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"Vegan" redirects here. For other uses, see Vegan (disambiguation). For notable vegans, see List of vegans.
Clockwise from top left:
Seitan pizza; roasted sprouts, tofu and pasta;
cocoa-avocado brownies; leeks and beans with dumplings.
Description Elimination of the use of animal products
Early proponents Roger Crab (1621–1680)[1]
James Pierrepont Greaves (1777–1842)
Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792–1822)
Sylvester Graham (1794–1851)[2]
Amos Bronson Alcott (1799–1888)[3]
Donald Watson (1910–2005)
H. Jay Dinshah (1933–2000)
Origin of the term November 1944, with the foundation of the British Vegan Society
Notable vegans
List of vegans

Veganism /ˈvɡənɪzəm/ is both the practice of abstaining from the use of animal products, particularly in one's diet, and an associated philosophy that rejects the commodity status of animals.[4] A follower of veganism is known as a vegan.

Distinctions are sometimes made between several categories of veganism. Dietary vegans (or strict vegetarians) refrain from consuming animal products, not only meat but also eggs, dairy products and other animal-derived substances. The term ethical vegan is often applied to those who not only follow a vegan diet, but extend the philosophy into other areas of their lives, and oppose the use of animals and animal products for any purpose.[n 1] Another term used is environmental veganism, which refers to the avoidance of animal products on the premise that the harvesting or industrial farming of animals is environmentally damaging and unsustainable.[6]

The term vegan was coined in 1944 by Donald Watson when he co-founded the Vegan Society in England, at first to mean "non-dairy vegetarian" and later to refer to "the doctrine that man should live without exploiting animals."[7] Interest in veganism rose in the 2000s and 2010s. Vegan options became increasingly available in many countries, including in supermarkets and chain restaurants.[8]

Vegan diets tend to be higher in dietary fibre, magnesium, folic acid, vitamin C, vitamin E, iron and phytochemicals, and lower in calories, saturated fat, cholesterol, long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin D, calcium, zinc and vitamin B12.[9] Well-planned vegan diets can reduce the risk of some types of chronic disease, including heart disease,[10] and are regarded as appropriate for all stages of the life-cycle by the American Dietetic Association, the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council, and Dietitians of Canada.[11] Because uncontaminated plant foods do not provide vitamin B12 (which is produced by microorganisms such as bacteria), researchers agree that vegans should eat B12-fortified foods or take a supplement.[12]



Further information: History of vegetarianism
Mahatma Gandhi at a Vegetarian Society meeting in 1931; Henry Salt is on his right.[13]

The Oxford English Dictionary attributes the earliest known use of the English word vegetarian to the actress Fanny Kemble, writing in 1839 in Georgia in the United States,[n 2][15] but the practice can be traced to Greece in the 6th century BCE, as well as Ancient India and Rome. Greek philosophers Pythagoras, Empedocles and Theophrastus were vegetarians, as were Seneca the Younger, Ovid, Plutarch, Plotinus and Porphyry. Their arguments were based on health, the transmigration of souls, animal welfare, and what was later called animal rights, namely the view, espoused by Porphyry, that if humans are deserving of justice so are nonhumans.[16][17]

In the 19th century vegetarians who avoided not only meat, but also eggs and dairy, were known as strict or total vegetarians.[18] Several strict-vegetarian communities existed. In 1834, in Boston, Massachusetts, Amos Bronson Alcott, father of novelist Louisa May Alcott, opened the vegetarian Temple School, and in 1844 he founded Fruitlands, a short-lived community in Harvard, which opposed the use of animals for any purpose, including farming.[19][3] In 1838 James Pierrepont Greaves opened Alcott House in Ham, Surrey, another strict-vegetarian community.[20] Members of Alcott House helped to form the British Vegetarian Society, which held its first meeting in 1847 in Ramsgate, Kent.[21]

Vegetarian Society members motivated by the moral aspects of diet, rather than by health arguments, moved toward abstention from animal use entirely, including for clothing. An 1851 article in the society's magazine discussed alternatives to shoe leather.[n 3] In 1886 the society published A Plea for Vegetarianism by the classicist Henry Salt, who argued for vegetarianism as a moral imperative, and for the promotion of animal rights rather than welfare.[23] His work influenced Mahatma Gandhi, and the men became friends.[13]

The first known vegan cookbook, Rupert H. Wheldon's No Animal Food: Two Essays and 100 Recipes, appeared in London in 1910.[24] There was regular disagreement within the Vegetarian Society about the ethics of dairy and eggs.[25] The society's journal noted in 1923 that the "ideal position for vegetarians is abstinence from animal products."[26] In November 1931 Gandhi gave a speech, "The Moral Basis of Vegetarianism," to the society in London (attended by 500 people, including Henry Salt), arguing that it ought to promote a meat-free diet as a moral issue, not only in the interests of human health.[27]

Coining the term vegan (1944)[edit]

Further information: Vegan Society
In 1965 Plamil Foods, which emerged from the Vegan Society's Plantmilk Society, began production of one of the first widely distributed soy milks.[28]

