Pyramid of Neferirkare

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Pyramid of Neferirkare
An up close photo of the pyramid taken from the west side
The pyramid of Neferirkare, with its original step pyramid structure jutting out from underneath the rubble
Neferirkare Kakai
Coordinates29°53′42″N 31°12′09″E / 29.89500°N 31.20250°E / 29.89500; 31.20250Coordinates: 29°53′42″N 31°12′09″E / 29.89500°N 31.20250°E / 29.89500; 31.20250
Ancient name
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N5F35D4
D28
>G29O24
[1]
b3-Nfr-ir-k3-Rˁ
Ba-nefer-ir-ka-Re
"Ba Neferirkare"
Alternatively translated as "Neferirkare takes form"[2]
ConstructedFifth Dynasty (c. 25th century BC)
TypeStep pyramid (originally)
True Pyramid (converted)
Height52 metres (171 ft; 99 cu)[3]
(Step pyramid)
72.8 metres (239 ft; 139 cu)[4] (True pyramid, original)
Base72 metres (236 ft; 137 cu)[3] (Step pyramid)
105 metres (344 ft; 200 cu)[4] (True pyramid)
Volume257,250 m3 (336,470 cu yd)[5]
Slope76°[3] (Step pyramid)
54°30'[4] (True pyramid)
Pyramid of Neferirkare is located in Egypt
Pyramid of Neferirkare
Location within Egypt

The Pyramid of Neferirkare (in ancient Egyptian the Ba of Neferirkare[4]) was built for the Fifth Dynasty pharaoh Neferirkare Kakai – referred to as Neferirkare – in the 25th century BC.[6][a] It was the tallest structure located on the highest site at the necropolis of Abusir – found between Giza and Saqqara – and still towers over the necropolis today. The pyramid is also significant because its evacuation led to the discovery of the Abusir papyri.

The Fifth Dynasty marked the end of the great pyramid constructions during the Old Kingdom. Pyramids of the era were smaller and becoming more standardized, though intricate relief decoration also proliferated. Neferirkare's pyramid deviated from convention as it was originally built as a step pyramid: a design that had been antiquated after the Third Dynasty (26th or 27th century BC).[b] This was then encased in a second step pyramid with alterations intended to convert it into a true pyramid;[c] however, the pharaoh's death left the work to be completed by his successors. The remaining works were completed in haste, using cheaper building material.

Because of the circumstances, Neferirkare's monument lacked several basic elements of a pyramid complex: a valley temple, a causeway, and a cult pyramid. Instead, these were replaced by a small settlement of mudbrick houses south of the monument from where cult priests could conduct their daily activities, rather than the usual pyramid town near the valley temple. The discovery of the Abusir papyri in the 1890s is owed to this. Normally, the papyrus archives would have been contained in the pyramid town where their destruction would have been assured. The pyramid became part of a greater family cemetery. The monuments to Neferirkare's consort, Khentkaus II; and his sons, Neferefre and Nyuserre Ini, are found in the surrounds. Though their construction began under different rulers, all four of these monuments were completed during the reign of Nyuserre.

Location and excavation[edit]

Painting of pyramids and temples in Abusir
Painting of the Abusir necropolis, by A. Bollacher and E. Decker, presented as it was in the Old Kingdom

The Pyramid of Neferirkare is situated on the necropolis at Abusir, between Saqqara and the Giza Plateau.[17] Abusir assumed great import in the Fifth Dynasty after Userkaf, the first ruler, built his sun temple and, his successor, Sahure inaugurated a royal necropolis there with his funerary monument.[18][19] Sahure's successor,[19] his son Neferirkare, was the second ruler to be entombed in the necropolis.[20][21][22][23] The Egyptologist Jaromír Krejčí proposes a number of hypotheses for the position of Neferirkare's complex in relation to Sahure's complex: (1) that Neferirkare was motivated to distance himself from Sahure and thus chose to found a new cemetery and redesign the mortuary temple plan to differentiate it from Sahure's; (2) that geomorphological pressures – particularly the slope between Neferirkare's and Sahure's complexes – required Neferirkare to situate his complex elsewhere; (3) on the basis of the site being the highest point, Neferirkare may have selected it to ensure his complex dominated the surrounding area and; (4) that the site may have been intentionally selected to build the pyramid in line with Heliopolis.[24][d] The Abusir diagonal is a figurative line connecting the north-west corners of the pyramids of Neferirkare, Sahure and Neferefre. It is similar to the Giza axis, which connects the south-east corners of the Giza pyramids, and converges with the Abusir diagonal to a point in Heliopolis.[27][31]

A photograph of the pyramid
Neferirkare's pyramid with original step pyramid clearly visible underneath the rubble exterior

