Rambler (automobile)

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Rambler by the Thomas B. Jeffery Company, 1900s
Rambler logo, 1960s

Rambler is an automobile brand name that was first used by the Thomas B. Jeffery Company between 1900 and 1914.

Charles W. Nash bought Jeffrey in 1916, and the name was reintroduced to the automobile marketplace by Nash Motors from 1950 to 1954.

The "Rambler" trademark registration for use on automobiles and parts was issued on 9 March 1954 for Nash-Kelvinator.[1]

Nash merged with the Hudson Motor Car Company to form American Motors Corporation (AMC) and the Rambler line of cars continued through the 1969 model year in the United States and 1983 in international markets.

Rambler cars were often nicknamed the "Kenosha Cadillac" after the original location and the largest place of manufacture in the city of Kenosha, Wisconsin.[2]

1897–1914[edit]

The first use of the name Rambler for an American made automobile dates to 1897 when Thomas B. Jeffery of Chicago, Illinois and builder of the Rambler bicycle, constructed his first prototype automobile.

After receiving positive reviews at the 1899 Chicago International Exhibition & Tournament and the first National Automobile Show in New York City, Jeffery decided to enter the automobile business. In 1900, he bought the old Sterling Bicycle Co. factory in Kenosha, Wisconsin, and set up shop.

Jeffery started commercially mass-producing automobiles in 1902 and by the end of the year had produced 1,500 motorcars, one-sixth of all cars that were manufactured in the U.S. during that year. The Thomas B. Jeffery Company was the second largest auto manufacturer at that time, (behind Oldsmobile).

Rambler experimented with such early technical innovations as a steering wheel (as opposed to a tiller), but it was decided that such features were too advanced for the motoring public of the day, so the first production Ramblers were tiller-steered. Rambler innovated various design features and was the first to equip cars with a spare wheel-and-tire assembly. This allowed the driver, when experiencing a common puncture (flat tires), to exchange the spare wheel and tire for the flat one.

In 1914, Charles T. Jeffery, Thomas B. Jeffery's son, replaced the Rambler brand name with Jeffery in honor of his now-deceased father.

In 1916, the Thomas B. Jeffery Company was purchased by Charles W. Nash and became Nash Motors Company in 1917. The Jeffery brand name was dropped at the time of the sale and the manufacture of Nash branded automobiles commenced. In 1937, the concern became the Nash-Kelvinator Corporation through a merger with the major appliance maker.

1950–1957[edit]

Under the direction of Charles Nash's successor George W. Mason, Nash-Kelvinator Corporation began the development of a small car that could be produced inexpensively for the post World War II economy.

However, steel shortages limited the amount of raw materials that Nash could get, so Mason turned the compact, now designated the Rambler, into a two-door sedan with a convertible top and the cars were equipped with many standard features that were typically options, to maximize profits for the company. When introduced, the Rambler was an immediate success for Nash. As steel quotas (related to the Korean War) eased, the Rambler line was broadened in both its model types (first a station wagon and 2-door hardtop dubbed "Country Club", and later a 2-door sedan. A further expansion of the line for 1954 included a four-door sedan and station wagon called "Cross Country") on a stretched wheelbase, which proved to be as successful as the first generation of two-door sedan convertibles.

The first generation of modern Ramblers carried a modified version of Nash's Airflyte styling, which included closed wheel openings. Where the wheel openings of any car are a major source of wind resistance, the design was rather primarily an engineering design to increase the strength of the car for impact resistance. Many people surmised that the skirted fenders limited the turning radius of the wheels, but was not an actual handicap for having a comparatively narrow front track.[citation needed] Ramblers continued to use this styling until 1955, when the front wheels were revealed by a periodic design update. In 1954 the Rambler offered the first industry combination heating and air conditioning unit that could be an add-on or installed at the factory for $395, which at that time was about the lowest cost unit available in an American car.[3]

In 1954, American Motors Corporation (AMC) was formed from the merger of Nash-Kelvinator and the Hudson Motor Car Company. Following the merger, 1955 and 1956 Ramblers were badged as both Nashes and Hudsons, with no visible difference between the two. Rambler became a marque in its own right for the 1957 model year. The Nash and Hudson makes were continued as a "senior" model only through 1957, after which all of AMC's offerings were marketed as Ramblers, with the exception of the imported 1958–1962 Metropolitan.