In July 1943 Leslie Cross of the Vegetarian Society expressed concern in its newsletter about vegetarians who consumed cows' milk.[29] In August 1944 several members, including Donald Watson, asked unsuccessfully that a section of its magazine be devoted to non-dairy vegetarianism. Instead Watson set up his own quarterly newsletter, Vegan News. Thirty readers sent him a shilling to fund it.[30]

Watson issued the first edition in November 1944, priced tuppence, or a shilling for a year's subscription.[31] World Vegan Day has been held every 1 November since 1994 to mark the creation of the new Vegan Society.[32] Instead of vegan (/ˈviːɡən/), readers had suggested allvega, neo-vegetarian, dairyban, vitan, benevore, sanivores and beaumangeur; Watson said years later that vegan represented "the beginning and end of vegetarian."[30][31] Early copies of The Vegan said the society "ADVOCATES that man's food should be derived from fruits, nuts, vegetables and grains, and ENCOURAGES the use of alternatives to all products of animal origin."[33][n 4] They listed products that were safe for vegans to use (the Vegan Trade List), such as Palmolive soap, Colgate toothpaste, Kiwi shoe polish, Dawson & Owen stationery and Gloy glue.[36]

The Vegan Society held its first annual meeting in December 1945 at the Attic Club, High Holborn, London.[30] Two vegan books appeared soon after. The Leicester Vegetarian Society published Vegetarian Recipes without Dairy Produce by Margaret B. Rawls, and in 1946 the Vegan Society published Vegan Recipes by Fay K. Henderson.[37] In 1956 Leslie Cross, the society's vice-president, founded the Plantmilk Society to explore commercial soy milk production; the society became Plamil Foods and in 1965 began production of one of the first widely distributed soy milks in the Western world.[28]

The first vegan society in the United States was founded in 1948 by Catherine Nimmo and Rubin Abramowitz in California,[38] and in 1960 H. Jay Dinshah founded the American Vegan Society (AVS) after visiting a slaughterhouse and reading Watson's literature. Dinshah linked veganism to the concept of ahimsa, "non-harming" in Sanskrit.[39] According to Joanne Stepaniak, the word vegan was first published independently in 1962 by the Oxford Illustrated Dictionary, defined as "a vegetarian who eats no butter, eggs, cheese or milk."[40]

Becoming mainstream (2010s)[edit]

Further information: List of vegans
Interest in veganism in the 2010s was reflected in increased page views for the topic on Wikipedia.[41]

From the late 1970s a group of scientists in the United States – physicians John A. McDougall, Caldwell Esselstyn, Neal D. Barnard, Dean Ornish, Michael Klaper and Michael Greger, and biochemist T. Colin Campbell – began to argue that diets based on animal fat and animal protein, such as the standard American diet, were detrimental to health. They proposed that a low-fat, plant-based diet would prevent, and might reverse, certain chronic diseases, such as coronary heart disease, diabetes and certain cancers.[42] CNN's chief medical correspondent Sanjay Gupta said that Campbell's The China Study (2005) had changed the way people all over the world eat.[43]

The vegan diet appeared to become more mainstream in the 2010s. Vegan entrees became popular, and chain restaurants began to mark vegan items on their menus.[44] The interest was reflected in increased page views on Wikipedia. The English Wikipedia article on veganism was viewed 73,000 times in August 2009 but 145,000 times in August 2013. Articles on veganism were viewed more during this period than articles on vegetarianism in the English, French, German, Portuguese, Russian and Spanish Wikipedias.[41]

Celebrities, athletes and politicians began to adopt vegan diets, some seriously, some part-time.[45] The idea of the "flexi-vegan" gained currency, to the irritation of ethical vegans. In his book VB6 (2013), New York Times food columnist Mark Bittman recommended sticking to a vegan diet before 6 pm,[46] and in 2014 a campaign, Veganuary, asked people to go vegan for a month every January.[47] In 2010 the European Parliament adopted a food-labelling guideline that defined vegan, in force as of 2015.[48] De Vegetarische Slager, the first known vegetarian "butcher" shop, selling mock meats, opened in the Netherlands in 2010.[49] In 2011 Europe's first vegan supermarkets appeared in Germany: Vegilicious opened in Dortmund,[50] and the first chain, Veganz, opened in Berlin and elsewhere.[46] In 2013 the Oktoberfest in Munich, traditionally a meat-heavy affair, offered vegan dishes for the first time in its 200-year history.[51]


A 2012 Gallup poll reported that two percent of the US population regard themselves as vegan.[52] In 2007 in the UK, where the market for tofu and mock meats was £786.5 million in 2012, two percent identified as vegan in a government survey.[53] The Netherlands Association for Veganism estimated that there were 16,000 vegans in the Netherlands as of 2007, around 0.1 percent of the population.[54] The German Vegetarian Society said in 2013 that there were 800,000 vegans in Germany (out of a population of nearly 82 million).[51] According to a survey in Israel in 2014, nearly five percent there are vegan.[55]

