RSPCA Australia

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RSPCA Australia
RSPCA logo 2014.gif
Motto For all creatures great & small
Formation 1981 (1981)
Type Peak body
Legal status Charity[1]
Headquarters Deakin, Australian Capital Territory, Australia
President
Eileen Thumpkin[2]
Budget
A$100,000,000[3]
Staff
1,000[3]
Website www.rspca.org.au

RSPCA Australia (Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals) is an Australian peak organisation established in 1981 to promote animal welfare. Each state and territory of Australia has an RSPCA organisation that predates and is affiliated with RSPCA Australia. The national body is funded in part by the Australian Government but relies on corporate sponsorship, fundraising events and voluntary donations for its income. It describes itself as a "federated organisation made up of the eight independent state and territory RSPCA Societies."[4]

RSPCA Australia defines its purpose as being the leading authority in animal care and protection, and to prevent cruelty to animals by actively promoting their care and protection.[5]

History[edit]

In each state and territory of Australia there are separate RSPCA organisations that are differentiated by their state/territorial names such as RSCPA NSW, RSPCA Victoria and so forth. During 1980, two meetings were held among delegates from each state/territorial RSPCA body to enable the formation of a national RSPCA body. The first meeting of the RSPCA Australia was held in February 1981. The objective of RSPCA Australia is to provide a national presence for the RSPCA movement and to promote unity and a commonality of purpose between the state and territory based bodies.The national Council of RSPCA Australia meet three times a year. Each affiliate RSPCA has two members on the national Council. The Council meets to formulate new policies and offer advice to government and industry bodies on animal welfare issues.

British Background[edit]

The Australian-based RSPCA societies owe their origins to the SPCA in England. Although no formal link exists between the RSPCA in both countries it is the UK experience that led to the formation of societies in the Australian colonies. The intellectual climate of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century in Britain reflected opposing views that were exchanged in print concerning the use of animals. The harsh use and maltreatment of animals in hauling carriages, scientific experiments (including vivisection), and cultural amusements of fox-hunting, bull-baiting and cock-fighting were among some of the matters that were debated by social reformers, clergy, and parliamentarians.[6] Some early legislative efforts to ban practices such as bull-baiting in the English parliament were made in 1800 and 1809, the former effort led by William Johnstone Pulteney (1729-1805) and the latter by Lord Erskine (1750-1823) but the proposed Bills were defeated.[7]

The first anti-cruelty legislation that was passed by England's parliament occurred in 1822 was known as the Cruel Treatment of Cattle Act 1822 (3 Geo. IV c. 71), and was drafted by the Irish politician and lawyer Richard Martin (1754-1834).[8] In 1821 some sympathetic support for Martin's legislative work was centred around the efforts of Reverend Arthur Broome (1779-1837)as he had letters published in periodicals in which he canvassed for expressions of interest in forming a voluntary organisation to promote animal welfare and oppose cruelty.[9] In 1822, Broome attempted to form a Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals that would bring together the patronage of persons who were of social rank and committed to social reforms. Broome did organise and chair a meeting of sympathisers in November 1822 where it was agreed that a Society should be created and at which Broome was named its Secretary but the attempt was short-lived.[10] Broome tried once more to create the Society and he invited a number of social reformers gathered on 16 June 1824 at Old Slaughter's Coffee House, London to create a Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals.[11] The meeting was chaired by Thomas Fowell Buxton MP (1786-1845) and the resolution to establish the Society was voted on. Among the others who were present as founding members were Sir James Mackintosh MP, Richard Martin, William Wilberforce, Basil Montagu, John Ashley Warre, Rev. George Bonner (1784-1840), Rev. George Avery Hatch (1757-1837), Sir James Graham, John Gilbert Meymott, William Mudford, and Lewis Gompertz.[12] Broome was appointed as the Society's first honorary secretary.[13] Queen Victoria bestowed the Royal Prefix in 1840.[14]

Australian Colonies[edit]