The location of the complex impacted the construction process. The Egyptologist Miroslav Bárta states that one of the major factors influencing the location was their position in relation to the administrative capital[e] of the Old Kingdom, Inbu-Hedj[f] known today as Memphis.[33][34] Providing that the location of ancient Memphis is accurately known, the Abusir necropolis would have been no further than 4 km (2.5 mi) from the city centre.[5] The benefit of the site being close to the city was the increased access to resources and manpower.[35] South-west of Abusir, workers could exploit a limestone quarry to gather resources for the manufacture of masonry blocks used in the construction of the pyramid. The limestone there was particularly easy to quarry considering that gravel, sand and tafl layers sandwiched the limestone into thin segments of between 0.60 m (2.0 ft) and 0.80 m (2 ft 7 in) thick making it easier to dislodge from its matrix.[36]

In 1838, John Shae Perring, an engineer working under Colonel Howard Vyse,[37] cleared the entrances to the pyramids of Sahure, Neferirkare and Nyuserre.[38] Five years later, the Egyptologist Karl Richard Lepsius, sponsored by King Frederick William IV of Prussia,[39][40] explored the Abusir necropolis and catalogued Neferirkare's pyramid as XXI.[38] It was Lepsius who proposed the theory that the accretion layer method[g] of construction was applied to the pyramids of the Fifth and Sixth Dynasty.[44] One important development was the discovery of the Abusir papyri, found in the temple of Neferirkare during illicit excavations in 1893.[45] In 1902–8, the Egyptologist Ludwig Borchardt, working for the Deutsche Orient-Gesellschaft or German Oriental Society, resurveyed those same pyramids and had their adjoining temples and causeways excavated.[38][46] Borchardt's was the first, and only other, major expedition carried out at the Abusir necropolis,[46] and contributed significantly to archaeological investigation at the site.[47] His findings were published in Das Grabdenkmal des Königs Nefer-Ir-Ke-Re (1909).[48][49] The Czech Institute of Egyptology has had a long-term excavation project going at the site since the 1960s.[46][50]

Mortuary complex[edit]

Computer modelled image
Three dimensional model of Neferirkare's mortuary complex

Layout[edit]

Pyramid construction techniques underwent a transition in the Fifth Dynasty.[51] The monumentality of the pyramids diminished, the design of mortuary temples changed, and the substructure of the pyramid became standardized.[51][52] By contrast, relief decoration proliferated[51] and the temples were enriched with greater storeroom complexes.[52]

These two conceptual changes had developed by the time of Sahure's reign at the latest. Sahure's mortuary complex indicates that symbolic expression through decoration became favoured over sheer magnitude. For example, Fourth Dynasty pharaoh Khufu's complex had a total of 100 linear metres (330 linear feet) reserved for decoration, while Sahure's temple had around 370 linear metres (1,200 linear feet) dedicated to relief decorations.[53] Bárta identifies that storage space in mortuary temples expanded consistently from Neferirkare's reign onwards.[54] This was a result of the combined centralization of administrative focus onto the funerary cult, the increase in the numbers of priests and officials involved in the maintenance of the cult, and the increase in their revenues.[55][56] The discovery of considerable remains of stone vessels – mostly broken or otherwise incomplete – in the pyramid temples of Sahure, Neferirkare, and Neferefre bears testament to this development.[57]

Old Kingdom mortuary complexes consisted of five essential components: (1) a valley temple; (2) a causeway; (3) a mortuary temple; (4) a cult pyramid; and (5) the main pyramid.[34] Neferirkare's mortuary complex only had two of these basic elements: a mortuary temple which had been hastily constructed from cheap mudbrick and wood;[58][59][60] and the largest main pyramid at the site.[61] The valley temple and causeway that were originally intended for Neferirkare's monument were co-opted by Nyuserre for his own mortuary complex.[62] Conversely, a cult pyramid[h] never entered construction, as a consequence of the rush to complete the monument upon Neferirkare's death.[64] Its replacement was a small settlement and lodgings constructed from mudbrick to the south of the complex where the priests would live.[64] An enormous brick enclosure wall was built around the perimeter of the pyramid and mortuary temple to complete Neferirkare's funerary monument.[64]

Main pyramid[edit]

The monument was intended as a step pyramid, an unusual choice for a Fifth Dynasty king, given that the era of step pyramids ended with the Third Dynasty (26th or 27th century BC) centuries prior, depending on the scholar and source.[2][65][66][67] The reasoning behind this choice is not understood.[4][68] The Egyptologist Miroslav Verner considers a speculative connection between the Turin Canon's listing him "as the founder of a new dynasty"[i] and the original project, though he also considers the possibility of religious reasons and power politics as well.[68] The first build contained six carefully laid steps[59][j] of high quality stone blocks[77] reaching a height of 52 m (171 ft; 99 cu).[65] A white limestone casing was to be applied to the structure,[77] but after minimal work on this was completed – extending only to the first step[65] – the pyramid was redesigned to form a "true pyramid".[59][65] Verner describes the architecture of a Fifth Dynasty pyramid thusly;

Depiction of a pyramid's innards
The three stages of the pyramid's construction. Light grey: original six step core of the planned step pyramid. Dark grey: extension project with two extra steps. Beige: planned granite casing. Internally, the corridor and three layer limestone gable roof of the ante- and burial- chamber are also depicted.

