Kray twins

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Ronald and Reginald Kray
Krays.jpg
Reggie (left) and Ronnie Kray
Born 24 October 1933
Hoxton, London, England
Died Ronnie:
17 March 1995(1995-03-17) (aged 61)
Wexham, Buckinghamshire, England
Reggie:
1 October 2000(2000-10-01) (aged 66)
Norwich, Norfolk, England
Cause of death Heart attack (Ronnie)
Bladder Cancer (Reggie)
Other names Ronnie & Reggie
Occupation Nightclub owners, gangsters
Criminal status Both deceased
Spouse(s) Reggie:
Frances Shea (m. 1965; d. 1967)
Roberta Jones (m. 1997)[1][2]
Ronnie:
Elaine Mildener (m. 1985; div. 1989)[3]
Kate Howard (m. 1989; div. 1994)[3]

Twin brothers Ronald "Ronnie" Kray (24 October 1933 – 17 March 1995) and Reginald "Reggie" Kray (24 October 1933 – 1 October 2000) were English gangsters who were the foremost perpetrators of organised crime in the East End of London during the 1950s and 1960s. With their gang, the Firm, the Krays were involved in armed robberies, arson, protection rackets, assaults, and the murders of Jack "the Hat" McVitie and George Cornell.

As West End nightclub owners, they mixed with politicians and prominent entertainers such as Diana Dors, Frank Sinatra, and Judy Garland. The Krays were much feared within their social environment; in the 1960s, they became celebrities, even being photographed by David Bailey and interviewed on television.

They were arrested on 8 May 1968 and convicted in 1969, by the efforts of detectives led by Detective Superintendent Leonard "Nipper" Read. Both were sentenced to life imprisonment. Ronnie remained in Broadmoor Hospital until his death on 17 March 1995; Reggie was released from prison on compassionate grounds in August 2000, eight weeks before his death from cancer.

Early life[edit]

Ronnie and Reggie Kray were born on 24 October 1933 in Hoxton, East London, to Charles David Kray (10 March 1907 – 8 March 1983), a scrap gold dealer,[4] and Violet Annie Lee (5 August 1909 – 4 August 1982).[5]

They were identical twins, Reggie being born 10 minutes before Ronnie. Their parents already had a six-year-old son, Charles James (9 July 1927 – 4 April 2000).[6] A sister, Violet (born 1929), died in infancy. When the twins were three years old, they contracted diphtheria. Ronnie almost died in 1942 from a head injury suffered in a fight with Reggie.

The twins first attended Wood Close School in Brick Lane, and then Daniel Street School.[7] In 1938, the Kray family moved from Stean Street in Hoxton, to 178 Vallance Road in Bethnal Green. At the beginning of World War II, 32-year-old Charles Kray was conscripted into the army, but he refused to go and went into hiding.

The influence of their maternal grandfather, Jimmy "Cannonball" Lee,[8] caused the brothers to take up amateur boxing, then a popular pastime for working-class boys in the East End. Sibling rivalry spurred them on, and both achieved some success. They are said to have never lost a match before turning professional at age 19.

National Service[edit]

The Kray twins were notorious for their gang and its violence, and narrowly avoided being sent to prison many times. Young men were conscripted for National Service at this time, and they were called up to serve with the Royal Fusiliers in 1952. They reported, but attempted to leave after only a few minutes. The corporal in charge tried to stop them, but Ronnie punched him on the chin, leaving him seriously injured, and the Krays walked back to the East End.[citation needed] They were arrested the next morning and were turned over to the army.

While absent without leave, they assaulted a police constable who tried to arrest them. They were among the last prisoners held at the Tower of London before being transferred to Shepton Mallet military prison in Somerset for a month to await court-martial. They were convicted and sent to the Home Counties Brigade Depot jail in Canterbury, Kent.

Their behaviour in prison was so bad that they both received dishonourable discharges from the army. They tried to dominate the exercise area outside their one-man cells during their few weeks in prison, when their conviction was certain. They threw tantrums, emptied their latrine bucket over a sergeant, dumped a dixie (a large food and liquid container[9]) full of hot tea on another guard, handcuffed a guard to their prison bars with a pair of stolen cuffs, and set their bedding on fire.