Early concerns about the maltreatment of animals were expressed in newspaper articles and letters from correspondents in the colony of NSW in the first decade of the nineteenth century.[15] The earliest piece of colonial legislation that carried penalties for some forms of cruelty toward animals was passed in Tasmania (then called Van Dieman's Land) in 1837.[16] However, there was no co-ordinating body that superintended the enforcement of this early colonial legislation. Sentiments about the necessity of passing substantial anti-cruelty laws and creating organisations similar to England's RSPCA were published in the newspapers in the colonial states of NSW,[17] Victoria,[18] South Australia,[19] Queensland,[20] Tasmania[21] and Western Australia[22] from the 1860s until the early 1890s as each colonial state established an SPCA.

The first Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA) in Australia was formed in the colony of Victoria in 1871.[23] This was followed by New South Wales in 1873;[24] South Australia in 1875;[25] Tasmania in 1878;[26] Queensland in 1883;[27] Western Australia in 1892;[28] Australian Capital Territory in 1955 and Darwin in 1965.

The Royal Warrant was given to the WA SPCA in 1920,[29] followed by NSW SPCA in 1923,[30] South Australia in 1937,[31] Queensland in 1955,[32] Tasmania in 1956[33] and Victoria in 1956.[34]

RSPCA Australia[edit]

Since its inception the national body has had to come to grips with a range of moral reflections that have stimulated public debates in many English-speaking nations, including Australia, that are concerned with human relationships with non-human creatures. The spectrum of debates include questions about animal sentience (the capacity to experience emotions and pain),[35] conservation and ecology, intensive agricultural farming,[36] scientific experiments on animals,[37] the live export trade, unlicensed puppy farms, animals used in circuses and rodeos, greyhound and horse racing, as well as issues surrounding human diets (carnivorous, vegetarian and vegan).[38] In the academic field of legal study dubbed "animal law" there is much discussion among Australian lawyers and legal scholars about the adequacy of existing animal welfare legislation.[39]

During the twenty-first century a widespread public debate, which has included the RSPCA Australia as a participating voice expressing alarm, about the cruel treatment of animals is in the live export trade.[40] On this controversial issue RSPCA Australia's position has been to urge the Commonwealth government to apply and enforce stronger regulatory safeguards, as well as supporting a case for this primary industry to shift from live exports and transition to frozen food exports.[41] On other contentious issues RSPCA Australia has advocated the abolition of battery-hen cages,[42] stopping the use of animals to test make-up cosmetics,[43] opposing the use of whips in horse racing,[44] and ending jumps (or steeplechase) in horse racing.[45]

Purple Cross Award[edit]

The RSPCA Purple Cross Award was first awarded to an Australian Silky Terrier named Fizo on 25 September 1996. It was implemented to recognise the actions of animals, particularly if they have risked their life to save a person from injury or death. The award was named after the Purple Cross Society, which was established after the Second World War to provide equipment for the Light Horse Brigade.[46] On 19 May 1997, the RSPCA posthumously awarded Private John Simpson's donkey 'Murphy', and all the other donkeys used by Simpson, the Purple Cross Award for 'the exceptional work they performed on behalf of humans while under continual fire at Gallipoli during World War 1 (1915)'.[47] On 5 April 2011, the Australian special forces explosives detection dog 'Sarbi' also received the Purple Cross Award, at the Australian War Memorial.[48][49]

Animal welfare enforcement[edit]

The state and territory RSPCA entities employ inspectors who are appointed under state and territory animal welfare legislation. This legislation gives inspectors a range of powers that vary according to state or territory, primarily focused on investigating cases of animal cruelty and to enforce animal welfare law.[50] RSPCAs are in most states the only private charity with law enforcement powers.