Animal products[edit]


Further information: Rendering (food processing)

[[File:Dactylopius coccus 02.jpg|thumb|upright=1.35|alt=photograph|Cochineal, from the female cochineal insect, is used to dye cosmetics and food.[56]

The issue that divided the 19th- and early 20th-century vegetarians, namely whether to avoid animal products for reasons of ethics or health, persists. Dietary vegans avoid consuming animal product, but might use them in clothing and toiletries.[57] Ethical vegans see veganism as a philosophy; they reject the commodification of animals and will not use them for food, clothing, entertainment or any other purpose.[58] The British Vegan Society will certify a product only if it is free of animal involvement as far as possible and practical, including animal testing.[59]

Philosopher Gary Steiner argues that it is not possible to be a vegan entirely, because animal use and products are "deeply and imperceptibly woven into the fabric of human society."[60] They include meat, poultry and seafood, eggs, dairy products, honey and beeswax, fur, leather, wool, silk, goose down and duck feathers, and lesser known products such as bone char, bone china, carmine, casein, cochineal, gelatin, isinglass, lanolin, lard, rennet, shellac, tallow, whey and yellow grease. Many of the lesser known ones may not be identified in the list of ingredients.[61]

Ethical vegans try to avoid these products, as well as anything tested on animals or relying on animal use in any other way. They will avoid certain vaccines: the production of the flu vaccine, for example, involves the use of hens' eggs. Depending on their circumstances, vegans might donate non-vegan items to charity, or use them until they wear out. Some vegan clothes, in particular leather alternatives, are made of petroleum-based products, which has triggered criticism because of the environmental damage associated with production.[62]

Eggs, milk, honey and silk[edit]

Further information: Honey bee

The main difference between a vegan and vegetarian diet is that vegans exclude eggs and dairy products. Ethical vegans state that the production of eggs and dairy causes animal suffering and premature death. In egg production, most male chicks are culled because they do not lay eggs.[63] To obtain milk from dairy cattle, cows are made pregnant to induce lactation; they are kept pregnant and lactating for three to seven years, then slaughtered. Female calves are separated from their mothers within 24 hours of birth, and fed milk replacer to retain the cow's milk for human consumption. Male calves are slaughtered at birth, sent for veal production, or reared for beef.[64]

There is disagreement among vegan groups about insect products. Agave nectar is a popular vegan alternative to honey.[65] Neither the Vegan Society nor the American Vegan Society considers honey, silk and other insect products as suitable for vegans, while Vegan Action and Vegan Outreach view it as a matter of personal choice.[66]

Vegan diet[edit]


[[File:Warm Tofu with Spicy Garlic Sauce.jpg|thumb|upright=1.35|alt=photograph|Warm tofu (soybean curd) with garlic sauce. Soybeans are a source of complete protein.]]

For more details on this topic, see Vegan recipes.

Vegan diets are based on grains and other seeds, legumes (particularly beans), fruits, edible mushrooms, and nuts.[67] Meat analogues (mock meats) based on soybeans (tofu), or wheat-based seitan/gluten, are a common source of plant protein, usually in the form of vegetarian sausage, mince and veggie burgers.

Dishes based on soybeans are a staple of vegan diets because soybeans are a complete protein; this means they contain all the essential amino acids for humans and can be relied upon entirely for protein intake.[68] They are consumed most often in the form of soy milk and tofu (bean curd), which is soy milk mixed with a coagulant. Tofu comes in a variety of textures, depending on water content, from firm, medium firm and extra firm for stews and stir-fries, to soft or silken for salad dressings, desserts and shakes. Soy is also eaten in the form of tempeh and texturized vegetable protein (TVP) (also known as textured soy protein, TSP); TVP is often used in pasta sauces.[69]

Plant milk, cheese[edit]

Plant creams and milks—such as soy milk, almond milk, grain milks (oat milk and rice milk), hemp milk, and coconut milk—are used in place of cows' or goats' milk.[73] Soy milk provides around 7 g of protein per cup (240 ml or 8 fluid ounces), compared with 8 g of protein per cup of cow's milk. Almond milk is lower in calories, carbohydrates and protein.[74] Soy milk should not be used as a replacement for breast milk for babies; babies who are not breastfed need commercial infant formula, normally based on cows' milk or soy. The latter is known as soy-based infant formula, or SBIF.[75]

Vegan cheeses

Cheese analogues are made from soy, nuts and tapioca. Vegan cheeses such as Chreese, Daiya, Sheese, Teese and Tofutti can replace both the taste and meltability of dairy cheese.[76] Nutritional yeast is a common cheese substitute in vegan recipes.[77] Several recipe books describe how to make cheese substitutes at home;[78] one recipe for vegan brie combines cashew nuts, soy yogurt and coconut oil.[79] In 2014 Oakland's Counter Culture Labs and Sunnyvale's BioCurious produced vegan cheese in the lab from casein extracted from genetically modified yeast.[80] Butter can be replaced with a vegan margarine such as Earth Balance.[81]

