Rijksakademie van beeldende kunsten
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The Rijksakademie van beeldende kunsten (English: State Academy of Fine Arts) was founded in 1870 as a Dutch art school and is based in Amsterdam, Netherlands. It is a classical Akademia, a place where philosophers, academics, and artists meet to test and exchange ideas and knowledge. The school promotes visual artists through a two-year stay[clarification needed].
In the past, the Rijksakademie van beeldende kunsten was also the site of the new movement of Amsterdam Impressionism, part of the international Impressionist movement. It is also known as the School of Allebé by art historians. From here, essential[for what?] impetus from the movement of modernity began. This was made possible mainly through the teaching activities of the newly appointed director, August Allebé, starting in 1880. Among the most important pioneers here were well-known names such as Georg Breitner, Jan Toorop, Piet Mondrian and Willem Arnoldus Witsen. Other artists connected to the academy were Hendrik Petrus Berlage, Willem Wiegmans, Constant Nieuwenhuijs, Karel Appel, Corneille, Ger Lataster, Willem Hofhuizen, and Jaap Min.
In the previous century,[which?] the name was still spelled "Rijksakademie" and was based at Stadhouderskade 86. It provided education academically comparable with a university. There are open days each year which give the opportunity to see the contemporary work of young artists at the school.
History from 1718 to 1869
From 1718 to 1819, the municipal art school was based in Amsterdam. It is also known as the Stadstekenacademie Amsterdam. In 1820, the Koninklijke Academie van Beeldende Kunsten was founded. It was the continuation of this[which?] art tradition. Mainly panel painting in oil technology was executed. The style was the historically evolved landscape painting in connection with[clarification needed] neoclassicism. From 1820 to 1830, the educational institution had to share this position with the Royal Academy of Art, The Hague. In 1869, however, it was dissolved and realigned, and from then on was known by the name Rijksakademie van beeldende kunsten.
Early history of the Rijksakademie
The Rijksakademie van beeldende kunsten was understood be a place for philosophers, scientists and artists to come together and compare and share knowledge and ideas. In 1870, the academy was founded by King William III as a successor to the Koninklijke Academie (19th century), the Stads Teekenacademie (18th century) and the Konstkamer (17th century) through state cultural funding. The aim was to give visual artists an educational opportunity. Early students included George Hendrik Breitner, Isaac Israëls and Willem Witsen, who ran out[clarification needed] of Amsterdam Impressionism.
Under the patronage of the director, Professor August Allebé, the student movement of "St. Lucas" (the patron saint of painters) was founded. Here the subjects offered were to strengthen students at the academy.[clarification needed] Also, it was to promote the collegiate relationship between the students.
The second influence of Allebé was the change in the doctrine of art. His cosmopolitan attitude toward art as a movement and the promotion and motivation of his students was very important for the Rijksakademie. Consequently, it was a place of work and a significant part of the art movements of the early 20th century. There was a significant stimulus to the movement of avant-garde in art.
The Academy today
Around 1985, the organisation obtained the additional title Instituut voor Praktijkstudie and offered postdoctoral education.
In 1992, the State Academy moved into former "cavalry barracks" at Sarphatistraat 470 in Amsterdam. The buildings were renovated and modernized. In November 1999, it became an independent art institution. The school is financed by the Ministry of Education and by private sponsors. The Institute also offers workshops with specialized technical personnel and a library with a focus on contemporary art and art history. Students who attend the school receive a scholarship and are offered a studio to live in while they are there. In recent years, nearly 1200 individuals have applied for a place at the academy. Each year, some twenty applicants obtain a place in the art college. The artists come from all over the world and fewer than half are from the Netherlands. Famous artists and important art critics are often invited to visit the studios of the residents.
Prix de Rome
The Academy annually awards a Dutch Prix de Rome to eligible artists and architects. This award goes back to 1666, when the French launched their Prix de Rome. In 1808, Louis Napoléon introduced this prize in the Netherlands to promote art. It was confirmed by the Dutch King William I. Since 1870, the Rijksakademie has taken over the organisation of this award. It is the oldest and most highly endowed art prize in the Netherlands.