State branches[edit]

RSPCA Victoria[edit]

RSPCA Victoria was established on 4 July 1871.[51] Its founding president was the prominent Anglican Sir William Foster Stawell (1815-1889) who served as Victoria's second Chief Justice.[52] As of 2014 it manages 10 animal shelters across Victoria and like all other state RSPCAs besides Darwin operates an animal cruelty inspectorate on behalf of the state government. It is governed by a board of eight directors; the present President of RSPCA Victoria is Dr Hugh Wirth AM KGSJ who has held the position since 1972.[53][54] The legal power that authorises Victorian RSPCA inspectors to investigate reports of animal cruelty are specified in the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act 1986 (as amended)[55]

RSPCA New South Wales[edit]

RSPCA NSW is a not-for-profit charity operating in New South Wales, Australia that promotes animal welfare. The RSPCA NSW was founded in Sydney in 1873 and on Monday 28 July 1873 it was announced at a committee meeting that the Society's first President would be the prominent Anglican Sir Alfred Stephen (1802-1894) who had served as the Third Chief Justice of NSW.[56] During his time as a member of the NSW Legislative Council, Sir Alfred Stephen attempted on four occasions to pass an animals protection bill.[57] The legal power that authorises NSW RSPCA inspectors to investigate reports of animal cruelty are specified in the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act 1979 (as amended).[58]

Criticism[edit]

The RSPCA NSW has been criticised for the fact it has consistently had kill rates above 50% for the duration of Steve Coleman's tenure as CEO.[59] It has had this kill rate despite many local pounds working in conjunction with rescue groups managing to get kill rates to 15% or less.[59][60] It is claimed that this is despite running at a profit ($10 million last year) and having far more public viability than most rescue organisations, as well as the most total animals destroyed of any single organisation, and it was included on a government panel on reducing animal deaths in pounds and shelters, in which rescue groups were excluded. They advised that rather than a mandatory kill limit, better guidelines be put in place. There is concern that without a mandatory kill % limit there will be no change in the organisation's practices.[59]

A 100-person vigil is planned outside the RSPCA's Million Paws Walk 2013 in memory of Max the Pointer, who it was alleged was put down for claimed behavioural issues that the Justice4Max protest group claimed were unfounded.[61]

There were also concerns that RSPCA NSW fails to work with other animal rescue groups in NSW.[62][63] In the case of the Rutherford facility, records indicate that not a single animal has been released to a rescue group since 1 August 2011. These have caused such concern that a councillor in Maitland brought forth a motion to see whether a) the RSPCA might be in breach of its contract that requires the RSPCA to 'consider involving local certified rescue groups to assist in re-homing animals' and b) as a function of a) whether the council is now in breach of the Companion Animals Act NSW section 64 "It is the Duty of the council concerned to consider an alternative action to that of destroying the animal and (if practicable) to adopt any such alternative."[64]

However, in response to these claims Mr Picton of the RSPCA's Rutherford facility stated "We don’t usually release animals to rescue groups, but there is no law requiring us to".[65]

The RSPCA has received severe criticism over its handling of several cases especially when its officers shot 48 cattle on a Pilliga, New South Wales district property in June 2008. Some of the cows that were shot left calves motherless.[66] A Walgett veterinarian, Dr Enid Coupé gave evidence that blood tests from the cattle indicated levels of the protein albumin and globulin were within normal levels and did not indicate starvation.[67]

In another controversial case, RSPCA inspectors raided Waterways Wildlife Park in Gunnedah, New South Wales where they sedated and seized eight koalas before taking them to Port Macquarie, New South Wales. Also present was a camera crew from Seven Network’s show RSPCA Animal Rescue who captured footage of the seizure. Waterways Wildlife Park had an Improvement notice issued to them, but the RSPCA did not publicly indicate what the problems were. The NSW Government has pledged up to $5,000,[68] in addition to the tens of thousands of dollars already contributed, to support the park and plan for its future.[69] The RSPCA has since euthanized one of the seized animals.[70]

Temperament test[edit]