1958–1969[edit]

At the start of the 1960s George Romney made a marketing decision that more fully unified the various Rambler model names under the Rambler brand. In 1962, the Ambassador, a top-trim level model, was officially brought under the Rambler name (it had previously been named the "Ambassador by Rambler"), and the former Rambler Six and Rambler Rebel V8 were renamed the Rambler Classic. (Note: while the top-line models for 1958-1961 were advertised as the "Ambassador V-8 by Rambler", on the cars themselves, the nomenclature was "Rambler Ambassador".) In 1958, AMC introduced America's first "compact car," the Rambler American. This car was essentially the 1950 Nash Rambler, slightly restyled and modernized for the late 1950s. However, the car was an instant success and lost sales only after the "Big Three" (GM, Ford, and Chrysler) each introduced compact cars of their own (GM "X" body, Ford Falcon, Chrysler A platform).

Romney also put into play his plan to slash production costs, which involved more common parts sharing between the Ambassador and Classic models. Beginning in 1962, all "senior" Rambler models would share the same automobile platform with identical wheelbase and body parts, but the engines, trims, and equipment levels distinguished the Classic from the Ambassador. The Rambler's compact size (by US standards) also made it an international competitor, and between 1961 and 1965 AMC opened thirteen foreign assembly plants, from Costa Rica to the Philippines.[4]

In 1963, the entire Rambler line received the Motor Trend Car of the Year award. However, Romney's departure to become Michigan governor opened the door for his successor, Roy Abernethy, to redirect the company towards a strategy of competing head to head with the Big Three (General Motors, Chrysler Corporation, and Ford Motor Company) with a variety of bodies and automobile platforms. This new plan also included marketing the various models apart from the Rambler brand name, which Abernethy felt would be a hindrance in the market segments he hoped to pursue.

One of the first moves in that direction was the creation of the 1965 line of Ramblers, which split the Classic from the Ambassador visually, while still sharing a significant number of parts. Once again the Ambassador had a unique, extended wheelbase. In addition, AMC introduced the Marlin, a hardtop fastback intended to enter AMC in the more youth and personal luxury market segments as well as also positioning it as a "halo" vehicle.[4] AMC chief stylist Richard Teague introduced a totally restyled and attractive Rambler American in 1964, which was a sales success. This basic body remained in its original shape through 1969.

Backed by marketing reports, Abernethy next made a persuasive argument to the AMC board that the Rambler name had not only acquired a stodgy image and was a hindrance to increasing sales, but that consumers associated it with compact cars. In what hindsight would show to be an ill-conceived decision, American Motors began to phase it out in favor of an AMC marque beginning in 1966, as it attempted to become a multiplatform automobile manufacturer. Retention of the well-known Rambler brand name and its association with compact economy models could have served AMC well in the 1970s.

By 1968, the only vehicle produced by AMC to carry the Rambler marque was the compact Rambler American. Although designed as a "basic" economy car, the American spawned the audacious SC/Rambler developed with Hurst Performance.[5] While AMC planned to produce only 500 for the 1969 model year, the "Scrambler" proved popular so two more groups of about 500 each were built.[6] All featured the same 390 cu in (6.4 l) V8, four-barrel carburetor, and close-ratio four-speed transmission of the AMX, plus Hurst shifter, Twin-Grip (limited slip) differential, and cold air hood.[6] For the final year in 1969 the models were simply called Rambler. The 1969 Rambler (and Chevrolet Corvair and Dodge Dart) were the only U.S. compact cars available that year in a two-door hardtop body style; Ford compacts were only available as sedans.