To convert the step into a genuine pyramid, the whole structure was extended outwards by about 10 m (33 ft; 19 cu) and raised a further two steps in height.[77][79] This expansion project was completed in rough order with small stone fragments that were intended to be cased in red granite.[59][77] The premature death of the king halted the project after only the lowest level(s) of the casing had been completed.[59][65][77] The resultant base of the structure measured 105 m (344 ft; 200 cu) on each side,[59] and, had the project been completed, the pyramid would have reached approximately 72 m (236 ft; 137 cu) in height with an inclination from base to tip of about 54°.[65] Despite the incompleteness of the structure, the pyramid – which is of comparable size to Menkaure's pyramid at Giza – dominates over its surrounds as a result of the position of its site standing on a hill some 33 m (108 ft) above the Nile delta.[2][65][80]

Substructure[edit]

Photograph of architectural remains
Substructure of Neferirkare's pyramid with limestone beams

The descending corridor near the middle of the north face of the pyramid serves as the entry into the substructure of Neferirkare's pyramid. The corridor begins approximately 2 m (6 ft 7 in) above ground level and ends at a similar depth below ground level.[58] It has proportions of 1.87 m (6 ft 2 in) height and 1.27 m (4 ft 2 in) width.[81] It is reinforced at the entrance and exit points with granite casing.[58] The corridor breaks out into a vestibule leading to a longer corridor that is guarded by a portcullis.[58] This second corridor has two turns, but maintains a generally eastward direction and ends in an antechamber that is offset from the burial chamber.[58] The roof of the corridor is unique: the flat roof has a second gabled roof made of limestone on top of it which itself has a third roof made from a layer of reeds.[58]

The burial and ante chamber's ceilings were constructed with three gabled layers of limestone. The beams disperse weight from the superstructure onto either side of the passageway, preventing collapse.[59][58] Thieves have ransacked the chambers of its limestone making it impossible to properly reconstruct,[58] though some details can still be discerned. Namely, that (1) both rooms were oriented along an east-west axis, (2) both chambers were the same width; the antechamber was shorter of the two, and (3) both chambers had the same style roof, and are missing one layer of limestone.[58]

Overall, the substructure is badly damaged: the collapse of a layer of the limestone beams has covered the burial chamber.[59] No trace of the mummy, sarcophagus, or any burial equipment has been found inside.[58][59] The severity of the damage to the substructure prevents further excavation.[4]

Mortuary temple[edit]

Photograph of a mortuary temple
Mortuary temple of Neferirkare's pyramid

The mortuary temple is located at the base of the pyramid's Eastern face.[65] It is larger than is typical for the period.[82] Archaeological evidence suggests that it was unfinished at Neferirkare's death, and was completed by Neferefre and Nyuserre.[83] For example, while the inner temple and statue niches were built from stone,[59][82] much of the rest of the temple, including the court and entrance hall, was apparently hastily completed using cheap mudbrick and wood.[59][60] This left large portions of the mortuary temple susceptible to erosion from rain and wind, where stone would have given it significant durability.[84] The site was less aesthetically impressive, although its basic layout and features remained roughly analogous to Sahure's temple.[85] Its enlarged size can be attributed to a design decision to build the complex without a valley temple or a causeway.[82] Instead, the causeway and temple, whose foundations had been constructed, were diverted to Nyuserre's complex.[59][85]

Map of Neferirkare's mortuary temple. Discussed in detail in upcoming section.
Layout of Neferirkare's mortuary temple. In order: (1) entry portico; (2) entry hall; (3) courtyard with (4) wooden columns; (5) transverse corridor; (6) storerooms, notable for the Abusir papyri found there; (7) inner temple; (8) columned corridor leading to (9) a passageway into the main courtyard.