The RSPCA's Temperament test, which it uses as grounds for 60+% of its euthanasia justifications, is not publicly available. Its application and situational use has been criticised as many of the behaviours in it are exhibited by frightened dogs as well, which makes its use unacceptable according to some people. One of the people who claims to have helped devise the test also states it is used incorrectly – that it was intended to be used as a guide to assess the rehabilitation requirements of the dog – not justify euthanising it.[62]

A study by Monash University found that the temperament testing may not be being applied correctly or properly, casting further doubt on its usefulness, as a quarter of people using it to assess dogs had not been trained to, and more than half believed they were not given enough time to assess the dogs.[71]

RSPCA Queensland[edit]

The RSPCA Queensland was originally created at a public meeting held on Monday 11 September 1876 in Brisbane's Town Hall and was chaired by Rev. W. Draper.[72] However its activities were short-lived and a fresh attempt to restart the Society occurred at a public meeting on Friday 24 August 1883 which included the Brisbane mayor Mr Abram Robertson Byram, four Christian clergymen (Rev. M'Culloch, Griffth, Poole and Hennessey), a lawyer (A. Rutledge) and veterinarian (James Irving).[73] In 1888 the Society established for the education of youth the Band of Mercy and then in 1890 the Society altered its constitution to encompass both animals and children and became known as the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty.[74] There are 3,000 volunteers across Queensland. The legal powers that authorise Queensland RSPCA inspectors to investigate reports of animal cruelty are specified in the Animal Care and Protection Act 2001.[75]

In 2016, RSPCA Queensland was a recipient of the Queensland Greats Awards.[76]

RSPCA Tasmania[edit]

RSPCA Tasmania (Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Tasmania) is a charity and law enforcement organisation in Tasmania, Australia. It runs and maintains three shelters for the rehoming of animals, a dog boarding service as well as several other programs. It is also responsible for the enforcement of animal welfare laws in Tasmania.[77] The Society was created at a public meeting on 19 July 1878 chaired by Governor Frederick Weld (1823-1891) and other prominent figures included Sir James Milne Wilson (1812-1880) and the Anglican Dean of Hobart Rev. Henry B. Bromby (1840-1911).[78] The legal powers that authorise Tasmania's RSPCA inspectors to investigate reports of animal cruelty are specified in the Animal Welfare Act 1993.[79]

RSPCA South Australia[edit]

RSPCA in South Australia was created in 1875 through the collaborative efforts of politicians, public officials, Christian clergy and churchgoers, and members of the Jewish community. A public meeting was convened at the Adelaide Town Hall on 6 December 1875 that was chaired by the mayor Sir John Colton (1823-1902) who was a renowned philanthropist and a prominent active member in the Wesleyan Methodist church.[80] The two principal organisers of the meeting were Mr Abraham Abrahams (1813-1892), a prominent Jewish philanthropist and businessman, and Dr Robert Tracy Wylde (1811-1903).[81] Abrahams served as the first honorary secretary. The Society's first president was the Governor Sir Anthony Musgrave (1828-1888) who served in that position from 1875-1877 and was succeeded by Lieutenant-Governor Sir William F. D. Jervois who served as the President from 1877-1883.[82][83] In 1877 one of the Society's Vice-Presidents was the Lord Bishop of Adelaide Right Reverend Augustus Short (1802-1883).[84] In 1907 several South Australian churches instituted an annual "Animal Sunday" service to promote animal welfare as well as the role of the RSPCA, and such services were still being celebrated after World War 2.[85] In 1968 the work of the RSPCA was featured in a television film that was produced by former police prosecutor Bill Davies and was broadcast on channel 9 as a way of inviting children to participate in the Society's junior branch.[86] The legal powers that authorise South Australia's RSPCA inspectors to investigate reports of animal cruelty are specified in the Animal Welfare Act 1985.[87]

RSPCA Western Australia[edit]