They were moved to a communal cell where they assaulted their guard with a china vase and escaped. They were quickly recaptured and awaited transfer to civilian authority for crimes committed while at large; they spent their last night in Canterbury drinking cider, eating crisps, and smoking cigarillos courtesy of the young national servicemen acting as their guards.[citation needed]

Criminal careers[edit]

Nightclub owners[edit]

Their criminal records and dishonourable discharges ended their boxing careers, and the brothers turned to crime full-time. They bought a run-down snooker club in Bethnal Green where they started several protection rackets. By the end of the 1950s, the Krays were working for Jay Murray from Liverpool and were involved in hijacking, armed robbery, and arson, through which they acquired other clubs and properties. In 1960, Ronnie Kray was imprisoned for 18 months for running a protection racket and related threats. While he was in prison, Peter Rachman, head of a violent landlord operation, gave Reggie a nightclub called Esmeralda's Barn on the Knightsbridge end of Wilton Place next to a bistro called Joan's Kitchen. The location is where the Berkeley Hotel now stands.

This increased the Krays' influence in the West End by making them celebrities as well as criminals. They were assisted by a banker named Alan Cooper who wanted protection against the Krays' rivals, the Richardsons, based in South London.[10]

Celebrity status[edit]

In the 1960s, they were widely seen as prosperous and charming celebrity nightclub owners and were part of the Swinging London scene. A large part of their fame was due to their non-criminal activities as popular figures on the celebrity circuit, being photographed by David Bailey on more than one occasion, and socialising with lords, MPs, socialites, and show business characters, including actors George Raft, Judy Garland, Diana Dors, Barbara Windsor, and singer Frank Sinatra.

They were the best years of our lives. They called them the swinging sixties. The Beatles and The Rolling Stones were rulers of pop music, Carnaby Street ruled the fashion world... and me and my brother ruled London. We were fucking untouchable...

– Ronnie Kray, in his autobiography My Story[11]

Lord Boothby and Tom Driberg[edit]

The Krays also came into the public attention when an exposé in the tabloid newspaper Sunday Mirror alleged that Ron had a sexual relationship with Robert Lord Boothby, a Conservative politician.[12] No names were printed, but the twins threatened the journalists involved and Boothby threatened to sue, and the newspaper backed down. It sacked the editor, printed an apology, and paid Boothby £40,000 in an out-of-court settlement.[13] Because of this, other newspapers were unwilling to expose the Krays' connections and criminal activities. Much later, Channel 4 established the truth of the allegations and released a documentary on the subject called The Gangster and the Pervert Peer (2009).[14]

The police investigated the Krays on several occasions, but the brothers' reputation for violence made witnesses afraid to testify. There was also a problem for both main political parties. The Conservative Party was unwilling to press the police to end the Krays' power for fear that the Boothby connection would again be publicised, and the Labour Party's MP Tom Driberg was also rumoured to have had a relationship with Ron Kray.[15][16]

Frank Mitchell[edit]

On 12 December 1966, the Krays helped Frank Mitchell, "the Mad Axeman",[17] to escape from Dartmoor Prison. Ronnie had befriended Mitchell while they served time together in Wandsworth prison. Mitchell felt that the authorities should review his case for parole, so Ronnie thought that he would be doing him a favour by getting him out of Dartmoor, highlighting his case in the media and forcing the authorities to act.

Once Mitchell was out of Dartmoor, the Krays held him at a friend's flat in Barking Road, East Ham. He was a large man with a mental disorder, and he was difficult to control. He disappeared, but the Krays were acquitted of his murder.[17] Freddie Foreman, a former member of the Firm, claimed in his autobiography Respect that he shot Mitchell and disposed of his body at sea.

George Cornell[edit]

The Blind Beggar pub in 2005

Ronnie Kray shot and killed George Cornell, an associate of the Richardsons, leaders of a rival gang. The killing occurred at the Blind Beggar pub in Whitechapel on 9 March 1966. Months before, there had been a shoot out at the Mr. Smith's club in Catford involving the Richardson gang. Richard Hart, an associate of the Krays was shot dead. This public shootout meant the arrest of nearly all the Richardson gang. Cornell, by chance was not present at the club during the shootout and was not arrested. Whilst visiting the hospital to check up on his friends, he randomly chose to visit at the Blind Beggars Pub, only a mile away from where the Krays lived. Ronnie was drinking in another pub when he learned of Cornell's location. He went there with his driver "Scotch Jack" John Dickson and his assistant Ian Barrie. Ronnie walked into the pub with Barrie, straight to Cornell and shot him in the head in public view. Barrie, confused by what happened, fired five shots in the air warning the public not to report what had happened to the police. Just before he was shot, Cornell remarked, "Well, look who's here." He died at 3:00am in hospital.