The temple was entered through the columned portico, and columned entrance hall which terminates into a large columned courtyard.[86] The columns of the hall and courtyard are made from wood arranged into the form of lotus stalks and buds.[59] The courtyard is adorned with thirty-seven such columns; these columns are asymmetrically positioned.[87] The archaeologist Herbert Ricke hypothesized that columns near the altar may have been damaged by fire and removed. A papyrus fragment from the temple archives corroborates this story.[87] A low stepped ramp in the courtyard's west leads to a transverse (north-south) corridor which leads south into storerooms and north into another smaller corridor containing six wooden columns through which the open courtyard of the main pyramid can be accessed.[86] It is in the southern storerooms that the Abusir papyri were discovered by graverobbers in the 1890s.[82] Beyond the storerooms is a gate which has another access point to the main pyramid's courtyard, and through which a second excavated south-western gate leads to Khentkaus II's complex.[64] Finally, traversing across the corridor leads directly into the inner sanctuary or temple.[59][82]

A drawing of a lotus column
A lotus shaped papyrus column similar to those found in the mortuary temple

The surviving reliefs are fragmentary. Of the preserved materials, one particular block stands out as vitally important in reconstructing the genealogy of the royal family at this time. A limestone block, discovered in the 1930s by Egyptologist Édouard Ghazouli, depicts Neferirkare with his consort, Khentkaus II, and eldest son, Neferefre.[82] It was not found at the site of the pyramid, but as a part of a house in the village of Abusir.[27]

The Abusir papyri document details concerning Neferirkare's mortuary temple at Abusir. One testimony from the papyri is that five statues were housed in the niches of the central chapel.[59] The central statue depicted Neferirkare as the deity Osiris, whereas the two outermost statues portrayed him as the king of Upper and Lower Egypt respectively.[88] The papyri also record the existence of at least four funerary boats at Abusir. Two boats are located in sealed rooms while the other two are to the north and south of the pyramid itself. The southern boat was discovered when Verner unearthed the funerary boat during excavations.[89]

Valley temple, causeway and cult pyramid[edit]

At the time of Neferirkare's death, only the foundations of the valley temple and two-thirds of the causeway to the mortuary temple had been laid.[59][90] When Nyuserre took over the site, he had the causeway diverted from its original destination to his own mortuary temple.[91] As such, the causeway travels in one direction for more than half its distance, then bends away to another for the remainder of its length.[91][92]

The purpose of the cult pyramid remains unclear. It had a burial chamber but was not used for burials, and instead appears to have been a purely symbolic structure.[93] It may have hosted the pharaoh's ka (spirit),[63] or a miniature statue of the king.[94] It may have been used for ritual performances centering around the burial and resurrection of the ka spirit during the Sed festival.[94] Neferirkare's monument has no cult pyramid.[64] Rather, the cult pyramid was replaced with a small settlement, called Ba Kakai,[k] of mudbrick lodgings for priests, south of the monument.[64][95]

The omission of these "essential"[34] elements has had one significant impact.[85] Under normal circumstances, the priests tending to the deceased pharaoh's funerary cult would have lived in a 'pyramid town' built in the vicinity of the valley temple, situated on the Abusir Lake.[64][96][97] The daily records of the administration would have had their residence in the town with the priests.[85] Instead, as a result of circumstance, these documents were instead kept inside the mortuary temple.[64] This has allowed their archives to be preserved, as they would have otherwise long ago disintegrated, buried under the mud.[85] The siting of the settlement by the complex also allowed small restorative works to be conducted.[95]

Later history[edit]

Nyuserre was the last king to build his funerary monument at Abusir; his successors Menkauhor and Djedkare Isesi chose sites elsewhere.[46][98][99] Abusir thus ceased to be the royal necropolis.[100][95] This did not mean that the site had been abandoned. The records of the Abusir Papyri demonstrate that funerary cults remained active at Abusir at least until the reign of Pepi II at the end of the Sixth Dynasty.[98]

Verner believes that royal cultic activities ceased by the First Intermediate Period.[46] Málek, notes that some limited evidence for the persistence of the cults of Neferirkare and Nyuserre throughout the Herakleopolitan Period exists, though this means that Nyuserre's cult operated continuously until at least the Twelfth Dynasty.[101] Professor Antonio Morales believes that funerary cults may have continued beyond the Old Kingdom,[102] in particular the cult of Nyuserre appears to have survived both in its official form and in popular public veneration until the early Middle Kingdom,[103] and some scant evidence in the form of two statues[l] dated to the Middle Kingdom may suggest that Neferirkare's cult was active during that period as well.[105]