In 1985, the Prix de Rome was reorganised. The prize money was increased and there were more participating artists. In addition, new art categories were added, which change annually. From 2006, the name was changed to "Prix de Rome.nl" and it is awarded only in two categories: Architecture and Fine Arts.
The prize is presented in cycles,[clarification needed] each with a one-year break. There is only one winner and the first prize is 40,000 € and a stay abroad.[clarification needed] In 2013, the Rijksakademie handed over the organization of the prize money[clarification needed] to the Mondriaan Fund.
Professors of the Academy
- Hans Aarsman (1951)
- August Allebé (1838-1927), professor since 1870, director 1880-1906
- Pierre Cuypers (1827-1921)
- Carel Ludewijk Dake (1857-1918)
- Antoon Derkinderen (1859-1925), director subsequent to Allebé
- Marinus Heijl (1835-1931)
- Richard Roland Holst (1868-1931), director subsequent to Derkinderen
- Johannes Hendricus Jurres (1875-1946)
- Petrus Josephus Lutgers (1808-1874)
- Georg Sturm (1855-1923)
- Charles Verlat (1824-1890)
- Nicolaas van der Waay (1855-1936)
- Gerhard Westermann (1880-1971)
- Petrus van Wijnveld (1820-1902)
Famous Students of the Academy
- Karel Appel (1921-2006)
- Lizzy Ansingh (1875-1959)
- Floris Arntzenius (1864-1925)
- Johan Braakensiek (1858-1940)
- Nicolaas Bastert (1854-1939)
- Tjeerd Bottema (1884-1978)
- George Hendrik Breitner (1857-1923)
- Cornelius de Bruin (1870-1940)
- Constant Anton Nieuwenhuys (1920-2005)
- Antoon Derkinderen (1859-1925)
- Leo Gestel (1881-1941)
- Arnold Marc Gorter (1866-1933)
- Richard Roland Holst (1868-1938)
- Isaac Israëls (1865-1934)
- Cornelius Jetses (1873-1955)
- Hendrik Maarten Krabbé (1868-1931)
- Jacobus van Looy (1855-1930)
- Kees Maks (1876-1967)
- Bjarne Melgaard (1967)
- Samuel Jessurun de Mesquita (1868-1944)
- Wally Moes (1856-1918)
- Piet Mondrian (1872-1944)
- Anthon van Rappard (1858-1892)
- Suze Robertson (1855-1922)
- Bojan Šarčević (1974)
- Firoz Mahmud (1974)
- Jan Sluyters (1891-1957)
- Hobbe Smith (1862-1942)
- Jo Bauer-Stumpff (1873-1964)
- Willem Bastiaan Tholen (1860-1931)
- Jan Toorop (1858-1928)
- Jan Pieter Veth (1864-1925)
- Nicolaas van der Waay (1855-1936)
- Gerhard Westermann (1880-1971)
- Maurits van der Valk (1857-1935)
- Petrus Theodorus van Wijngaerdt (1873-1964)
- Jan Hillebrand Wijsmuller (1855-1925)
- Ernst Witkamp (1854-1897)
- Willem Witsen (1860-1923)
- Its polar opposite and rival was the Royal Academy of Beeldende Kunsten in The Hague. This academy had been founded in 1682 as[as?] a night school for painting and drawing, and on Saturdays the club evenings were held, with conviviality and the specialist in mind.[clarification needed] From 1820 to about 1830, Amsterdam and The Hague struggled for supremacy in the art world of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The merger with the Engineering School gave The Hague a pioneering role. That reflects what is disgusted[clarification needed] in the new building on Prinsengracht.
- This circle of friends was then transformed into an important association of artists. Since those years, it is an essential part of the Amsterdam art scene.
- Here the modern art as movement is understood as superordinate term for an era.[clarification needed] Its end is seen in the art movement of postmodernism.
- This revived the system of finance used in the Netherlands in the 19th century: First, private sponsors provide funding. The state intervenes if this is unsuccessful.
- She belongs to the Amsterdamse Joffers.
- In 1904 he won the Prix de Rome.
- Official website (Dutch)
- Official website in english (English)
- Prix de Rome (Dutch)
- Mondrian Fund (Dutch)