RSPCA Western Australia was established on 2 August 1892 as the West Australian Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA), by the members of a women's reading circle. William Robinson, the Governor of Western Australia, agreed to become its patron the following year, and all subsequent governors have been patrons. The organisation hired its first full-time inspector, Titus Lander, in 1894, but was unable to hire a second salaried inspector until 1906. Lander was later elected to parliament, where he secured the passage of a bill that became the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act 1912. The SPCA was incorporated in 1914, and in 1920 received royal patronage, becoming the RSPCA.[88] The legal powers that authorise Western Australia's RSPCA inspectors to investigate reports of animal cruelty are specified in the Animal Welfare Act 2002.[89]

RSPCA ACT[edit]

RSPCA ACT is governed by a board of 9 directors, elected yearly at an AGM. It operates an inspectorate to enforce animal welfare laws, a wildlife rescue and rehabilitation program, an animal shelter as well as to facilitate fundraising for a veterinary clinic, cat boarding kennels, pet supply store, puppy training school and other related services.[90] The legal powers that authorise ACT RSPCA inspectors to investigate reports of animal cruelty are specified in the Animal Welfare Act 1992.[91]

Criticism[edit]

In October 2013 it came under fire amid allegations that it had overworked staff, underpaid them and undertook welfare practices staff believed were wrong. Nine staff (a sixth of the workforce) from the RSPCA ACT's shelter took their grievances to their union, United Voice over the issues after they claimed to have been ignored by the organisations board and the ACT government when they raised concerns as early as 2010. The involvement of their union forced an investigation by the ACT government to be launched.[92] The CEO of RSPCA ACT resigned several days before, unrelated to the issue, but publicly defended his legacy and stated it was simply a small number of disgruntled employees.[93]

RSPCA Darwin[edit]

Unlike other state RSPCAs, RSPCA Darwin does not cover the entire Northern Territory (dealing only with the city of Darwin) and does not possess an inspectorate (that is, animal welfare enforcement branch). It solely manages an animal shelter and attends community events and schools providing education on its mission to raise awareness about animal cruelty. It is managed by a board of 9 directors elected yearly at an AGM.[94] Instead in the Northern Territory, animal welfare enforcement duties are specifed in the Animal Welfare Act which is managed by the territory government Animal Welfare Authority.[95]

See also[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • "Animals Protection Bill," Illustrated Sydney News 24 July 1875, p 2. available at
  • Rob Boddice, A History of Attitudes and Behaviours Toward Animals in Eighteenth- and Nineteenth-Century Britain (Lewiston, New York; Queenston, Ontario; Lampeter, Wales: Edwin Mellen Press, 2008). ISBN 978-0-7734-4903-9
  • Wallace B. Budd, Hear The Other Side: The RSPCA in South Australia 1875-1988 (Hawthorndene, South Australia: Investigator Press, 1988). ISBN 0 85864 112 7
  • Deborah Cao, Animal Law in Australia and New Zealand (Sydney: Thomson Reuters, 2010). ISBN 978 0 455 22618 7
  • Li Chien-hui, "A Union of Christianity, Humanity, and Philanthropy: The Christian Tradition and the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals in Nineteenth-Century England," Society and Animals 8/3 (2000): 265-285.
  • Edward G. Fairholme and Wellesley Pain, A Century of Work for Animals: The History of the RSPCA 1824-1934 [England] (London: John Murray, 1934).
  • Hilda Kean, Animal Rights: Political and Social Change in Britain since 1800 (London: Reaktion Books, 2000). ISBN 9781861890610
  • Jennifer MacCulloch, "Creatures of culture: the animal protection and preservation movements in Sydney, 1880-1930" PhD Thesis, University of Sydney 1993
  • Barbara Pertzel, For All Creatures: A History of RSPCA Victoria (Burwood East, Victoria: RSPCA Victoria, 2006). ISBN 0 646 46078 1
  • Stefan Petrow, "Civilizing Mission: Animal Protection in Hobart 1878-1914," Britain and the World 5 (2012): 69-95. Available to subscribers
  • Peter Phillips, Humanity Dick The Eccentric Member for Galway: The Story of Richard Martin, Animal Rights Pioneer, 1754-1834 (Tunbridge Wells, Kent: Parapress, 2003). ISBN 1-898594-76-7
  • Peter Sankoff & Steven White eds. Animal Law in Australasia (Sydney: Federation Press, 2009). ISBN 978 186287 719 1
  • Kathryn Shevelow, For The Love of Animals: The Rise of the Animal Protection Movement (New York: Henry Holt, 2008). ISBN 978-0-8050-9024-6
  • Elizabeth Webb, Three score years and ten : a human story based on the life work of the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty in Queensland, (Brisbane: Queensland Society for the Prevention of Cruelty, 1951).
  • Hugh Wirth with Anne Crawford, Doctor Hugh: My Life With Animals (Sydney; Melbourne: Allen & Unwin, 2012). ISBN 978 1 74331 104 2