The necropolae near Memphis, specifically those at Saqqara and Abusir, were used extensively during the Twenty-Sixth Dynasty (ca. 664–525 BC).[106] Considerable quantities of stone were required to build these tombs, and this was very probably sourced from the Old Kingdom pyramids, thereby inflicting further damage to them.[107] Graves estimated to be from the fifth century BC have been discovered in the vicinity of Neferirkare's mortuary temple. One yellow calcite gravestone, discovered by Borchardt, bears an Aramaic inscription: "(Belonging) to Nsnw, the daughter of Paḥnûm" alternatively read as "(Belonging) to Nesneu, the daughter of Tapakhnum".[108] A second inscription, found by Verner on a limestone block in the mortuary temple bears the inscription: "Mannu-ki-na'an son of Šewa". The dating of this second inscription is uncertain, but may plausibly be from the same period.[109]

Family cemetery[edit]

Pyramid of Khentkhaus II[edit]

Photograph of pyramidal ruins
Remains of Khentkaus II's pyramid

Originally thought to be a mastaba by Borchardt, the ruined structure found on the southern side of Neferirkare's complex was considered to be of, at most, secondary importance. In consequence, Borchardt neglected to properly examine it beyond conducting a brief survey of the site while there.[110] It was not until Verner's Czech team's excavations in the 1970s that the structure was identified as being the pyramid tomb of Neferirkare's consort, Khentkaus II.[110][111] Perring had previously discovered griffonage on a limestone block from the site of Neferirkare's tomb which attested to his consort "the King's wife Khentkawes".[111] Further corroborating evidence is her appearance in a relief of the royal family found on another limestone block on which Neferirkare's son, Neferefre, also appears.[111]

Her pyramid was constructed in two phases.[112] The first phase of the construction must have begun during Neferirkare's reign, as is evidenced by the inscription that Perring had discovered. The project was halted around the tenth year of Neferirkare's reign, but later resumed until the complex was completed.[110] Verner suggests that Neferirkare's untimely death interrupted the project and that it was ultimately finished during Nyuserre's reign.[110] The word "mother" appears inscribed above "wife" on another block indicating that the relationship between Khentkaus II and Nyuserre was as mother and son.[112][110] The completed structure has a square base measuring 25 m (82 ft; 48 cu) across each side, and with a slope of 52° would stand 17 m (56 ft; 32 cu) tall were it not in ruins. Her mortuary complex also includes a satellite pyramid, a courtyard, and an extended mortuary temple.[112]

Unfinished pyramid (Neferefre)[edit]

Located directly south-west[45] of Neferirkare's monument, and just to the west of Khentkaus II's, Neferefre's unfinished pyramid is another member of the family cemetery born around Neferirkare's tomb.[85] Built on the Abusir diagonal, Neferefre's pyramid was never completed owing to the unexpectedly early death of the pharaoh.[112][m] Originally built with a base length of 65 m (213 ft; 124 cu), slightly shorter than that of Sahure's pyramid, and with only a single step completed, the plan had to be altered to accommodate the remains of the king.[114] For this reason, the pyramid was hastily converted into a squared mastaba[75][113][115] and completed with the application of limestone facing at a slope of 78° and a clay and desert stone capping.[75] The accompanying mortuary temple is believed to have been built promptly following Neferefre's death.[75] The main features of the temple were a hypostyle hall, two large wooden boats, and a number of broken statues found in rooms near the aforementioned hall.[45]

Nyuserre's pyramid[edit]

Photograph of two pyramids at Abusir
Pyramids of Nyuserre Ini (left) and Neferirkare (right)

Nyuserre joined the family cemetery with his mortuary complex,[116] and was the last king to be interred in the Abusir necropolis.[100] Upon taking the throne, Nyuserre undertook to complete the three unfinished monuments of his closest family members: his father, Neferirkare; his mother, Khentkaus II; and his brother, Neferefre. The costs of this project burdened the construction of his own monument, which manifested itself in the siting of the complex.[116]

Instead of being seated on the Abusir-Heliopolis axis, Nyuserre's complex is nestled between Neferirkare's and Sahure's pyramids.[62][117][118] Respecting the axis would have meant placing the complex south-west of Neferefre's unfinished pyramid, and far from the Nile valley. The expense would have been unreasonable.[117]

The pyramid, located north-east of Neferirkare's pyramid,[20] stands around 52 m (171 ft; 99 cu) tall with a base length of about 79 m (259 ft; 151 cu).[92] The causeway connecting the valley temple to the mortuary complex was originally intended for Neferirkare's pyramid, but Nyuserre had these diverted, to serve his monument.[62][85]

Abusir papyri[edit]

Photograph of Abusir papyrus
Abusir papyrus documenting daily activities at Neferirkare's pyramid

The monument's significance comes from the circumstances of its construction, and the contents of the Abusir papyri archives.[61][119][120] The French Egyptologist Nicolas Grimal states that: "[t]his was the most important known collection of papyri from the Old Kingdom until the 1982 expedition of the Egyptological Institute of the University of Prague discovered an even richer cache in a storeroom of the nearby mortuary temple of Neferefre."[120]