The last U.S.-built Rambler was produced on 30 June 1969, and it was one of over 4.2 million cars to carry the Rambler name that rolled off the assembly line in Kenosha.[5]

1970–1983[edit]

The Rambler marque was continued in all international markets after it was dropped in the United States. AMC vehicles were badged as “Rambler" in Argentina, Australia, Costa Rica, Mexico, New Zealand, the Philippines, Venezuela, South Africa, and the United Kingdom. In Argentina, a special model based on the third generation Rambler American became the IKA Torino in 1967. It later was named the Renault Torino and was offered until 1981. The Rambler nameplate was last used on automobiles in 1983 by Vehículos Automotores Mexicanos (VAM) in Mexico.

Rambler brand cars[edit]

Historic
  • Rambler: 1901–1913
Compact
Mid-sized
Show cars
International
  • Rambler Ambassador
    • Costa Rica 1965-1970
    • United Kingdom 1965-1974
  • Rambler AMX
    • Australia 1969–1970[7]
  • Rambler Hornet
    • Australia 1970–1975[8]
    • Costa Rica 1970-1975 (as "Rambler SST" and "Rambler Unisex")
    • Mexico 1970-1977 (as "VAM American" and "Rambler American")
    • South Africa 1970-1971
  • Rambler Javelin
    • Australia 1968–1973[8]
    • Germany 1968-1970
    • Mexico 1968-1973
    • Venezuela 1968-1974
    • Philippines 1968–1970.
  • Rambler Matador
    • Australia 1971–1977[8]
    • Costa Rica 1971-1974
    • Mexico 1971-1976 (as "Rambler Classic")
    • United Kingdom 1971-1977
  • Rambler Rebel
    • Australia 1967–1971[9]
    • Belgium 1967 (as "Renault Rambler")
    • Costa Rica 1967-1970
    • Mexico 1967-1970 (as "Rambler Classic")
    • New Zealand 1967-1971
    • United Kingdom 1967-1970

International production[edit]

Companies that undertook the production of Rambler vehicles outside of the United States either by local assembly or full import included the following:

North America

Australasia

Europe

South America

  • Constructora Venezolana de Vehículos (Venezuela): 1968–1974
  • Industrias Kaiser Argentina (Argentina): 1962–1972
  • Juan Carlos Lutteral (Argentina) 1979-198?
  • Rambler del Peru S.A (Peru): 1963-1969
  • Industria Automotriz Peruana S.A (Peru): 1970-197? [14]

Africa

  • National Motor Assemblers (South Africa): 1964-1967
  • Rosslyn Motor Assemblers (South Africa): 1968
  • Motor Assemblies Limited (South Africa): 1969-1970 [15]

Middle East

Trademark[edit]

American Motors had stopped producing cars using the Rambler trademark in 1970. In 1973, Action Age Incorporated wanted to register "Scrambler" for an off-highway vehicle and in a case before the Trademark Trial and Appeal Board contended that the trademark Rambler had been abandoned.[16] This registration was opposed by AMC and the court determined that even though the manufacturing of Ramblers ended, the trademark was not abandoned because AMC continued to have commercial activities such as parts with the Rambler name on the boxes as well franchised dealers with Rambler in their name or marketing used cars under the Rambler trademark.[16]/[17]