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Rspca Australia Incorporated". Government of Australia. Retrieved 22 May 2014. 
  2. ^ "Meet the Team". RSPCA Australia. Retrieved 22 May 2014. 
  3. ^ a b "About Us". RSPCA Australia. Retrieved 1 June 2017. 
  4. ^ "How We Govern Ourselves | RSPCA Australia". Rspca.org.au. Retrieved 2014-07-19. 
  5. ^ "Mission". RSPCA Australia. Retrieved 22 May 2014. 
  6. ^ For detailed discussion on the British background see Hilda Kean, Animal Rights: Political and Social Change in Britain since 1800 (London: Reaktion Books, 2000). Rob Boddice, A History of Attitudes and Behaviours Toward Animals in Eighteenth- And Nineteenth-Century Britain: Anthropocentrism and the Emergence of Animals (Lewiston, New York; Queenston, Ontario; Lampeter, Wales: Edwin Mellen Press, 2008). Kathryn Shevelow, For the Love of Animals: the Rise of the Animal Protection Movement (New York: Henry Holt, 2008).
  7. ^ Shevelow, For the Love of Animals, pp 201-240.
  8. ^ On Martin's career including his anti-cruelty to animals campaign see Peter Phillips, Humanity Dick The Eccentric Member for Galway: The Story of Richard Martin, Animal Rights Pioneer, 1754-1834 (Tunbridge Wells, Kent: Parapress, 2003).
  9. ^ "To Correspondents" The Kaleidoscope, 6 March 1821 p 288. Also see The Monthly Magazine Vol. 51 April 1, 1821 p 3. "The Brute Species". "Notice" in Morning Post, 17 February 1821, p 3. Similarly see "Cruelty to Animals" The Sporting Magazine, Vol. VIII New Series No. XLIII (April 1821), p 33. See comments on these notices in Shevelow, For the Love of Animals, pp 267-268.
  10. ^ Shevelow, For The Love of Animals, 268; Arthur W. Moss, Valiant Crusade: The History of the RSPCA (London: Cassell, 1961), 22.
  11. ^ Lewis Gompertz, Fragments in Defence of Animals , and Essays on Morals, Souls and Future State (London: Horsell, 1852), p 174. Edward G. Fairholme and Wellesley Pain, A Century of Work For Animals: The History of the RSPCA 1824-1934 (London: John Murray, 1934), pp 54-55.
  12. ^ A complete list of the founder members is recorded in Gompertz, Fragments in Defence of Animals, pp 174-175.
  13. ^ "Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals" Morning Post 28 June 1824 p 2.
  14. ^ Fairholme and Pain, A Century of Work for Animals, p 89
  15. ^ See "Sydney" Sydney Gazette and NSW Advertiser, Sunday 24 March 1805, pp 2-3.
  16. ^ Philip Jamieson, "Animal Welfare: A Movement in Transition,' in Law and History: A Collection of Papers Presented at the 1989 Law and History Conference ed. Suzanne Corcoran (Adelaide: University of Adelaide, 1989), p 24.
  17. ^ Clarence and Richmond Examiner and New England Advertiser, Tuesday 12 January 1864, p 2.
  18. ^ "Cruelty to Animals," The Argus, Thursday 14 February 1861 p 5
  19. ^ "Cruelty to Animals," South Australian Register, Monday 1 April 1867, p 2
  20. ^ "Cruelty to Animals," The Queenslander, Saturday 13 July 1867, p 5
  21. ^ The Mercury, Saturday 31 July 1875, p 2.
  22. ^ "General News" The Inquirer and Commercial News, Wednesday 24 August 1892, p 2