The first fragments of the Abusir papyri were discovered by illicit diggers in 1893,[45] and sold and distributed around the world in the antiquities market.[121] Later, Borchardt discovered additional fragments while excavating in the same area.[122] The fragments were found to be written in hieratic; a cursive form of hieroglyphics.[75] Other papyri found in Neferirkare's tomb were comprehensively studied and published by the French Egyptologist Paule Posener-Kriéger.[75][123]

The papyri records span the period between the reign of Djedkare Isesi through to the reign of Pepi II.[120] They recount all aspects of the management of the funerary cult of the king including the daily activities of priests, lists of offerings, letters, and inventory checks of the temple.[45][123][124] Importantly, the papyri connect the larger picture of the interplay between the mortuary temple, sun temple and other institutions.[123] For example, the fragmentary evidence of the papyri indicates that goods for Neferirkare's funerary cult were transported by ship to the pyramid complex of the king.[125] The full extent of the records of the papyri found at Abusir is unknown as more recent findings remain unpublished.[45]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Proposed dates for Neferirkare Kakai's reign: c. 2492–2482 BC,[2][6] c. 2477–2467 BC,[7] c. 2475–2455 BC,[8] c. 2446–2438 BC,[9] c. 2446–2426 BC,[10] c. 2373–2363 BC.[11]
  2. ^ Proposed dates for the Third Dynasty: c. 2700–2625 BC,[12] c. 2700–2600 BC,[13] c. 2687–2632 BC,[2] c. 2686–2613 BC,[8] c. 2680–2640 BC,[14] c. 2650–2575 BC,[10] c. 2649–2575 BC,[9] c. 2584–2520[15]
  3. ^ The term "true pyramid" refers to pyramids which have the geometric shape of a pyramid. That is, they have a square base with four triangular faces converging to a single point at the apex.[16]
  4. ^ Heliopolis, or Iunu, was a major city of ancient Egypt.[25] The temple of Heliopolis housed the sacred stone of Benben[26] – the primeval hill which arose from the primordial waters of Nu.[27] The temple was also the location of the cult of the sun god,[28] Atum.[29] The Egyptologist Mark Lehner proposes that the pyramids relation to the temple of Heliopolis is evidence in support of the pyramid being a sun symbol.[30]
  5. ^ Administrative centres in the early Old Kingdom period generally consisted of officials, personnel and some craftsmen. Memphis was the largest of these centres, and housed the royal court of the pharaoh during the Old Kingdom. The exact extent of the spatial organization of Memphis in the Old Kingdom remains unknown, though it was most probably not densely populated or walled like its contemporaries such as Sumerian cities. Most of the population of Egypt lived as peasant farmers in rural communities.[32]
  6. ^ transl. inbw-ḥḏ[33]
  7. ^ A solid central limestone core is constructed[41] and encased in successive layers of small stone blocks laid at an inwards slant.[41][42] As a result of the inwards tilt of each layer, the pyramid had a slope of about 74°.[41] These blocks were roughly dressed with the exception of the outer edge of each layer which was smoothed to flatten the surface.[42] This was the method of construction applied to Third Dynasty step pyramids.[41][42][43]
  8. ^ The purpose of the cult pyramid remains unclear, though, it may have had some relation to the pharaoh's Ka.[63]
