Regina E. Dugan
|Regina E. Dugan|
19th Director of DARPA
|Born||Regina E. Dugan
March 19, 1963
New York, New York, USA
|Residence||Los Altos, California, USA|
|Thesis||Axisymmetric buoyant jets in a cross flow with shear: Transition and mixing|
|Doctoral advisor||E. John List|
Regina E. Dugan is an American businesswoman, inventor, and technology developer. She served as the 19th Director of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). In March 2012, she left government to take an executive role at Google. Just prior to the acquisition, it was announced that she would create, and lead, the Advanced Technology and Projects (ATAP) group at Google-owned Motorola Mobility. In January 2014, Google announced the acquisition of Motorola Mobility by Lenovo but retained Dugan and her Advanced Technology and Projects (ATAP) team. In 2016 she left Google and joined Facebook. She will lead a newly formed team called Building 8.
Dugan obtained her Bachelor of Science and Master of Science degrees in mechanical engineering from Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech) in Blacksburg, Virginia. In May 2013, she was inducted in to the Virginia Tech College of Engineering’s Academy of Engineering Excellence.
Dugan’s advanced technology group was not a part of the Lenovo acquisition of Motorola Mobility. In February 2014, Dugan rejoined Google as Vice President of Engineering, Advanced Technology and Projects. ATAP developed Project Tango and Project Ara.
Shortly after the Google acquisition of Motorola Mobility closed, Dugan was tasked with creating the Advanced Technology and Projects group, a skunkworks-inspired team chartered to deliver breakthrough innovations for the company. In an interview with the New York Times, Dugan described ATAP as "a small, lean, and agile group that is unafraid of failure," she said, and that it will "celebrate impatience."
While a part of Motorola, ATAP developed and shipped several products including the Motorola Skip—part of an authentication portfolio that is also exploring digital tattoos and pills—and the augmented reality shorts, Spotlight Stories, which were featured at the 2014 Sundance Film Festival. It was there that ATAP announced the development of Project Ara, a free, open hardware platform for creating highly modular smartphones.
Additionally, in an effort to streamline research projects, foster greater collaboration with the university research community, Dugan and her deputy, Dr. Kaigham (Ken) Gabriel, negotiated the Multi-University Research Agreement with, initially, eight leading public and private universities.
Experienced in counterterrorism and defense against explosive threats, Dugan first served as a DARPA program manager from 1996 to 2000. During her first DARPA tour, she directed a diverse $100 million portfolio of programs, including the Dog’s Nose program, which focused on the development of an advanced, field-portable system for detecting the explosive content of land mines.
From July 2009 to March 2012, Dugan served as the 19th Director of DARPA; she was the first woman to lead the Agency. As Director she advanced strategic initiatives in the fields of cyber security, social media, and advanced manufacturing. She also led an active operational deployment in direct support of the war in Afghanistan for which the Agency was awarded the Joint Meritorious Unit Award.
- CNBC NEXT List (2014)
- Fast Company Most Creative People in Business 1000 (2014)
- CNN "Top 10 Thinkers" (2013)
- The Verge 50 (2013)
- FierceWireless "Influential Women in Wireless" (2013)
- Virginia Tech Academy of Engineering Excellence (2013)
- Washingtonian Magazine "Tech Titan" (2011)
- Joint Meritorious Unit Award by the Secretary of Defense for "outstanding heroism during war"
- Office of the Secretary of Defense Award for Exceptional Service and the Award for Outstanding Achievement
- Bronze De Fleury Medal by the Army Engineer Regiment (2000)
- DARPA Program Manager of the Year (1999)
"Disruptive innovation is the kind that unhinges old ways of operating, juices competition and creates new growth. One of the world’s leading experts on the subject is Regina Dugan," wrote Pattie Sellers in her Postcards blog. Dugan has widely spoken and written about DARPA's non-linear style of innovation, which she brought with her to Motorola Mobility and Google.
In a New York Times article, titled "New Force Behind Agency of Wonder", John Markoff noted that Dugan is "credited with having a knack for inspiring, and indeed insisting on, creative thinking. DARPA is often discussed as a place of innovation, which was addressed during a Washington Post Live summit on U.S. Competitiveness in Washington, D.C. Talking about DARPA's innovation was likened to talking about Picasso's impressionism.
Dugan partly attributes DARPA's success to an unwavering dedication to Pasteur's quadrant. The term, coined by political scientist Donald E. Stokes in his 1997 book by the same name, describes innovation that advances both basic research and solves practical problems. It is contrasted with Bohr's quadrant, which seeks foundational knowledge about the world without any consideration for practical application and with Edison's quadrant in which purely practical problem solving is attempted.
Dugan has delivered keynote addresses and moderated panel discussions at events as such as:
- All Things Digital D9 and D11 conferences
- Clinton Global Initiative Annual Meeting
- Clinton Global Initiative America’s Meeting
- EY Strategic Growth Forum
- FORTUNE Most Powerful Women Summit
- Qualcomm Uplinq
- Washington Post Live
- World Maker Faire
In December 2013, Dugan was appointed to the Board of Directors of Varian Medical Systems, Inc. (VAR).
