Pyramid power

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Pyramid power refers to the supposed properties of ancient Egyptian pyramids and objects of similar shape which are stated to preserve foods,[1] sharpen or maintain the sharpness of razor blades,[2] improve health [3]), function "as a thought-form incubator,"[4] trigger sexual urges,[5] and cause other effects. Such unverified theories regarding pyramids collectively referred to as pyramidology.

History[edit]

In the 1930s a French ironmonger[6] and pendulum-dowsing author, Antoine Bovis, developed the idea that small models of pyramids can preserve food. The story persists that Bovis, while standing inside the King's Chamber of the Great Pyramid in Egypt, saw a garbage can inside the chamber piled with dead animals that had wandered into the structure, noticed that these small carcasses were not decaying and inferred that the structure somehow preserved them.[7][8][9] However Bovis never claimed to have visited Egypt.[10][1] In his self-published French-language booklet[11] Bovis ascribes his discovery to reasoning and experiments in Europe using a dowsing pendulum;

I have supposed that Egyptians were already very good dowsers and had oriented their pyramid by means of rod and pendulum. Being unable to go there to experiment and verify the radiations of the Keops Pyramid, I have built with cardboard some pyramids that you can see now, and I was astonished when, having built a regular pyramid and oriented it, I found the positive at the East, the negative at the West, and at the North and the South, dual-positive and dual-negative...

A new supposition: since with the help of our positive 2000° magnetic plates we can mummify small animals, could the pyramid have the same property? I tried, and as you can observe with the small fish and the little piece of meat still hanging, I succeeded totally.[1]

In 1949, inspired by Bovis,[12] a Czechoslovakian named Karel Drbal applied for a patent on a "Pharaoh's shaving device", a model pyramid alleged to maintain the sharpness of razor blades. According to the patent (#91,304), "The method of maintaining the razor blades and straight razor blades sharp by placing them in the magnetic field in such a way that the sharp edge lies in the direction of the magnetic lines."[13] Drbal alleged that his device would focus "the earth's magnetic field", although he did not make it clear how this would work, or whether the device's shape or materials exerted the effect.[14]

Drbal's contention that razors could be sharpened or have their sharpness maintained by alignment with Earth's magnetic field was not new.[15] In 1933 The Times carried letters claiming, "if I oriented my razor blades…N. and S. by the compass…they tend to last considerably longer"[16] and "The idea of keeping razor blades in a magnetic field is not quite new. About the year 1900 I found this out…."[17]

In 1968 Sheila Ostrander and Lynn Schroeder, authors of the paranormal, visited Czechoslovakia, where they happened across a cardboard pyramid manufactured commercially by Drbal.[18] They met Drbal,[19] and dedicated a chapter of their popular 1970 book Psychic Discoveries Behind the Iron Curtain to pyramid power. This book introduced both the concept of pyramid power and the story about Antoine Bovis to the English-speaking world.

Origin of the term[edit]

Debate continues over who coined the term "pyramid power". Author Max Toth has claimed he coined the phrase,[20] as has Patrick Flanagan.[citation needed] In the 1970s both authors released books entitled Pyramid Power.[21][22] This led to a lawsuit by Flanagan against Toth, according to Toth.[20]

However the term "pyramid power" in its current usage first appeared in print in Sheila Ostrander and Lynn Schroeder's 1970 book Psychic Discoveries Behind the Iron Curtain.[23]Ostrander and Schroeder claim that "Czechoslovakian researchers" coined the term in the 1960s.[24]

Popularisation[edit]

Flanagan’s book was featured on the cover and in the lyrics of The Alan Parsons Project album Pyramid. "Pyramania", a song from the album, mocked the idea of pyramid power.

Pyramid power was the subject of a famous spoof by Martin Gardner in his "Mathematical Games" column in Scientific American June 1974, featuring his favorite characters Dr. Matrix and Iva Matrix.

The theories behind Pyramid Power convinced the Onan Family, hotel and condo developers in Gurnee, Illinois, to build the "Pyramid House" in 1977.[25][26]

Summerhill Pyramid Winery in Kelowna, British Columbia built a 4-story replica of the Great Pyramid, alleged by the winery to improve the quality of wine aged within it.[27]

A religion founded in 1975 called Summum completed in 1979 the construction of a pyramid called the Summum Pyramid in Salt Lake City, Utah.

Pyramid power was used by the Toronto Maple Leafs and its coach Red Kelly during the 1975–76 quarter-final series to counter the Philadelphia Flyers' use of Kate Smith's rendering of "God Bless America." Kelly hung a plastic model of a pyramid in the team's clubhouse after a pair of away defeats at the start the series and each player took turns to stand under it for exactly four minutes. The Maple Leafs managed to win all three of their home matches before losing the series' decisive game seven.[28]

Terry Pratchett's fantasy novel Pyramids incorporates elements of the theory when an industry develops based around pyramids' ability to stop time.

It is common in New Age magazines to see advertisements for open metal-poled pyramids large enough to meditate under. The New Age group Share International, founded by Benjamin Creme, practices a form of meditation called Transmission Meditation using an open metal-poled tetrahedron in order to tune into the cosmic energy of Maitreya and other spiritual masters.

