japanese chef returns to land he fled | World news. The Guardian. Retrieved 23 April 2013.
- "Kim Jong-un Gets Letter from China's New Leader". Chosun ilbo. 3 December 2012. Retrieved 6 December 2012.
- In first New Year speech, North Korea's Kim Jong Un calls for economic revamp. CNN (2 January 2013). Retrieved 23 April 2013.
- "KJU Delivers New Year's Day Address". Nkleadershipwatch.wordpress.com. Retrieved 23 April 2013.
- "North Korea 'under martial law'". The Daily Telegraph. 31 January 2013. Retrieved 31 January 2013.
- В КНДР в преддверии ядерных испытаний введено военное положение (in Russian). RIA Novosti. 31 January 2013. Retrieved 31 January 2013.
- North Korea offers rare apology after apartment building collapses. Retrieved 2 January 2015.
- Mike Firn (6 August 2012) Kim Jong-un 'planning China-like reforms in North Korea'. The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 23 April 2013.
- "“Socialist Enterprise Management System” under Full Implementation". Institute for Far Eastern Studies. 24 February 2015. Retrieved 28 April 2015.
- "Kim Jong Un Stresses the Principles of Market Economy through ‘May 30th Measures’". Institute for Far Eastern Studies. 15 January 2015. Retrieved 28 April 2015.
- UN passes sanctions despite North Korea threat of 'pre-emptive nuclear attack'. NBC News. 7 March 2013.
- "N. Korean leader threatens strike on South island". Agence France-Presse. 11 March 2013. Archived from the original on 2 April 2013. Retrieved 2 April 2013.
- North Korea plan to attack US mainland revealed in photographs. The Daily Telegraph (29 March 2013).
- "Report on Plenary Meeting of WPK Central Committee". Korean Central News Agency. 31 March 2013. Retrieved 1 April 2013.
- "Top 4 N.Korean Military Officials Fall Victim to Shakeup". Chosun Ilbo. 30 November 2012. Retrieved 1 December 2012.
- Young Kims solidify power Global Times 12 December 2013
- Crying uncle The Economist 14 December 2013
- Jang Sung-taek's remaining family executed by Kim Jong-un Want China Times 27 January 2014
- Kim’s uncle stripped of all posts, expelled from WPK Xinhua News Agency
- N. Korea executes leader's uncle for 'treason': KCNA Yonhap 13 December 2013
- "Kim Jong-un, 'great successor' poised to lead North Korea". The Guardian. 19 December 2011.
- "Who Will Succeed Kim Jong Il?". The Washington Post. 16 July 2009.
- "Classmates Recall Kim Jong-un's Basketball Obsession". The Chosun Ilbo. 17 July 2009.
- "'He couldn't speak English, didn't pass any exams and was obsessed with basketball and computer games': Kim Jong Un's Swiss school days revealed". Daily Mail. 22 December 2011.
- Dennis Rodman: North Korea’s Kim Jong Un is an ‘awesome guy,’ and his father and grandfather were ‘great leaders’. Daily News. 1 March 2013.
- Joohee Cho (28 February 2013). "Rodman Worms His Way into Kim Jong Un Meeting". ABC News. Archived from the original on 28 February 2013.
- "Dennis Rodman: North Korean leader Kim Jong-un is a 'good-hearted kid'". The Guardian. 2 November 2013.
- "The Strangest Things We've Learned About Kim Jong-un". Yahoo News. 19 December 2011.
- Lankov, Andrei (2013-04-10). The Real North Korea: Life and Politics in the Failed Stalinist Utopia (pp. 139-141). Oxford University Press. Kindle Edition.
- "Kim Jong-un Has Massively Increased The Import Of Luxury Goods Into North Korea". Business Insider. 5 October 2012
- "Kim Jong-un Inherits Father's Taste for Bling". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 August 2012.
- Silverman, Justin Rocket (29 May 2013). "'Vice' season finale on HBO gives fresh look at Dennis Rodman's meeting with North Korea's Kim Jong-un". New York Daily News. Retrieved 16 July 2013.
- Song Sang-ho (27 June 2012). "N.K. leader seen moving toward economic reform". The Korea Herald. Retrieved 28 June 2012.
- Justin McCurry and Enjoli Liston (26 September 2014). "North Korea admits to Kim Jong-un’s ill-health for first time". The Guardian.