Egg replacements[edit]

Further information: Egg substitutes

Vegan (egg-free) mayonnaise brands include Vegenaise, Nayonaise, Miso Mayo, Just Mayo, and Plamil's Egg-Free Mayo.[82] Eggs are used in recipes as thickeners and binders; the protein in eggs thickens when heated and binds the other ingredients together.[83] This effect can be achieved in vegan recipes with ground flax seeds or chia seeds; replace each egg in a recipe with one tablespoon of flaxseed meal mixed with three tablespoons of water. Commercial egg substitutes, such as Bob's Red Mill egg replacer and Ener-G egg replacer, are also available.[84]

For vegan pancakes a tablespoon of baking powder can be used instead of eggs.[85] Other ingredients include, to replace one egg, one tablespoon of soy flour and one tablespoon of water; a quarter cup of mashed bananas, mashed prunes or apple sauce; or in batter two tablespoons of white flour, half a tablespoon of vegetable oil, two tablespoons of water and half a tablespoon of baking powder.[83] Silken (soft) tofu and mashed potato can also be used.[86]

Vegan food groups[edit]

Further information: Food group
New Four Food Groups, clockwise from top left: fruit; legumes (such as soybeans) for protein; vegetables; whole grains, as in whole-wheat bread.[87]

Since 1991 the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine (PCRM) has recommended a no-cholesterol, low-fat vegan diet based on what they call the New Four Food Groups: fruit, legumes, grains and vegetables. Legumes include peas, beans, lentils and peanuts.

PCRM recommends three or more servings a day of fruit (at least one of which is high in vitamin C, such as citrus fruit, melon or strawberries); two or more of protein-rich legumes (such as soybeans, which can be consumed as soy milk, tofu or tempeh); five or more of whole grains (such as corn, barley, rice and wheat, in products such as bread and tortillas); and four or more of vegetables (dark-green leafy vegetables such as broccoli, and dark-yellow and orange such as carrots or sweet potatoes).[87]

The vegan food group was created as an alternative to the Four Food Groups – meat, milk, vegetables and fruit, and cereal and breads – recommended by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) from 1956 until 1992.[88] In 1992 the USDA replaced this with the food guide pyramid and in 2011 with MyPlate, which is consistent with a vegan diet. MyPlate is divided into five groups: grains, vegetables, fruits, dairy (or calcium-fortified soymilk), and protein. The protein includes meat, poultry, seafood, beans and peas, eggs, processed soy products, nuts and seeds.[89] In the UK the National Health Service recommends the Eatwell Plate, also with five groups and consistent with a vegan diet: fruit and vegetables; potatoes, bread and other starchy foods; dairy or non-dairy alternatives; meat, fish, eggs or beans for protein; and fat and sugar.[90]




Proteins are composed of amino acids. Vegans obtain all their protein from plants, omnivores usually a third and ovo-lacto vegetarians half.[91] Sources of plant protein include legumes such as soy beans (consumed as tofu, tempeh, texturized vegetable protein, soy milk and edamame), peas, peanuts, black beans and chickpeas (the latter often eaten as hummus); grains such as quinoa (pronounced keenwa), brown rice, corn, barley, bulgur and wheat (the latter eaten as bread and seitan); and nuts and seeds. Combinations that contain high amounts of all the essential amino acids include rice and beans, corn and beans, and hummus and whole-wheat pita.[92]

Soy beans and quinoa are known as complete proteins because they each contain all the essential amino acids in amounts that meet or exceed human requirements.[93] Mangels et al. write that consuming the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of protein (0.8 g/kg body weight) in the form of soy will meet the biologic requirement for amino acids.[68] In 2012 the United States Department of Agriculture ruled that soy protein (tofu) may replace meat protein in the National School Lunch Program.[94]

The American Dietetic Association said in 2009 that a variety of plant foods consumed over the course of a day can provide all the essential amino acids for healthy adults, which means that protein combining in the same meal may not be necessary.[95] Mangels et al. write that there is little reason to advise vegans to increase their protein intake, but erring on the side of caution, they recommend a 25 percent increase over the RDA for adults, to 1.0 gram of protein per kilogram of body weight.[96]

Vitamin B12[edit]

Tahini miso soup with brown rice, turnips, squash, radishes and nori (an edible seaweed). Nori is cited as a plant source of B12,[97] but vegans are advised to take supplements.[98]

Vitamin B12 is a bacterial product needed for cell division, the formation and maturation of red blood cells, the synthesis of DNA, and normal nerve function. A deficiency can lead to megaloblastic anemia and nerve damage.[99] The consensus among nutritionists is that vegans and vegetarians should use supplements or eat foods fortified with B12, such as soy milk or cereal.[100][12] B12 supplements are produced industrially through bacterial fermentation-synthesis; no animal products are involved.[101] That vegans are unable in most cases, at least in the West, to obtain B12 from a plant-based diet is often used as an argument against veganism.[102]