Ronnie Kray was already suffering from paranoid schizophrenia at the time of the killing.[18]

According to some sources, Ronnie killed Cornell because Cornell referred to Ronnie as a "fat poof" during a confrontation between the Krays and the Richardson gang at the Astor Club on Christmas Day 1965. The confrontation resulted in a gang war, and Ronnie's associate Richard Hart was murdered at 'Mr Smith's Club' in Catford on 8 March 1966. Richardson gang member "Mad" Frankie Fraser was taken to court for Hart's murder but was found not guilty. Richardson gang member Ray "The Belgian" Cullinane testified that he saw Cornell kicking Hart. Witnesses would not cooperate with the police in Hart's case due to intimidation, and the trial ended inconclusively without pointing to any suspect in particular.[19]

Cornell was the only one to escape the brawl without major injuries, and was probably suspected by Ronnie of having an important role in Hart's murder. But at court, Ronnie denied that he had been insulted and that the murder was in order to avenge Hart's death. Instead, he claimed that the reason for the murder was that Cornell had been threatening the Kray brothers.

Jack "the Hat" McVitie[edit]

The Krays' criminal activities remained hidden behind their celebrity status and "legitimate" businesses. Reggie was allegedly encouraged by his brother in October 1967, four months after the suicide of his wife Frances, to kill Jack "the Hat" McVitie, a minor member of the Kray gang who had failed to fulfil a £1,000 contract paid to him in advance to kill Leslie Payne. McVitie was lured to a basement flat in Evering Road, Stoke Newington on the pretence of a party. Upon entering, he saw Ronnie Kray seated in the front room. As Ronnie approached him, he let loose a barrage of verbal abuse and cut him below his eye with a piece of broken glass. It is believed that an argument then broke out between the twins and McVitie. As the argument got more heated, Reggie Kray pointed a handgun at McVitie's head and pulled the trigger twice, but the gun failed to discharge.

McVitie was then held in a bearhug and Reggie Kray was handed a carving knife. He stabbed McVitie in the face and stomach, driving the blade into his neck while twisting the knife, not stopping even as McVitie lay on the floor dying. However, it was thought that Reggie never intended to kill McVitie and he was lured to the basement flat to be put straight by the twins, not killed.[20]

Several other members of the Firm, including the brothers Tony and Chris Lambrianou, were convicted of this. In Tony Lambrianou's biography, he claims that when Reggie was stabbing Jack, his liver came out and he had to flush it down the toilet. McVitie's body has never been recovered.

Arrest and trial[edit]

Photograph of London gangster Reginald Kray (second from left) taken in the months leading up to his trial in 1968. The evidence from this file and others resulted in him and his brother Ronald being sentenced to life imprisonment.

Inspector Leonard "Nipper" Read of Scotland Yard was promoted to the Murder Squad, and his first assignment was to bring down the Kray twins. It was not his first involvement with them. During the first half of 1964, Read had been investigating their activities, but publicity and official denials of Ron's relationship with Boothby made the evidence that he collected useless. Read went after the twins with renewed activity in 1967, but frequently came up against the East End "wall of silence" which discouraged anyone from providing information to the police.[21]

Nevertheless, by the end of 1967 Read had built up enough evidence against the Krays. Witness statements incriminated them, as did other evidence, but none made a convincing case on any one charge.

Early in 1968, the Krays employed a man named Alan Bruce Cooper who sent Paul Elvey to Glasgow to buy explosives for a car bomb. Elvey was the radio engineer who put Radio Sutch on the air in 1964, later renamed Radio City. Police detained him in Scotland and he confessed to being involved in three murder attempts. The evidence was weakened by Cooper, who claimed that he was an agent for the United States Treasury Department investigating links between the American Mafia and the Kray gang. The botched murders were his attempt to put the blame on the Krays. Cooper was being employed as a source by one of Read's superior officers, and Read tried using him as a trap for the Krays, but they avoided him.