- Yonhap News Agency (September 2014). “(LEAD) N. Korean leader suffering from gout: source”, 26 September 2014. Retrieved 1 October 2014
- McCurry, Justin & Lison, Enjoli (September 2014). “Kim Jong-un disappears from view amid rumours of cheese overdose”, The Guardian, 27 September 2014, pg. 2
- Freeman, Colin (September 2014).“Kim Jong-un 'so fat he has fractured his ankles': North Korean leader in hospital as his feet fail to take the strain of his ever-increasing weight, newspaper claims”, Daily Telegraph, 30 September 2014. Retrieved 1 October 2014
- molly, hunter (7 October 2014). "Where Is Kim Jong-un? And 6 More Questions About North Korea’s Leader". ABC News. Retrieved 12 October 2014.
- "North Korean leader Kim Jong Un misses shrine visit, KCNA reports". CNN. 12 October 2014. Retrieved 12 October 2014.
- Fifield, Anna (13 October 2014). "North Korean media report that Kim Jong Un is back at work". The Washington Post. Retrieved 13 October 2014.
- "North Korea says leader has reappeared". CNN. 13 October 2014. Retrieved 13 October 2014.
- "UN General Assembly slams Pyongyang's human rights record". China Post. 21 December 2011. Retrieved 13 January 2012.
- "North Korea's Kim Jong Un wages defector crackdown". Los Angeles Times. 5 January 2012. Retrieved 13 January 2012.
- "N. Korea's killing of 3 would-be defectors". The Dong-A Ilbo. 4 January 2012. Retrieved 13 January 2012.
- "Boomerangs Usually Come Back". Daily NK. 11 January 2011. Retrieved 13 January 2012.
- "Harsh Punishments for Poor Mourning". Daily NK. 11 January 2011. Retrieved 13 January 2012.
- "North Korean Propagandists Say Kim Jong-il's Son Planned South Korea Attacks". International Business Times. 24 December 2011. Retrieved 13 January 2012.
- "Kim Jong-un 'Masterminded Attacks on S.Korea'". The Chosun Ilbo. 3 August 2011. Retrieved 13 January 2012.
- "Korean Peninsula: After Cheonan Warship Sinking and Yeonpyeong Incidents". Chun Kwang Ho, King's College London, 2011. Retrieved 13 January 2012.
- "Report of the Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Marzuki Darusman" (PDF). United Nations Human Rights Council. 1 February 2013. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
- "North Korea human rights probe urged by UN". The Christian Science Monitor. 5 February 2013. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
- "U.N.'s Pillay says may be crimes against humanity in North Korea". Reuters. 14 January 2013. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
- Michael Kirby, Marzuki Darusman, Sonja Biserko (February 17, 2014). "Report of the Commission of Inquiry on Human Rights in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea". United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. Retrieved February 18, 2014.
- Nick Cumming-Bruce (February 17, 2014). "U.N. Panel Says North Korean Leader Could Face Trial". The New York Times. Retrieved February 18, 2014.
- Williams, Robb (28 January 2013) North Korean cannibalism fears amid claims starving people forced to desperate measures The Independent, Retrieved 30 January 2013
- "North Korea leader Kim Jong-un married to Ri Sol-ju". BBC. 25 July 2012. Retrieved 25 July 2012.
- "North Korea leader Kim Jong Un projects new image by showing off wife". Fox News Channel. Associated Press. 26 July 2012. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
- "North Korea leader Kim Jong-un married to Ri Sol-ju". BBC. 25 July 2012. Retrieved 2013-12-04.
Ms Ri is believed to have married Mr Kim in 2009 and given birth to a child the following year, analyst Cheong Seong-chang told the South Korean Korea Times newspaper.
- "Dennis Rodman lets the world know Kim Jong Un has a daughter". National Post. Associated Press. 19 March 2013. Retrieved 23 March 2013.
- Lee Young-jong; Kim Hee-jin (8 August 2012). "Kim Jong-un's sister is having a ball". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 8 August 2012.
- "Kim Jong-un 'Has a Little Daughter'". Chosun. 20 March 2013. Retrieved 14 April 2013.
- "Dennis Rodman lets the world know Kim Jong Un has a daughter". National Post. Associated Press. 19 March 2013. Retrieved 23 March 2013.
- Kim Jong-un 'Has 2 Daughters' Chosun 16 May 2013
- "Dennis Rodman's slip gives away name of North Korean leader's baby", The Guardian.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kim Jong-un.|
- North Korea's Young Leader on Show – video report by The New York Times
- NSA Archive Kim Jong-Il: The "Great Successor"
- NK Leadership Tracker
|Party political offices|
|New office||Vice Chairman of the Central Military Commission
Served alongside: Ri Yong-ho
|Chairman of the Central Military Commission
as general secretary
|First Secretary of the Workers' Party of Korea
|Chairman of the National Defence Commission
|Supreme Commander of the Korean People's Army