Neither plants nor animals make B12; it is produced by microorganisms, such as bacteria, fungi and algae. Herbivorous animals, such as rabbits, obtain it from bacteria in their rumens, either by absorbing it or by eating their own cecotrope faeces. When those animals are eaten, they become sources of B12. Plants from the ground that are not washed properly may contain B12 from bacteria in the soil, often from faeces. Drinking water may also be contaminated with B12-producing bacteria, particularly in the developing world.[99]

Nutritionist Reed Mangels writes that bacteria in the human digestive tract produce B12, but most is expelled in the faeces and some in the urine. James Halsted, a medical researcher, reported in the 1960s that villagers in Iran eating little or no animal protein were found to have normal B12 levels, because they were living near animal manure and eating vegetables grown in human manure. The human mouth is another source of B12, but in small amounts and possibly analogue (not biologically active).[103]

Several studies of vegans who did not take supplements or eat fortified food, including in Western countries, found no sign of B12 deficiency.[104] Plant sources of B12 have been cited, particularly nori (porphyra, also known as laver, an edible seaweed). Japanese researchers say that dried purple nori has a B12 content of 77.6 mcg (or μg)/100 g dry weight, and that consuming around 4 g supplies the adult RDA of 2.4 mcg. Tempeh, a fermented soybean food, is cited as another source, perhaps because of bacterial contamination during production.[97][105] There are few studies of long-term vegans who have not used supplements or fortified foods, according to Mangels et al., and there is no gold standard for assessing B12 status.[106] They say that all Western vegans will probably develop a B12 deficiency without supplements or fortified foods, although it may take decades to appear.[106]


(Left to right): almond milk, hemp milk, soy milk, coconut milk, rice milk. One cup of fortified, unsweetened soy milk contains 300 mg of calcium, 6.95 g of protein and 80 calories.[107]

Calcium is needed to maintain bone health and for several metabolic functions, including muscle function, vascular contraction and vasodilation, nerve transmission, intracellular signalling and hormonal secretion. Ninety-nine percent of the body's calcium is stored in the bones and teeth.[108]

Vegans are advised to eat three servings a day of a high-calcium food, such as fortified soy milk, fortified tofu, almonds or hazelnuts, and to take a supplement as necessary.[11] Plant sources include broccoli, turnip, bok choy and kale; the bioavailability of calcium in spinach is poor.[108] Vegans should make sure they consume enough vitamin D (see below), which is needed for calcium absorption.[109]

The EPIC-Oxford study suggested that vegans have an increased risk of bone fractures over meat eaters and vegetarians, likely because of lower dietary calcium intake.[110] The study found that vegans consuming at least 525 mg of calcium daily have a risk of fractures similar to that of other groups.[111] A 2009 study found the bone mineral density (BMD) of vegans was 94 percent that of omnivores, but deemed the difference clinically insignificant. Another examined over 100 vegan post-menopausal women, and found no adverse effect on BMD and no alteration in body composition.[112] Biochemist T. Colin Campbell suggested in The China Study (2005) that osteoporosis is linked to the consumption of animal protein; he argued that, unlike plant protein, animal protein increases the acidity of blood and tissues, which is then neutralized by calcium pulled from the bones.[113]

Vitamin D[edit]

Most people can obtain enough vitamin D from sunlight in the spring, summer and fall.[114]

Vitamin D (calciferol) is needed for several functions, including calcium absorption, enabling mineralization of bone, and bone growth. Without it bones can become thin and brittle; together with calcium it offers protection against osteoporosis. Vitamin D is produced in the body when ultraviolet rays from the sun hit the skin; outdoor exposure is needed because UVB radiation does not penetrate glass. It is present in salmon, tuna, mackerel and cod liver oil, with small amounts in cheese, egg yolks and beef liver, and in some mushrooms.[114]

Most vegan diets contain little or no vitamin D without fortified food. People with little sun exposure may need supplements. The extent to which sun exposure is sufficient depends on the season, time of day, cloud and smog cover, skin melanin content, and whether sunscreen is worn. According to the National Institutes of Health, most people can obtain and store sufficient vitamin D from sunlight in the spring, summer and fall, even in the far north. They report that some researchers recommend 5–30 minutes of sun exposure without sunscreen between 10 am and 3 pm, at least twice a week. Tanning beds emitting 2–6 per cent UVB radiation have a similar effect, though tanning is inadvisable.[114][115]

Vitamin D comes in two forms. Cholecalciferol (D3) is synthesized in the skin after exposure to the sun, or consumed in the form of animal products; when produced industrially it is taken from lanolin in sheep's wool. Ergocalciferol (D2) is derived from ergosterol from UV-exposed mushrooms or yeast and is suitable for vegans. Conflicting studies have suggested that the two forms may or may not be bioequivalent.[116] According to the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Sciences, the differences between D2 and D3 do not affect metabolism, both function as prohormones, and when activated exhibit identical responses in the body.[117]