Conviction and imprisonment[edit]

Eventually, a Scotland Yard conference decided to arrest the Krays on the evidence already collected, in the hope that other witnesses would be forthcoming once the Krays were in custody. On 8 May 1968,[22] the Krays and 15 other members of their "firm" were arrested. Many witnesses came forward now that the Krays' reign of intimidation was over, and it was relatively easy to gain a conviction. The Krays and 14 others were convicted, with one member of the Firm being acquitted. One of the firm members who was arrested for a short period provided a lot of the information to the police.

The twins' defence under their counsel John Platts-Mills, QC consisted of flat denials of all charges and discrediting witnesses by pointing out their criminal past. Justice Melford Stevenson said: "In my view, society has earned a rest from your activities."[23] Both were sentenced to life imprisonment, with a non-parole period of 30 years for the murders of Cornell and McVitie, the longest sentences ever passed at the Old Bailey (Central Criminal Court, London) for murder.[24] Their brother Charlie was imprisoned for 10 years for his part in the murders.

Later Years[edit]

Ronnie and Reggie Kray were allowed to attend the funeral of their mother Violet on 11 August 1982 (she had died of cancer the week before), under tight security. However they were not allowed to attend the graveside, which was at Chingford Mount Cemetery in East London where she was interred in the Kray family plot. The funeral was attended by celebrities including Diana Dors and underworld figures known to the Krays.[25] The twins did not ask to attend their father's funeral when he died in March 1983, to avoid the publicity that had surrounded their mother's funeral.

In 1985, officials at Broadmoor Hospital discovered a business card of Ron's, which prompted an investigation. It revealed that the twins – incarcerated at separate institutions – were operating a "lucrative bodyguard and 'protection' business for Hollywood stars", together with their older brother Charlie Kray and an accomplice not in prison. Documents released under Freedom of Information laws revealed that officials were concerned about this operation, called Krayleigh Enterprises, but believed that there was no legal basis to shut it down. Documentation of the investigation showed that Frank Sinatra hired 18 bodyguards from Krayleigh Enterprises during 1985.[26]

Ronnie Kray was a Category A prisoner, denied almost all liberties, and not allowed to mix with other prisoners. He was eventually certified insane in 1979[27] and lived the remainder of his life in Broadmoor Hospital in Crowthorne, Berkshire.[28] Reggie Kray was locked up in Maidstone Prison for 8 years (Category B). In his later years, he was downgraded to Category C and transferred to Wayland Prison in Norfolk.[citation needed]

Personal lives[edit]

In his book My Story and a comment to writer Robin McGibbon on The Kray Tapes, Ronnie states: "I'm bisexual, not gay. Bisexual." He also planned on marrying a woman named Monica in the 1960s whom he had dated for nearly three years. He called her "the most beautiful woman he had ever seen." This is mentioned in Reggie's book Born Fighter. Also, extracts are mentioned in Ron's own book My Story and Kate Kray's books Sorted; Murder, Madness and Marriage, and Free at Last.

Ronnie was arrested before he had the chance to marry Monica and, even though she married Ronnie's ex-boyfriend, 59 letters sent to her between May and December 1968 when he was imprisoned show Ronnie still had feelings for her, and his love for her was very clear. He referred to her as "my little angel" and "my little doll". She also still had feelings for Ronnie. These letters were auctioned in 2010.[29]

A letter, sent from prison in 1968, from Ronnie to his mother Violet also makes reference to Monica; "if they let me see Monica and put me with Reg, I could not ask for more." He went on to say, with spelling mistakes, "Monica is the only girl I have liked in my life. She is a luvely little person as you know. When you see her, tell her I am in luve with her more than ever."[30] Ron subsequently married twice, marrying Elaine Mildener in 1985 at Broadmoor chapel before the couple divorced in 1989, following which he married Kate Howard, whom he divorced in 1994.[18]

In 1997, Reggie married Roberta Jones[18] whom he met while still in prison. She was helping to publicise a film being made about Ronnie.[31]

In an interview with author John Pearson, Ronnie indicated he identified with the 19th-century soldier Gordon of Khartoum: "Gordon was like me, homosexual, and he met his death like a man. When it's time for me to go, I hope I do the same."[32]