  9. ^ The division of the Turin Canon into dynasties is a contested topic. The Egyptologist Jaromír Málek holds the conviction that the divisions in kinglists coincide with the transfer of the royal residence and believes that the introduction of dynasties, as used in modern study, began with Manetho.[69] Similarly, the Egyptologist Stephan Seidlmayer, considers the break in the Turin Canon at the end of the Eighth Dynasty to represent the relocation of the royal residence from Memphis to Herakleopolis.[70] The Egyptologist John Baines does not accept Málek's explanation for these features, and instead believes that the list is divided into dynasties with totals given at the end of each, though only few such divisions have survived.[71] Similarly, Professor John Van Seters views the breaks in the canon as divisions between dynasties, but in contrast, states that the criterion for these divisions remains unknown. He speculates that the pattern of dynasties may have been taken from the nine divine kings of the Greater and Lesser Enneads.[72] The Egyptologist Ian Shaw believes that the Turin Canon gives some credibility to Manetho's division of dynasties, but considers the king lists to be a form of ancestor worship and not a historical record.[73]
  10. ^ It was originally believed that the pyramid was built by layering small rectangular stone blocks – which measured up to two feet (six-tenths of a metre) in length – and were angled inwards towards a solid core.[44] This theory was proposed initially by Richard Lepsius, a German Egyptologist who visited the site briefly in the 1830s, and propagated by the archaeologist Ludwig Borchardt, who conducted excavations in Egypt, including at Neferirkare's pyramid, at the start of 20th century, after discovering what he believed were accretion layers on "internal faces" of the pyramids at Abusir.[44][74] It was challenged by Vito Maragioglio and Celeste Rinaldi who conducted careful examinations of pyramidal architecture in the Old Kingdom and failed to find blocks lying on a slant in any Fourth or Fifth Dynasty pyramid they studied. Rather, they found that in each instance these blocks were always set horizontally. This lead them to reject the accretion layer hypothesis.[44] The theory was effectively disproven by the Czech excavation team at Abusir led by Egyptologist Miroslav Verner.[44][74] The unfinished nature of Neferefre's monument allowed Verner's team to test Lepsius and Borchardt's hypothesis; if the pyramid had been constructed as suggested, then underneath the clay and desert stone capping, the pyramid's structure would have resembled the layers of an onion.[75] Instead the excavators found that the pyramid of Neferefre and pyramid of Neferirkare consisted of: an outer retaining wall of four or five courses of large horizontally layered stone blocks;[75] an inner pit of small horizontally layered roughly dressed limestone blocks;[76] with the gap between the two frames filled with a mash of crude limestone chunks, mortar and sand;[75][76] and not in the slanted fashion proposed by the accretion layer theory.[44][74][75]
  11. ^ transl. Bʒ–Kʒ–kʒi[95]
  12. ^ The statues are of a Sekhemet-hetep[ty] (transl. Sḫmt–ḥtp[ty]) from the Twelfth Dynasty. The first is notable for having the formula [n]r–pr ny–swt–bity Nfr–ir–kʒ–rˁ mʒˁ–ḫrw, meaning "of the temple of the King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Neferirkare, true of voice". The second statue was found at Abusir, providing corroborating evidence, but does not have a reference to the mortuary temple.[104]
  13. ^ The exact duration of Neferefre's reign remains undetermined, but the archaeological evidence and state of the unfinished pyramid suggest that his reign lasted no longer than at most three years, though most probably not more than two.[113]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Borchardt 1909, p. 4.
  2. ^ a b c d e Altenmüller 2001, p. 598.
  3. ^ a b c Verner 2001d, p. 463.
  4. ^ a b c d e f Arnold 2003, p. 160.
  5. ^ a b Bárta 2005, p. 180.
  6. ^ a b Verner 2001c, p. 589.
  7. ^ Clayton 1994, p. 30.
  8. ^ a b Shaw 2003, p. 482.
  9. ^ a b Allen et al. 1999, p. xx.
  10. ^ a b Lehner 2008, p. 8.
  11. ^ Dodson & Hilton 2004, p. 288.
  12. ^ Grimal 1992, p. 389.
  13. ^ Arnold 2003, p. 265.
  14. ^ Verner 2001e, p. 473.
  15. ^ Dodson & Hilton 2004, p. 287.
  16. ^ Verner 2001d, pp. 87 & 89.
  17. ^ Arnold 2003, p. 2.