Scientific evaluation[edit]

There are few proper empirical studies of pyramid power.[29][30]

The neurologist and skeptic Terence Hines has written that pyramid power is a pseudoscience and tests have failed to provide any evidence for its claims:

Influenced by Erich von Däniken’s claims that Egyptian mummies had been preserved by some process unknown to science, pyramid power became quite a craze in the world of pseudoscience for a brief time in the mid-1970s. The idea was that the pyramidal shape itself was magical and filled with a mysterious energy and power... Pyramid power claims have actually been tested. Alter (1973) and Simmons (1973) showed that pyramid-shaped containers were no more effective than any other shape at preserving organic matter (flowers or meat) placed in them. Nor did putting dull razor blades in a pyramid-shaped holder restore them to sharpness, contrary to a frequent claim of pyramid power promoters.[31]

In 2005, an episode of MythBusters was aired on the Discovery Channel in which a basic test of pyramid power was performed, using pyramids built to the specifications found in pyramid power claims, reflecting the location of the King's Chamber in the Great Pyramid of Giza. Several claims were tested; food rotting, a flower rotting and a razor blade going dull. With control protocols in place there was no significant difference between items in pyramids and items outside.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Bovis, Antoine. "Excerpt from Exposé de M.A. Bovis au Congrès International de Radiotellerie à Nice".  (Nice: Bovis, c. 1935). Translation by Jean-Paul Buquet. Skeptic.com. Retrieved November 24, 2008.
  2. ^ Drbal, Karel. Patenti Spis c. 91304. (Prague: 1959).
  3. ^ "some people report having been 'so energized that they could not cope with the dynamo effects they experienced'" Toth, Max, and Greg Nielson. Pyramid Power. (New York: Warner Destiny, 1976). 165.
  4. ^ Toth, Max, and Greg Nielson. Pyramid Power. (New York: Warner Destiny, 1976). 177.
  5. ^ De Mattia, Joan Ann. “Enjoying the Fruits of Pyramid Energy.” Pyramid Power, edited by Max Toth and Greg Nielson. (New York: Warner Destiny, 1976). 198.
  6. ^ Drbal, Karel. "The Struggle for the Pyramid Patent." Pyramid Power, edited by Max Toth and Greg Nielson. (New York: Warner Destiny, 1976). 143.
  7. ^ Loxton, Daniel. "Junior Skeptic #23: Pyramid Power".  (Altadena: Skeptics Society, 2006). 81–83
  8. ^ Laigaard, Jens. "excerpt from Chapter Eight of Pyramideenergien – kritisk undersøgelse".  (1999). Translation by Daniel Loxton and Jens Laigaard. Skeptic.com. Retrieved November 24, 2008.
  9. ^ Ostrander, Sheila, and Lynn Schroeder. Psychic Discoveries Behind the Iron Curtain. (New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1970). 340.
  10. ^ Loxton, Daniel. "Junior Skeptic #23: Pyramid Power".  (Altadena: Skeptics Society, 2006). 83
  11. ^ Bovis, Antoine. "Exposé de M.A. Bovis au Congrès International de Radiotellerie à Nice" (PDF).  (Nice: Bovis, c. 1935.) PDF scan of original hosted at Skeptic.com.
  12. ^ Drbal, Karel. “The Struggle for the Pyramid Patent.” Pyramid Power, edited by Max Toth and Greg Nielson. (New York: Warner Destiny, 1976). 141.
  13. ^ Drbal, Karel. "Patenti Spis c. 91304. (Prague: 1959).".  English translation hosted at www.amasci.com. Retrieved November 2008.
  14. ^ Loxton, Daniel. "Junior Skeptic #23: Pyramid Power".  (Altadena: Skeptics Society, 2006). 88.
  15. ^ Loxton, Daniel. "Junior Skeptic #23: Pyramid Power".  (Altadena: Skeptics Society, 2006). 82.
  16. ^ Coleridge, Gilbert. Letter. The Times. 7 Oct. 1933.
  17. ^ Grange, William D’Oyly. Letter. The Times. 19 Oct. 1933.
  18. ^ Ostrander, Sheila, and Lynn Schroeder. Psychic Discoveries Behind the Iron Curtain. (New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1970). 339-340.
  19. ^ Ostrander, Sheila, and Lynn Schroeder. Psychic Discoveries Behind the Iron Curtain. (New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1970). 342.
  20. ^ a b Loxton, Daniel. "A Conversation with Max Toth". Skeptic.com. Retrieved 1 December 2008. 
  21. ^ Toth, Max and Greg Nielson. Pyramid Power. (New York: Warner Destiny, 1976).
  22. ^ Flanagan, Patrick. Pyramid Power (Santa Monica: Pyramid Power – V, Inc, 1975).
  23. ^ Ostrander, Sheila, and Lynn Schroeder. Psychic Discoveries Behind the Iron Curtain. (New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1970). 339-348.
  24. ^ page 431
  25. ^ Pyramid House website
  26. ^ (Satellite via Google)
  27. ^ (Summerhill Winery Pyramid Story)
  28. ^ "Leafs employ 'pyramid power,'" The Associated Press, Saturday, April 24, 1976.
  29. ^ Linse, Pat. (2002). Pyramids: The Mystery of Their Origins. In Michael Shermer. The Skeptic Encyclopedia of Pseudoscience. ABC-CLIO. pp. 397-412. ISBN 1-57607-654-7 "If pyramid power really existed it would be wonderful indeed... But no scientific tests to date have managed to detect it."
  30. ^ Neher, Andrew. (2011). Paranormal and Transcendental Experience: A Psychological Examination. Dover Publications. pp. 262-264. ISBN 0-486-26167-0 "There is no satisfactory evidence to support the theory of pyramid power. Although the pyramids are impressive structures, their particular construction—their shape and geographical orientation—does not seem to be capable of altering fundamental physical processes."
  31. ^ Hines, Terence. (2003). Pseudoscience and the Paranormal. Prometheus Books. p. 306. ISBN 1-57392-979-4

Further reading[edit]

  • Alter, A. (1973). The Pyramid and Food Dehydration. New Horizons 1: 92-94.
  • Simmons, D. (1973). Experiments on the Alleged Sharpening of Razor Blades and the Preservation of Flowers by Pyramids. New Horizons 1: 95-101.

External links[edit]