Potential conflict of interest
In March 2011, an article in Wired magazine stated that Dugan held stock in RedXDefense, her previous firm. In accordance with DoD policy, Dugan disclosed and recused from matters involving her former firm. A DARPA spokesperson stated that Dugan had no involvement in a 2010 contract award to RedXDefense, and that the contract was vetted by the agency’s top lawyer to assure there was no conflict. Subsequently the LA Times and Wired reported that her company had received around $1.8M in DARPA contracts and that Dugan held a promissory note from RedXDefense in the amount of $250,000. Others have argued that the Wired reporters' accusations are unjustified. In August, 2011, the Inspector General of the Department of Defense(DoD) began an investigation to ensure the procedures had been followed, and to examine DARPA's general policies on conflict of interest as well as a specific concern that DARPA Director Regina Dugan retains financial ties to her former firm, which has won some $6 million in contracts with the agency, $4.3 million of which was awarded prior to her position as Director.
The Undersecretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics, Ashton Carter, and the Department of Defense, General Counsel, Jeh Johnson, stated in a letter dated May 2011 addressed to Dugan, "based on what we know, we are satisfied that, given your disqualification from matters related to RedXDefense and the procedures you have put in place, there has been no violation of conflict of interest laws or regulations in the selection or funding of RedXDefense's proposals while you have been Director of DARPA".
Prior to entering the Department of Defense, potential political appointees disclose their business investments and holdings for review. Senior ethics officials in the Office of the Secretary of Defense General Counsel, Standards of Conduct Office (OSDGC, SOCO) determine what procedures are required to address potential conflicts. The procedures are designed to ensure that companies are neither favored nor disfavored and to permit talent to be attracted to government service.
- Dugan, Regina Elvira (1993). Axisymmetric buoyant jets in a cross flow with shear: Transition and mixing (PhD thesis). California Institute of Technology. etd-08272007-090225.
- Gayomali, Chris. "Google is Selling Motorola Mobility, But Keeping the Most Interesting and High-Tech Division". Fast Company. Retrieved 30 January 2014.
- "Ex-Darpa Head Regina Dugan Leaves Google for Facebook".
- "Virginia Tech’s College of Engineering inducts new academy members, honors outstanding young alumnus". Virginia Tech College of Engineering. Retrieved 2 May 2013.
- Davies, Chris. "Motorola’s digital tattoo developing skunkworks will stay at Google". Slashgear. Retrieved 29 January 2014.
- Miller, Claire (13 August 2012). "Motorola Set for Big Cuts as Google Reinvents It". The New York Times. Retrieved 13 August 2012.
- Gannes, Liz. "Electronic Tattoos and Passwords You Can Swallow: Google's Regina Dugan Is a Badass". All Things D. Retrieved 29 May 2013.
- Kalil, Tom. "Partnering at the Speed of Business: University-Company Partnerships". White House. Retrieved 6 December 2013.
- Stix, Gary. "Motorola/Google's Tech Development Strategy Starts to Emerge". Scientific American. Retrieved 19 June 2013.
- "The Most Creative People in Business". Fast Company.
- "The CNN 10: Thinkers". CNN.
- "The Verge 50". The Verge.
- "Regina Dugan, senior vice president, Google's Motorola Advanced Technology and Projects division – 2013 Women in Wireless". Fierce Wireless. Retrieved 21 August 2013.
- Graff, Garrett. "Tech Titans 2011". Washingtonian. Retrieved 22 April 2011.
- Sellers, Patricia. "How to innovate? Google exec explains". Fortune. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
- Epstein, Zach. "Google aims to outthink Apple with new DARPA-like research team". BGR. Retrieved 14 August 2012.
- Markoff, John (12 April 2010). "New Force Behind Agency of Wonder". The New York Times. Retrieved 12 April 2010.
- Eblin, Scott. "3 Lessons in Leading Innovation From DARPA's Regina Dugan". Business Management Daily. Retrieved 22 February 2012.
- Jordan, Mary (23 February 2012). "Amid gloom about U.S. competitiveness, reasons for optimism". Washington Post. Retrieved 23 February 2012.
- Dugan, Regina. ""Special Forces" Innovation: How DARPA Attacks Problems". Harvard Business Review.
- "DARPA’s Regina Dugan Talks Nerds, Failure and Flight at TED". Experts Exchange. Retrieved 29 February 2012.
- Swisher, Kara. "DARPA’s Regina Dugan Takes It to Mach 20: The Full D9 Interview (Video)". All Things D. Retrieved 27 June 2011.
- Fried, Ina. "Motorola’s Dennis Woodside and Regina Dugan: The Full D11 Interview (Video)". All Things D. Retrieved 29 May 2013.
- "Game-Changers in Technology". Clinton Global Initiative. Retrieved 2013.
- "2011 Speakers". Fortune.
- ""Windy Day" featured at Qualcomm’s Uplinq". Digital Fish. Retrieved 27 September 2013.
- Kolawole, Emi. "Technology experts talk ideas and innovations". Washington Post. Retrieved 2 February 2012.
- "The Future is What We Choose to Make". Fora. Retrieved 2013.
- Schactman, Noah; Spencer Ackerman (7 March 2011). "Darpa Chief Owns Stock in Darpa Contractor". Wired Magazine. Retrieved 7 March 2011.
- "Wired Reporters Trash Unsung DoD Science Hero". Retrieved 1 April 2011.
- Clark, Charles S. "DARPA director under investigation for conflict of interest". Government Executive. Retrieved 17 August 2011.
- Marcum, Cheryl Y.; Lauren R. Sager Weinstein; Susan D. Hosek; Harry J. Thie. Department of Defense Political Appointments; Positions and Process. RAND. ISBN 0-8330-2986-X.
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