Oatmeal, banana, maple syrup, pecans and coconut milk; one packet of instant oatmeal contains 8.2 mg of iron.[118]

Vegetarian and vegan diets usually contain as much iron as animal-based diets, or more. Vegan diets generally contain more iron than vegetarian diets because dairy products contain very little. There are concerns about the bioavailability of iron from plant foods, assumed by some researchers to be around 5–15 percent compared to 18 percent from a nonvegetarian diet.[119] Iron deficiency anaemia is found as often in nonvegetarians as in vegetarians, though studies have shown vegetarians' iron stores to be lower.[120]

Mangels et al. write that because of the lower bioavailability of iron from plant sources, the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Sciences established a separate RDA for vegetarians and vegans of 14 mg for vegetarian men and postmenopausal women, and 33 mg for premenopausal women not using oral contraceptives.[121] Supplements should be used with caution after consulting a physician, because iron can accumulate in the body and cause damage to organs. This is particularly true of anyone with hemochromatosis, a relatively common condition that can remain undiagnosed.[122]

High-iron vegan foods include black beans, black-strap molasses, chickpeas, kidney beans, lentils, quinoa, tempeh and tofu.[123][124] Nutritionist Tom Sanders writes that iron absorption can be enhanced by eating a source of vitamin C along with a plant source of iron, and by avoiding coingesting anything that would inhibit absorption.[125] Some herbal teas and coffee can inhibit iron absorption, as can spices that contain tannins (turmeric, coriander, chillies and tamarind).[124] Sources of vitamin C to consume with a plant source of iron include half a cup of cauliflower or five fluid ounces of orange juice.[124]

Omega-3 fatty acids, iodine[edit]

Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), an omega-3 fatty acid, is found in leafy green vegetables and nuts, and in vegetable oils such as canola and flaxseed oil.[126] Vegan Outreach suggests vegans take 1/4 teaspoon of flaxseed oil (also known as linseed oil) daily, and use oils containing low amounts of omega-6 fatty acids, such as olive, canola, avocado or peanut oil.[127] Iodine supplementation may be necessary for vegans in countries where salt is not typically iodized, where it is iodized at low levels, or where, as in Britain and Ireland, dairy products are relied upon for iodine delivery because of low levels in the soil.[128] Iodine can be obtained from most vegan multivitamins or regular consumption of seaweeds, such as kelp.[129][130]

Health effects[edit]

Further information: Vegan nutrition and Raw veganism

Veganism appears to provide health benefits, including a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, obesity, heart disease and certain forms of cancer. [10] A 2015 meta-analysis suggested that vegetarian, and particularly vegan, diets aided weight loss more effectively than non-vegetarian ones (the conclusion applied to diets of relatively short duration rather than long-term weight control).[131] Studies of Adventists have suggested that, compared to non-vegetarians, vegans may have a slightly reduced risk of most cancers, although a greater risk of urinary tract cancers.[132] Both vegetarian and vegan diets are considered to be cancer-protective, though relatively few high-quality studies have been conducted.[133]

Vegan products in a supermarket, Oceanside, California, 2014

According to nutritionist Winston Craig, writing in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition in 2009, vegan diets tend to be higher in dietary fibre, magnesium, folic acid, vitamin C, vitamin E, iron and phytochemicals, and lower in calories, saturated fat, cholesterol, long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin D, calcium, zinc and vitamin B12. Craig wrote that vegans tend to be thinner, with lower serum cholesterol and lower blood pressure. Factors associated with a vegan diet being considered cancer-protective include an increased intake of fruits and vegetables; absence of meat; sources of vegan protein, including soy protein; and typically lower body mass index (BMI).[9]

Eliminating all animal products increases the risk of deficiencies of vitamins B12 and D, calcium and omega-3 fatty acids. Craig advised vegans to eat fortified foods or take supplements, and warned that iron and zinc may be problematic because of limited bioavailability. Vegans might be at risk of low bone mineral density without supplements.[9]

The British National Health Service's Eatwell Plate allows for an entirely plant-based diet,[90] as does the United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) MyPlate.[89] Since 2012 the USDA has allowed tofu to replace meat in the National School Lunch Program.[94]

The American Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics and Dietitians of Canada stated in 2003 that properly planned vegan diets were appropriate for all life stages, including pregnancy and lactation. People avoiding meat were reported to have a lower BMI, and from this followed lower death rates from ischemic heart disease, lower blood cholesterol levels, lower blood pressure, and fewer incidences of type 2 diabetes and prostate and colon cancers.[11] They indicated that vegetarian diets may be more common among adolescents with eating disorders, but that its adoption may serve to camouflage a disorder, rather than cause one.[134] The Australian National Health and Medical Research Council recognizes a well-planned vegan diet as viable for any age.[135] As of 2011 the German Society for Nutrition did not recommend a vegan diet and cautioned against it for children, the pregnant and the elderly.[136]

Pregnancy, babies and children[edit]