The Rambler trademark registration expired on 12 December 1994, because Chrysler (the company that acquired AMC in 1987) did not file an affidavit of continued use.[1] However, it was claimed by Chrysler as a retro or heritage mark that "had built an affinity and emotional connection with the consumer as a result of the original product that was in the marketplace, and continues to have nostalgia appeal with consumers who are still interested in acquiring product that is built around the mark’s core values and replicates the markets and the mark itself."[1] In a 2008 case before the Trademark Trial and Appeal Board, the United States Patent and Trademark Office determined that Chrysler continued to have products licensed in connection with the Rambler mark for automobiles and thus sufficiently related to automobiles so that consumers would ascribe a single source to the products.[1] Chrysler, as the successor company, was able to "prove nonabandonment by demonstrating that there were many Rambler autos (and related supplies) bearing the mark still in use.[1] The board ruled that Chrysler "has priority of use, at the very least with respect to key rings, calendars, decals, specification sheets and owner's manuals, all relating to Rambler automobiles."[18]

References[edit]

Inline
  1. ^ a b c d e "Chrysler LLC v. Anthony S. Pimpo" (PDF). United States Patent and Trademark Office: Trademark Trial and Appeal Board. 30 July 2008. Retrieved 11 December 2020.
  2. ^ "Automotive dictionary: What is Kenosha Cadillac?". CarSpector. 2008. Retrieved 11 December 2020.
  3. ^ "Low Cost Air Conditioner Cools or Hears by Turning Know". Popular Mechanics. 101 (5): 86. May 1954. Retrieved 11 December 2020.
  4. ^ a b Billeter, Vera (1965), Logoz, Arthur (ed.), "The American Motors Story", Auto-Universum 1966 (English Edition), Zürich, Switzerland: Verlag International Automobile Parade, IX: 18–19
  5. ^ a b Binder, Al; the Ward's staff (1 June 2002). "Rearview Mirror". Ward's AutoWorld. Retrieved 27 February 2011.
  6. ^ a b Flory, J. Kelly (2004). American Cars, 1960–1972: Every Model, Year by Year. McFarland. p. 633. ISBN 9780786412730.
  7. ^ "Australian Motor Industries AMX". amx-perience.com. Archived from the original on 14 August 2014. Retrieved 17 May 2014.
  8. ^ a b c Green Price and Model Guide, July–August 1983, page 74
  9. ^ Glass's Dealer Guide, South Australian and Northern Territory Edition, Jun 1973, page 95
  10. ^ "AMC American Motors- Costa Rica". amc.co.cr. Retrieved 11 December 2020.
  11. ^ "Hornets, Hatchbacks & Javelins are AMC's Pride for 1973". The Tribune - Nassau. 22 March 1973. Retrieved 11 December 2020 – via ufdcimages.uflib.ufl.edu.
  12. ^ "Two Amazing Models from A.M.C. (advertisement)". The Autocar (magazine) 28 October 1960. Retrieved 11 December 2020 – via flickr.
  13. ^ "1961 Guide to Key British Enterprises: Motor, Motor-Cycle and Commercial Vehicle Manufacturers - Graces Guide". gracesguide.co.uk. 21 November 2018. Retrieved 11 December 2020.
  14. ^ "Rambler del Perú (1969)" (in Spanish). Arkivperu. 6 August 2009. Retrieved 11 December 2020.
  15. ^ "Appendix B - Production Figures for Jacobs Plant". Motor Assemblies Limited. 24 January 2012. Retrieved 11 December 2020.
  16. ^ a b Handelman, Jeffery (2019). "8". Guide to TTAB Practice. Aspen Publishers. pp. 257–258. ISBN 9780735565319.
  17. ^ Kintner, Earl W.; Lahr, Jack L. (1982). An Intellectual Property Law Primer: A Survey of the Law of Patents, Trade Secrets, Trademarks, Franchises, Copyrights, and Personality and Entertainment Rights. C. Boardman. pp. 307–308. ISBN 9780876323618.
  18. ^ Ambrogi, Robert J. (13 August 2008). "Remember the Rambler? Trademark Board Does". legalblogwatch.typepad.com. Retrieved 11 December 2020.
General
  • Gunnell, John, ed. (1987). The Standard Catalog of American Cars 1946–1975. Krause Publications. ISBN 9780873410960.

External links[edit]