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The Rijksakademie van beeldende kunsten (English: State Academy of Fine Arts) was founded in 1870, Dutch art school, based in Amsterdam, Netherlands. It is a classical Akademia, a place where philosophers, academics and artists meet to test and exchange ideas and knowledge. It promotes visual artists through a two-year stay.
In addition, she was in the past the site of the new movement of the Amsterdam Impressionism as part of the international movement of Impressionism. By art historians it is also known as School of Allebé. From here essential impetus from the movement of modernity. This was made possible mainly through the opening of teaching activities of the newly appointed director August Allebé in 1880. Among the most important pioneers include such well-known names such as Georg Breitner, Jan Toorop, Piet Mondrian and Willem Arnold Witsen.
History of 1718-1869
In the Kingdom of the Netherlands in Amsterdam, there has been since 1718-1819 a municipal art school. She is also known as the Stadstekenacademie Amsterdam. In 1820 the Koninklijke Academie van Beeldende kunsten was founded. She was the continuation of this tradition. They used mainly the panel painting in oil technology. The style was the historically evolved landscape painting in connection with the neoclassicism. From 1820-1830 this educational institution had to share this position with the Royal Academy of Art, The Hague. In 1869 it was dissolved and realigned, she wore from then on the name Rijksakademie van beeldende kunsten.
On the history of the young Rijksakademie
The rijksakademie van beeldende kunsten will - in its understanding - be a place to come together to the philosophers, scientists and artists, to check knowledge and ideas and to share them. In 1870 she was founded by King William III. The aim was through state cultural funding to give visual artists an education opportunity. Early students were among others George Hendrik Breitner, Isaac Israëls and Willem Witsen, one of which ran out of Amsterdam Impressionism.
Under the patronage of the director, Professor August Allebé, the student movement St. Lucas (the patron saint of painters) was founded. Here the subjects offered should be strengthened at the academy. Also, it was to promote the collegial relationship among the students.
The second influence of Allebé was the changement in the doctrin of art. His cosmopolitan attitude toward art as a movement and the promotion and motivation of his students is very important for the Rijksakademie. Thus she had been a place of work and part of the art movements of the early 20th century substantial proportion. There were a significant stimulous to the movement of avant-garde in art.
The Academy today
In 1992, the State Academy moved into a former cavalry barracks on Sarphatistraat in Amsterdam. For the current function of these buildings have been renovated and modernized. In November 1999 it was transformed into an independent institution. It is financed by a fund of the Ministry of Education and from private sponsors. The Institute also offers workshops with specialized technical personnel and a library with a focus on contemporary art and art history. Students receive a scholarship and a studio offered. In recent years nearly 1200 individuals apply for an academy place. Each year, some twenty applicants are taken on for a place in the college in art. The artists come from all over the world. Less than half of the Netherlands come. Famous artists and important art critic will be invited regularly to visit the studios of the residents.
Prix de Rome
The Academy annually awards a Dutch Prix de Rome to eligible artists and architects. This price goes back to the 1666 launched French Prix de Rome. In 1808 Louis Napoléon introduce this prix in the Netherlands to promote art. It is confirmed by King William I of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands and Grand Duke of Luxembourg. From 1870 on the Rijksakademie has taken over the organisation. It is the oldest and most highly endowed art prize in the Netherlands.
In the year 1985 a reorganization of the Prix de Rome has taken place. The prize money has been increased and there were more artists to participate. Also new categories have been added, which annually changed. From 2006 the name of Prix de Rome was changed to Prix de Rome.nl and from now on awarded only in two categories:
- Category 1: Architecture and
- Category 2: Fine Arts.
It is presented only in cycles, each with a one-year break. There is only one winner and the first place prize is 40,000 € associated with a subsequent stay abroad. Since 2013, the Rijksakademie has handed over the organization to the Mondriaan Fund.
Professors of the Academy
- Hans Aarsman (1951)
- August Allebé (1838-1927), professor since 1870, director 1880-1906
- Pierre Cuypers (1827-1921)
- Carel Ludewijk Dake (1857-1918)
- Antoon Derkinderen (1859-1925), director subsequent to Allebé
- Marinus Heijl (1835-1931)
- Richard Roland Holst (1868-1931), director subsequent to Derkinderen
- Johannes Hendricus Jurres (1875-1946)
- Petrus Josephus Lutgers (1808-1874)
- Georg Sturm (1855-1923)
- Charles Verlat (1824-1890)
- Nicolaas van der Waay (1855-1936)
- Gerhard Westermann (1880-1971)
- Petrus van Wijnveld (1820-1902)
Famous Students of the Academy
- Karel Appel (1921-2006)
- Lizzy Ansingh (1875-1959)
- Floris Arntzenius (1864-1925)
- Johan Braakensiek (1858-1940)
- Nicolaas Bastert (1854-1939)
- Tjeerd Bottema (1884-1978)
- George Hendrik Breitner (1857-1923)
- Cornelius de Bruin (1870-1940)
- Constant Anton Nieuwenhuys (1920-2005)
- Antoon Derkinderen (1859-1925)
- Leo Gestel (1881-1941)
- Arnold Marc Gorter (1866-1933)
- Richard Roland Holst (1868-1938)
- Isaac Israëls (1865-1934)
- Cornelius Jetses (1873-1955)
- Hendrik Maarten Krabbé (1868-1931)
- Jacobus van Looy (1855-1930)
- Kees Maks (1876-1967)
- Bjarne Melgaard (1967)
- Samuel Jessurun de Mesquita (1868-1944)
- Wally Moes (1856-1918)
- Piet Mondrian (1872-1944)
- Anthon van Rappard (1858-1892)
- Suze Robertson (1855-1922)
- Bojan Šarčević (1974)
- Firoz Mahmud (1974)
- Jan Sluyters (1891-1957)
- Hobbe Smith (1862-1942)
- Jo Bauer-Stumpff (1873-1964)
- Willem Bastiaan Tholen (1860-1931)
- Jan Toorop (1858-1928)
- Jan Pieter Veth (1864-1925)
- Nicolaas van der Waay (1855-1936)
- Gerhard Westermann (1880-1971)
- Maurits van der Valk (1857-1935)
- Petrus Theodorus van Wijngaerdt (1873-1964)
- Jan Hillebrand Wijsmuller (1855-1925)
- Ernst Witkamp (1854-1897)
- Willem Witsen (1860-1923)
- The polar opposite and rival was the Royal Academy of Beelndende Kunsten to The Hague. It had been founded in 1682 and a night school for painting and drawing, on Saturday the club evenings were held, where conviviality and specialist in mind. From 1820 to about 1830 Amsterdam and The Hague struggled for supremacy in the art world of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The merger with the Engineering School gave The Hague a pioneering role. That reflects what is disgusted in the new building on Prinsengracht.
- this circle of friends was then transformed into an important association of artists. Since those years, it is an essential part of the Amsterdam art scene.
- Here the modern art as movement is understood as superordinate term for an era. Her end is seen in the art movement of postmodernism.
- In the 19th century was founded a Dutch system, which now comes back to the application. - First, private sponsors provide funding. Only if nothing works, intervenes the state.
- She belongs to the Amsterdamse Joffers.
- In 1904 he won the Prix de Rome.
- Official website (Dutch)
- Official website in english (English)
- Prix de Rome (Dutch)
- Mondrian Fund (Dutch)