Further information: Nutrition and pregnancy

As of 2003 the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada considered well-planned vegan diets "appropriate for all stages of the life cycle, including during pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood and adolescence."[137] The German Society for Nutrition cautioned against a vegan diet for pregnant women and children as of 2011.[136] The American Dietetic Association added that a regular source of B12 is crucial for pregnant, lactating and breastfeeding women.[138] According to Reed Mangels, maternal stores of B12 appear not to cross the placenta,[139] and researchers have reported cases of vitamin B12 deficiency in lactating vegetarian mothers that were linked to deficiencies and neurological disorders in their children.[140] Pregnant vegans may also need to take extra vitamin D, depending on their exposure to sunlight and whether they are eating fortified foods.[141] Doctors may recommend iron supplements and folic acid for all pregnant women (vegan, vegetarian and non-vegetarian). A doctor or registered dietitian should be consulted about taking supplements during pregnancy.[142]

Vegan toiletries[edit]

Further information: Testing cosmetics on animals
Seeds from the bixa orellana plant are used for red vegan dye.

The British Vegan Society criteria for vegan certification are that the product contain no animal products, and that neither the product nor its ingredients have been tested on animals by, or on behalf of, the manufacturer or by anyone over whom the manufacturer has control. The society's website contains a list of certified products,[143] as does the Choose Cruelty Free website in Australia.[144] Beauty Without Cruelty, founded as a charity in 1959, was one of the earliest manufacturers and certifiers of vegan toiletries.[145] Several international companies stock large vegan ranges, including Lush.[146]

Because animal ingredients are cheap, they are ubiquitous in toiletries. After animals are slaughtered for meat, the leftovers are put through the rendering process, and some of that material, especially the fats, ends up in toiletries and cosmetics. Animal Ingredients A to Z (2004) is a directory for vegans that lists which ingredients might be animal-derived. Common animal products include tallow in soap, and glycerine (derived from collagen), which is used as a lubricant and humectant in haircare products, moisturizers, shaving foam, soap and toothpaste; there is a plant-based form but the glycerine toiletries is often animal-based.[147]

Lanolin from sheep's wool is another common ingredient, found in lip balm and moisturizers, as is stearic acid, used in face creams, shaving foam and shampoos; as with glycerine, it can be plant-based, but the animal-derived form is often used. Lactic acid, an alpha-hydroxy acid derived from animal milk, is used in moisturizers, as is allantoin, from the comfrey plant or cows' urine, in shampoos, moisturizers and toothpaste.[147] Carmine from scale insects, such as the female cochineal, is used in food and cosmetics to produce red and pink shades.[56]


Ethical veganism[edit]

Further information: Ethics of eating meat

Ethical veganism is based on opposition to speciesism, the assignment of value to individuals on the basis of species membership alone. There is a division within animal rights theory between a rights-based (deontological) approach and a utilitarian (consequentialist) one, reflected in the debate about the moral basis of veganism. Philosopher Tom Regan, a rights theorist, argues that animals possess value as "subjects-of-a-life," because they have beliefs, desires, memory and the ability to initiate action in pursuit of goals. The right of subjects-of-a-life not to be harmed can be overridden by other moral principles, but pleasure, convenience and the economic interests of farmers are not weighty enough.[148]

Law professor Gary L. Francione, another rights theorist, argues that all sentient beings should have the right not to be treated as property, and that adopting veganism must be the baseline for anyone who believes that nonhuman animals have intrinsic moral value.[149] The pursuit of improved conditions for animals does not move us away from the paradigm of animals qua property, he writes; it is like campaigning for "conscientious rapists" who will rape their victims without beating them.[150]

Philosopher Peter Singer, a utilitarian, argues that there is no moral or logical justification for failing to count animal suffering as a consequence when making decisions, and that killing animals should be rejected unless necessary for survival.[151] Despite this, he writes that "[e]thical thinking can be sensitive to circumstances," and that he is "not too concerned about trival infractions."[152] Singer and Francione reflect the division between animal protectionism (Singer), a more relaxed position according to which incremental change can achieve reform, and abolitionism (Francione), which sees reform as serving only to persuade the public that animal use is morally unproblematic.[153]

Bruce Friedrich, a protectionist, argues that strict adherence to veganism focuses on personal purity, rather than encouraging people to give up whatever animal products they can, and that this is anti-vegan because it hurts animals."[n 5] For Francione, this is similar to arguing that, because human-rights abuses can never be eliminated, we should not defend human rights in situations we control. By failing to ask a server whether something contains animal products, we reinforce that the moral rights of animals are a matter of convenience, he argues. He concludes from this that the protectionist position fails on its own consequentialist terms.[155]

Philosopher Val Plumwood argues that ethical veganism, which she calls ontological veganism, maintains the error of human–nature dualism by viewing humanity as separate from the rest of nature. Ethical vegans want to admit nonhuman animals into the category that deserves special protection, rather than reconstructing the human and nonhuman to recognize their "ecological embeddedness." She maintains that ethical veganism is ethnocentric becauses it prioritizes the position of privileged Western consumers.[156]