Controversies[edit]

There was a long-running campaign, with some minor celebrity support, to have the twins released from prison, but successive Home Secretaries vetoed the idea, largely on the grounds that both Krays' prison records were marred by violence toward other inmates. The campaign gathered momentum after the release of a film based on their lives called The Krays (1990). Produced by Ray Burdis, it starred Spandau Ballet brothers Martin and Gary Kemp, who played the roles of Reggie and Ronnie respectively. Ronnie, Reggie and Charlie Kray received £255,000 for the film.[18]

Reggie wrote: "I seem to have walked a double path most of my life. Perhaps an extra step in one of those directions might have seen me celebrated rather than notorious."[33] Others point to Reggie's violent prison record when he was being detained separately from Ronnie and argue that in reality, the twins' temperaments were little different.

Reggie's marriage to Frances Shea (1944–67)[34] in 1965 lasted eight months when she left, although the marriage was never formally dissolved. An inquest came to the conclusion that she committed suicide,[35] but in 2002 an ex-lover of Reggie Kray's came forward to allege that Frances was actually murdered by a jealous Ronnie. Bradley Allardyce spent 3 years in Maidstone Prison with Reggie and explained, "I was sitting in my cell with Reg and it was one of those nights where we turned the lights down low and put some nice music on and sometimes he would reminisce. He would get really deep and open up to me. He suddenly broke down and said 'I'm going to tell you something I've only ever told two people and something I've carried around with me' – something that had been a black hole since the day he found out. He put his head on my shoulder and told me Ronnie killed Frances. He told Reggie what he had done two days after."[36]

A British television documentary, The Gangster and the Pervert Peer (2009), showed that Ronnie Kray was a man-on-man rapist (commonly referred to in criminal circles as a "nonce case"). The programme also detailed his relationship with Tory peer Bob Boothby as well as an ongoing Daily Mirror investigation into Lord Boothby's dealings with the Kray brothers.[37][38][39]

Deaths[edit]

Funerary monument, Chingford Mount Cemetery
Chingford Mount Cemetery 09.JPG
Chingford Mount Cemetery 06.JPG
Chingford Mount Cemetery 12.JPG

Ronnie, still serving time at the Prison Hospital at Broadmoor, died of a heart attack on 17 March 1995 at the age of 61 at Wexham Park Hospital in Slough, Berkshire.[40]

During his incarceration, Reggie became a born-again Christian.[41] He was freed from Wayland on 26 August 2000 after serving more than the recommended 30 years that he was sentenced to in March 1969.[42] He was 66, and was released on compassionate grounds for having inoperable bladder cancer.[43] The final weeks of his life were spent with his wife Roberta, whom he had married while in Maidstone Prison in July 1997,[44] in a suite at the Townhouse Hotel at Norwich,[45] having left Norwich Hospital on 22 September 2000.[46] On 1 October 2000, Reggie died in his sleep.[47] Ten days later, he was buried beside his brother Ronnie in Chingford Mount Cemetery.[48]

Older brother Charlie Kray was released from prison in 1975 after serving seven years,[49] but was sentenced again in 1997 for conspiracy to smuggle cocaine in an undercover drugs sting.[50] He died in prison of natural causes on 4 April 2000,[51] aged 73.[49]

In popular culture[edit]

Film[edit]

In addition to films explicitly about the twins, James Fox met Ronnie whilst the twins were held at HM Prison Brixton as part of his research for his role in the 1970 film Performance, and Richard Burton visited Ronnie at Broadmoor as part of his preparation for his role as a violent gay gangster in the 1971 film Villain.[18]

Literature[edit]

Music[edit]

  • Ronnie Kray is mentioned in the Blur song "Charmless Man", in the line: "I think he'd like to have been Ronnie Kray".
  • Ray Davies repeats the line "...and don't forget the Kray twins" in his song "London", later adding, "very dangerous people those Kray twins".
  • The former singer of The Smiths and solo artist Morrissey mentions each Kray brother by name in his song "The Last of the Famous International Playboys" saying, "Reggie Kray do you know my name?" and "Ronnie Kray do you know my face?". It was reported that Morrissey sent a wreath to Reggie Kray's funeral in 2000.[53]
  • Renegade Soundwave released their first single, "Kray Twins", in 1986. They also recorded a video for the song. Lyrics reference The Blind Beggar pub.