  23. ^ Barbara Pertzel, For All Creatures: A History of RSPCA Victoria (Burwood East, Victoria: RSPCA Victoria, 2006), p 5.
  24. ^ "Prevention of Cruelty to Animals," The Sydney Morning Herald, Friday 11 July 1873, p 4.
  25. ^ Wallace B. Budd, Hear The Other Side: The RSPCA in South Australia 1875-1988 (Hawthorndene, South Australia: Investigator Press, 1988); also see rspcasa.org
  26. ^ See "Prevention of Cruelty to Animals," The Mercury, Saturday 20 July 1878, p 2; also see Stefan Petrow, "Civilising Mission: Animal Protection in Hobart 1878-1914," Britain and the World 5 (2012): pp 69-95.
  27. ^ see rscpcaqld.org
  28. ^ See rspcawa.org
  29. ^ see time-line at rspcawa.org
  30. ^ "Talk of the Week. Jubilee of RSPCA" Table Talk, 15 March 1923, p 9.
  31. ^ Budd, Hear The Other Side, pp 94-95
  32. ^ See RQSPCA
  33. ^ Tasmanian Government Archives
  34. ^ See Pertzel, For All Creatures, p 97; also see rspcavic.org
  35. ^ Different understandings on sentience are discussed in Marian Stamp Dawkins, Why Animals Matter: Animal consciousness, animal welfare, and human well-being (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012) ISBN 978-0-19-958782-7. Marc Bekoff, The Emotional Lives of Animals (Novato, California: New World Library, 2007). ISBN 978-1-57731-629-9
  36. ^ See Gary L. Comstock, Vexing Nature? On the Ethical Case Against Agricultural Biotechnology (Boston; Dordrecht; London: Kluwer Academic, 2000) ISBN 0-7923-7987-X. Danielle R. Deemer and Linda M. Lobao, "Public Concern with Farm-Animal Welfare: Religion, Politics and Human Disadvantage in the Food Sector," Rural Sociology 76 (2011): pp 167-196.
  37. ^ See different views in Andrew Knight, The Costs and Benefits of Animal Experiments (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011) ISBN 978-1-137-28968-1. Lori Gruen, Ethics and Animals: An Introduction (Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press, 2011) ISBN 978-0-521-71773-1
  38. ^ For a general overview see Richard D. Ryder, Animal Revolution: Changing Attitudes Towards Speciesism, Rev Ed (Oxford; New York: Berg, 2000) ISBN 978-1-85973-330-1. Norm Phelps, The Longest Struggle: Animal Advocacy from Pythagoras to PETA (New York: Lantern, 2007) ISBN 978-1-59056-106-5. Peter Singer Ed. In Defense of Animals: The Second Wave (Malden, Massachusetts; Oxford: Blackwell, 2006) ISBN 978-1-4051-1941-2
  39. ^ See Deborah Cao, Animal Law in Australia and New Zealand (Sydney: Thomson Reuters, 2010) ISBN 978 0 455 22618 7; Peter Sankoff and Steven White Eds. Animal Law in Australasia (Sydney: The Federation Press, 2009) ISBN 978 186287 719 1; Ian Weldon, "Why doesn't animal protection legislation protect animals? (and how it's getting worse)," Australian Animal Protection Law Journal 1 (2008): 9-14; Andrea Gaynor, "Animal Agendas: Conflict Over Productive Animals in Twentieth-Century Australian Cities," Society and Animals 15, 1 (2007): pp 29-42.; Stephen Keim and Tracy-Lynne Geysen, "The Rights of Animals and The Welfarist Approach: May the Twain Meet?" Australian Animal Protection Law Journal 5 (2011): pp 26-43.