  18. ^ Verner 2001b, p. 5.
  19. ^ a b Bárta 2017, p. 6.
  20. ^ a b Verner 2001b, p. 6.
  21. ^ Verner 2001e, p. 302.
  22. ^ Dodson 2016, p. 27.
  23. ^ Bárta 2015, Abusir in the Third Millenium BC.
  24. ^ Krejčí 2000, pp. 475–477.
  25. ^ Allen 2001, p. 88.
  26. ^ Lehner 2008, p. 32.
  27. ^ a b c Verner 1994, p. 135.
  28. ^ Verner 2001e, p. 34.
  29. ^ Myśliwiec 2001, p. 158.
  30. ^ Lehner 2008, p. 34.
  31. ^ Isler 2001, p. 201.
  32. ^ Bard 2015, p. 138.
  33. ^ a b Jefferys 2001, p. 373.
  34. ^ a b c Bárta 2005, p. 178.
  35. ^ Bárta 2005, p. 179.
  36. ^ Krejčí 2000, p. 473.
  37. ^ Lehner 2008, p. 50.
  38. ^ a b c Edwards 1999, p. 97.
  39. ^ Lehner 2008, p. 54.
  40. ^ Peck 2001, p. 289.
  41. ^ a b c d Lehner 1999, p. 778.
  42. ^ a b c Sampsell 2000, Vol 11, No. 3 the Ostracon.
  43. ^ Isler 2001, p. 96.
  44. ^ a b c d e f Sampsell 2000, Vol 11, No. 3 The Ostracon.
  45. ^ a b c d e f Edwards 1999, p. 98.
  46. ^ a b c d e Verner 2001b, p. 7.
  47. ^ Verner 1994, pp. 105, 215–217.
  48. ^ Verner 1994, p. 216.
  49. ^ Borchardt 1909, Titelblatt & Inhaltsverzeichnis.
  50. ^ Krejčí 2015, Térenní projekty: Abúsír.
  51. ^ a b c Verner 2001d, p. 90.
  52. ^ a b Bárta 2005, p. 185.
  53. ^ Bárta 2005, pp. 183–185.
  54. ^ Bárta 2005, p. 186.
  55. ^ Bárta 2005, pp. 185–188.
  56. ^ Loprieno 1999, p. 41.
  57. ^ Allen et al. 1999, p. 125.
  58. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Verner 2001e, p. 293.
  59. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Lehner 2008, p. 144.
  60. ^ a b Verner 1994, pp. 77–79.
  61. ^ a b Verner 2001e, p. 291.
  62. ^ a b c Lehner 2008, p. 148.
  63. ^ a b Lehner 2008, p. 18.
  64. ^ a b c d e f g h Verner 2001e, p. 296.
  65. ^ a b c d e f g h Verner 1994, p. 77.
  66. ^ Verner 2002, p. 52.
  67. ^ Kahl 2001, p. 591.
  68. ^ a b Verner 2001e, p. 297.
  69. ^ Málek 2003, p. 84 & 103–104.
  70. ^ Seidlmayer 2003, p. 108.
  71. ^ Baines 2007, p. 198.
  72. ^ Seters 1997, pp. 135–136.
  73. ^ Shaw 2003, pp. 7–8.
  74. ^ a b c Verner 2002, pp. 50–52.
  75. ^ a b c d e f g h i Lehner 2008, p. 147.
  76. ^ a b Verner 2014, Neferefre's (unfinished) pyramid.
  77. ^ a b c d e Verner 2014, Neferirkare's pyramid.
  78. ^ Verner 1994, pp. 139–140.
  79. ^ Verner 1994, pp. 76–77.
  80. ^ Verner 2002, p. 50.
  81. ^ Lehner 2008, p. 143.
  82. ^ a b c d e f Verner 2001e, p. 294.
  83. ^ Verner 1994, pp. 77–78.
  84. ^ Bareš 2000, p. 3.
  85. ^ a b c d e f g Verner 1994, p. 79.
  86. ^ a b Verner 2001e, pp. 294–295.
  87. ^ a b Verner 2001e, p. 295.
  88. ^ Allen et al. 1999, p. 97.
  89. ^ Altenmüller 2002, p. 270.
  90. ^ Verner 2001e, p. 318.
  91. ^ a b Verner 1994, pp. 81–82.
  92. ^ a b Lehner 2008, p. 149.
  93. ^ Verner 2001e, p. 53.
  94. ^ a b Arnold 2005, p. 70.
  95. ^ a b c d Krejčí 2000, p. 483.
  96. ^ Lehner 2008, pp. 142, 144–145.
  97. ^ Edwards 1975, p. 186.
  98. ^ a b Goelet 1999, p. 87.
  99. ^ Verner 1994, pp. 79–80 & 86.
  100. ^ a b Verner 1994, p. 86.
  101. ^ Málek 2000, pp. 245–246 & 248.
  102. ^ Morales 2006, pp. 312–313.
  103. ^ Morales 2006, p. 314.
  104. ^ Málek 2000, p. 249.
  105. ^ Morales 2006, p. 313.
  106. ^ Dušek & Mynářová 2012, pp. 53 & 65.
  107. ^ Bareš 2000, p. 13.
  108. ^ Dušek & Mynářová 2012, p. 55.
  109. ^ Dušek & Mynářová 2012, p. 67.
  110. ^ a b c d e Verner 2002, p. 54.
  111. ^ a b c Lehner 2008, p. 145.
  112. ^ a b c d Lehner 2008, p. 146.
  113. ^ a b Verner 2001a, p. 400.
  114. ^ Lehner 2008, pp. 146–147.
  115. ^ Verner 1994, p. 138.
  116. ^ a b Verner 1994, pp. 79–80.
  117. ^ a b Verner 1994, p. 80.
  118. ^ Verner 2001e, p. 303.
  119. ^ Lehner 2008, pp. 144–145.
  120. ^ a b c Grimal 1992, p. 77.
  121. ^ Davies & Friedman 1998, pp. 89–90.
  122. ^ Strudwick 2005, pp. 39–40.
  123. ^ a b c Strudwick 2005, p. 40.
  124. ^ Allen et al. 1999, p. 7.
  125. ^ Krejčí 2000, p. 472.

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