Television[edit]

  • The television drama series Whitechapel includes a three episode mini-series which was first aired 11 October 2010. In this series twin brothers were portrayed as the alleged biological sons of Ronnie Kray.
  • Monty Python's Flying Circus parodied the brothers as the ridiculously violent gangsters Doug and Dinsdale Piranha, and chronicled their arrest at the hands of Police Superintendent/amateur actor Harry "Snapper" Organs.
  • The Kray twins were one of the subjects of the fourth episode of the UK version of the TV show Drunk History.

Theatre[edit]

Two plays were produced in the 1970s that were based on thinly-veiled versions of the Krays:

References[edit]

  1. ^ Watson-Smyth, Kate (15 July 1997). "Flowers, but no champagne at Reggie Kray's wedding". The Independent. London. Retrieved 6 December 2011. 
  2. ^ Clydesdale, Lindsay (13 October 2009). "Roberta Kray on her life as a gangster's widow". Daily Record newspaper online. Scotland. Retrieved 6 December 2011. 
  3. ^ a b Hobbs, Dick (18 March 1995). "OBITUARY:Ron Kray". The Independent. London. Retrieved 6 December 2011. 
  4. ^ "Ancestry of the Kray twins". Wargs.com. Retrieved 16 August 2011. 
  5. ^ "Photographs: Violet Annie Kray (nee Lee) & Charles James Kray: Welcome to the web site dedicated to recording the family history of the Ennevers and Enevers and our related families. You can search for individuals, display family trees, calculate relationships, read family histories and view family photographs and other historical documents. There are currently 12 family branches with more than 30,000 people and 4,000 unique surnames on the site, including over 2,000 Ennevers, Enevers, Enivers, Ennevors and other early variations.". 
  6. ^ Charlie Kray's grave
  7. ^ Kray, Reg. Born Fighter. p. 8. 
  8. ^ "Reggie Kray with his grandfather, 1964", photo (c) Brian Duffy, telegraph.co.uk, slideshow with "Fashion and portrait photographer Brian Duffy dies aged 76" by Roya Nikkhah, 5 June 2010 12:30 pm BST. Retrieved 5 June 2010.
  9. ^ "WordNet Search – 3.1". Wordnetweb.princeton.edu. Retrieved 16 August 2011. 
  10. ^ Metropolitan Police, The Krays. Retrieved 13 November 2014
  11. ^ The Krays, accessed 28 October 2007 Archived 12 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
  12. ^ Barrett, David (26 July 2009). "Letters shed new light on Kray twins scandal". Sunday Telegraph. 
  13. ^ "Obituary of Reggie Kray". BBC News. 1 October 2000. Retrieved 16 August 2011. 
  14. ^ "The Gangster and the Pervert Peer (Episode Guide)". Channel 4. 2009. Retrieved 28 October 2014. 
  15. ^ Channel 4 TV (23 June 1997). Lords of The Underground. 
  16. ^ "Lords of the Underground". The Spectator. 28 June 1997. 
  17. ^ a b "''The Krays jailed in 1969'' Metropolitan Police, accessed 28 October 2007". Met.police.uk. Retrieved 16 August 2011. 
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i Campbell, Duncan (3 September 2015). "The selling of the Krays: how two mediocre criminals created their own legend". theguardian.com. Retrieved 3 September 2015. 
  19. ^ "Metropolitan Police, The Krays (archived)". Met.police.uk. Archived from the original on 2013-02-23. Retrieved 14 January 2014. 
  20. ^ Read, Leonard. Nipper Read, The Man Who Nicked The Krays. Time Warner Paperbacks 2001. p.291-292. ISBN 0-7515-3175-8
  21. ^ 'Walls of silence' around Krays 18 October 2001. ...New documents released by the Public Records Office show Flying Squad officers felt powerless to stop the new breed of underworld figures operating in London... (BBC News website)