  40. ^ Four Corners, "A Bloody Business" 30 May 2011; Bidda Jones and Julian Davies, Backlash: Australia's Conflict of Values Over Live Exports (Braidwood NSW: Finlay Lloyd Book, 2016) ISBN 9780994516503
  41. ^ See RSPCA Australia enough is enough
  42. ^ See End the Battery Cage
  43. ^ See Makeover the World
  44. ^ See Whips in Racing
  45. ^ See Jumps racing must be banned
  46. ^ "RSPCA Purple Cross Award". RSPCA Australia. Retrieved 17 July 2011. 
  47. ^ "RSPCA Purple Cross and certificate of award to Simpson's donkey 'Murphy'". Australian War Memorial Collection. Australian War Memorial. 1997. Retrieved 17 April 2012.  Includes photographs of the medal's obverse, reverse and certificate.
  48. ^ "RSPCA awards Sarbi the Purple Cross". Defence.gov.au. Retrieved 2013-10-13. 
  49. ^ "Australian military dog awarded rare bravery medal". AFP. 5 April 2011. 
  50. ^ White, Steven. "REGULATION OF ANIMAL WELFARE IN AUSTRALIA AND THE EMERGENT COMMONWEALTH" (PDF). Federal Law Review. Retrieved 4 August 2014. 
  51. ^ Pertzel, For All Creatures, p 5.
  52. ^ Pertzel, For All Creatures, p 8. On his life and career see Charles Francis, "Stawell, Sir William Foster (1815–1889)", Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University,accessed online 23 May 2017. Also see J. M. Bennett, Sir William Stawell: Second Chief Justice of Victoria, 1857-1886 (Sydney: The Federation Press, 2004).
  53. ^ "Board of Directors". RSPCA Victoria. Retrieved 4 March 2014. 
  54. ^ Also see his autobiography Dr Hugh Wirth with Anne Crawford, Doctor Hugh: My Life With Animals (Sydney: Allen & Unwin, 2012).
  55. ^ Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act 1986
  56. ^ "Prevention of Cruelty to Animals," The Sydney Morning Herald, Tuesday 29 July 1873, p 4. On Sir Alfred Stephen's life also see J. M. Bennett, Sir Alfred Stephen: Third Chief Justice of New South Wales (Sydney: The Federation Press, 2009).
  57. ^ See Martha Rutledge, "Stephen, Sir Alfred (1802-1894)," Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University, accessed online 17 May 2017. Also see an example of a news report "Animals Protection Bill," Illustrated Sydney News 24 July 1875, p 2.
  58. ^ Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act 1979
  59. ^ a b c Atwell, David (2012-10-23). "OPINION: Poor rescue groups shame rich RSPCA | Newcastle Herald". Theherald.com.au. Retrieved 2013-10-13. 
  60. ^ "Pound survey". Savingpets.com.au. Retrieved 2013-10-13. 
  61. ^ Meehan, Michelle (2013-05-07). "Rival rally to protest RSPCA animal kill rate". The Maitland Mercury. Retrieved 2013-10-13. 
  62. ^ a b "RSPCA criticised over claims test to decide fate of dogs is misused". Smh.com.au. 2012-10-09. Retrieved 2013-10-13. 
  63. ^ SBS 'INSIGHTS' 25 September 2012
  64. ^ "Motion asks about use of animal rescue groups | The Advertiser - Cessnock". Cessnockadvertiser.com.au. 2013-03-20. Retrieved 2013-10-13. 
  65. ^ Cronshaw, Damon (2013-03-25). "Hunter RSPCA kill rates "too high" | Newcastle Herald". Theherald.com.au. Retrieved 2013-10-13. 
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