  22. ^ "1968: Krays held on suspicion of murder". BBC News. 8 May 1968. Retrieved 4 April 2010. 
  23. ^ "Kray decision attacked". BBC News. 7 May 1998. Retrieved 4 April 2010. 
  24. ^ Hamilton, Fiona. "The Kray twins". The Times. London. Retrieved 4 April 2010. 
  25. ^ 1982: Krays let out for mother's funeral accessed 28 October 2007
  26. ^ Vanessa Allen (2 January 2010). "How the Krays ran a protection business for Sinatra and Co from behind bars". London: Daily Mail (online). Retrieved 28 August 2010. 
  27. ^ "OBITUARY:Ron Kray". independent.co.uk. The Independent. 18 March 1995. Retrieved 19 September 2015. 
  28. ^ "Ronnie Kray's death saddens villains and police alike". theguardian.com. The Guardian. 18 March 2015. Retrieved 19 September 2015. 
  29. ^ "The Krays: A collection of fifty nine letters from Ron Kray to Monica Buckley". Gorringes Auction. Gorringes LLP. Retrieved 30 July 2015. 
  30. ^ Kray, Ron. My Story. p. 94. 
  31. ^ Lindsay Clydesdale (13 October 2009). "Roberta Kray on her life as a gangster's widow". Scotland: Daily Record (online). Retrieved 10 April 2016. 
  32. ^ John Pearson (24 August 2010). "Psychopaths on parade: How National Service transformed the Krays into gangland thugs". London: Daily Mail (online). Retrieved 28 August 2010. 
  33. ^ "Reggie Kray: Notorious gangster". BBC News. 2000-08-26. Retrieved 2014-08-20. 
  34. ^ Edge, Simon (2014-05-15). "Reggie Kray's tragic first wife: Nightmare of Frances Shea's life with East End gangster". Daily Express. Retrieved 2014-08-20. 
  35. ^ "Frances Kray (née Shea) (died 1967), Wife of Reginald ('Reggie') Kray". National Portrait Gallery. Retrieved 9 August 2007. 
  36. ^ "Kray 'murdered brother's wife'". BBC News. 12 January 2002. Retrieved 4 April 2010. 
  37. ^ Mackie33. "T&C s01e02 - The Gangster and The Pervert Peer - Video Dailymotion". Dailymotion. 
  38. ^ "The Gangster and the Perverted Peer". Channel 4. 
  39. ^ The Gangster and the Pervert Peer. Sky TV. 2009. 
  40. ^ "1995: Killer Ronnie Kray dies". news.bbc.co.uk. BBC News. Retrieved 19 September 2015. 
  41. ^ "Kray's 'born-again Christian' letters up for auction". bbc.co.uk/news. BBC News. 18 January 2011. Retrieved 19 September 2015. 
  42. ^ "Reggie Kray freed". news.bbc.co.uk. BBC News. 26 August 2000. Retrieved 19 September 2015. 
  43. ^ "Can you really predict a prisoner's death?date=August 6, 2010". BBC. 
  44. ^ "Flowers, but no champagne at Reggie Kray's wedding". independent.co.uk. The Independent. 15 July 1997. Retrieved 19 September 2015. 
  45. ^ "Reginald Kray dies of cancer at 66". telegraph.co.uk. The Telegraph. 2 October 2000. Retrieved 19 September 2015. 
  46. ^ "Kray released from hospital". news.bbc.co.uk. BBC News. 22 September 2000. Retrieved 19 September 2015. 
  47. ^ "Reggie Kray dies". news.bbc.co.uk. BBC News. 1 October 2000. Retrieved 19 September 2015. 
  48. ^ "Funeral tributes for Kray". news.bbc.co.uk. BBC News. 11 October 2000. Retrieved 19 September 2015. 
  49. ^ a b "Charlie Kray dies in hospital aged 73". theguardian.com. The Guardian. 5 April 2000. Retrieved 19 September 2015. 
  50. ^ "Charles Kray gets 12 years for drug plot". independent.co.uk. The Independent. 24 June 1997. Retrieved 19 September 2015. 
  51. ^ "Gangster Charlie Kray dies". BBC. Retrieved 28 October 2007. 
  52. ^ Campbell, Duncan The selling of the Krays: how two mediocre criminals created their own legend The Guardian. September 7, 2015
  53. ^ "Piece on Kray plot in the Sun; Morrissey sent wreath". Morrissey-solo. Retrieved 2015-07-29. 

External links[edit]