Environmental veganism[edit]

Environmental vegans focus on conservation, rejecting the use of animal products on the premise that farming – particularly factory farming – fishing, hunting and trapping are environmentally unsustainable.[6] A 2006 report, Livestock's Long Shadow, from the United Nations' Food and Agriculture Organization concluded that livestock farming (mostly of cows, chickens and pigs) has an impact on the air, land, soil, water, biodiversity and climate change.[157]:3 Paul Watson of the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society said in 2010 that all Sea Shepherd ships are vegan for environmental reasons, calling pigs and chicken "major aquatic predators."[6]

According to the UN, livestock consumed 1,174.1 tonnes of food in 2002, including 7.6 million tonnes of fishmeal and 670 million tonnes of cereals, one-third of the global cereal harvest.[157]:12 In 2001 they consumed 45 million tonnes of roots and vegetables (mostly cassava, potatoes, sweet potatoes, cabbage and plantain) and 17 million tonnes of pulses (mostly peas and beans).[157]:42 Livestock account for 9 percent of carbon dioxide emissions, 37 percent of methane, 65 percent of nitrous oxide, and 68 percent of ammonia; livestock waste emits 30 million tonnes of ammonia a year, which the report said is involved in the production of acid rain.[157]:272[158] Greenhouse gas emissions are not limited to animal husbandry. Plant agriculture such as rice cultivation can also cause environmental problems.[159]

Sows in gestation crates. Vegans view animal agriculture as an environmental threat.[160]

A 2007 Cornell University study concluded that vegetarian diets use the least land per capita, but require higher quality land than is needed to feed animals.[161] A 2010 report, Assessing the Environmental Impacts of Consumption and Production, from the UN's Environment Programme argued that animal products "in general require more resources and cause higher emissions than plant-based alternatives."[162]:80 It argued that a move away from animal products is needed to reduce environmental damage.[n 6][163]

Steven Davis, a professor of animal science, argued in 2003 that, applying the least-harm principle, human beings should convert to a ruminant-based rather than plant-based diet, because of the animals killed by crop production.[164] Based on a finding that wood-mouse populations fell from 25 to five per hectare after harvest, Davis estimated that 10 animals per hectare are killed from crop farming every year. If all 120,000,000 acres (490,000 km2) of cropland in the continental United States were used for a vegan diet, 500 million animals would die, but if half the land were used for ruminant pasture the number would be 900,000. This assumes that people switch to beef, lamb and dairy products from the eight billion poultry killed each year.[164]

Philosopher Andy Lamey argued that, to include nonhuman deaths in the moral cost of veganism, Davis must also include human deaths caused by his proposed diet.[165] Economist Gaverick Matheny wrote that Davis had miscalculated the animal deaths, basing his figures on land area rather than per consumer. In addition, by focusing on numbers rather than welfare, and by excluding factory-farmed animals, Davis had equated lives with lives worth living. In the US ten billion land animals are killed every year for human consumption, Matheny wrote. Davis's argument ignores the harm done to them: pain from branding, dehorning and castration, confinement, transport without food or water to a slaughterhouse, and a frightening death. Matheny argued that (strict) vegetarianism probably allows for a greater number of animals with lives worth living.[166]



  1. ^ Gary Francione, Robert Garner, 2010: "Although veganism may represent a matter of diet or lifestyle for some, ethical veganism is a profound moral and political commitment to abolition on the individual level and extends not only to matters of food but also to the wearing or using of animal products. Ethical veganism is the personal rejection of the commodity status of nonhuman animals ..."[5]
  2. ^ Fanny Kemble, 1839: "The sight and smell of raw meat are especially odious to me, and I have often thought that if I had had to be my own cook, I should inevitably become a vegetarian, probably, indeed, return entirely to my green and salad days."[14]
  3. ^ International Vegetarian Union, 2010: " ... as early as 1851 there was an article in the Vegetarian Society magazine (copies still exist) about alternatives to leather for making shoes, there was even a report of someone patenting a new material. So there was always another group who were not just 'strict vegetarians' but also avoided using animal products for clothing or other purposes – naturally they wanted their own 'word' too, but they had a long wait."[22]
  4. ^ Leslie Cross, vice-president, Vegan Society, 1951: "In a vegan world the creatures would be reintegrated within the balance and sanity of nature as she is in herself. A great and historic wrong, whose effect upon the course of evolution must have been stupendous, would be righted. The idea that his fellow creatures might be used by man for self-interested purposes would be so alien to human thought as to be almost unthinkable. In this light, veganism is not so much welfare as liberation, for the creatures and for the mind and heart of man; not so much an effort to make the present relationship bearable, as an uncompromising recognition that because it is in the main one of master and slave, it has to be abolished before something better and finer can be built."[34]

    Vegan Society, 1979: The word veganism "denotes a philosophy and way of living which seeks to exclude – as far as is possible and practical – all forms of exploitation of, and cruelty to, animals for food, clothing or any other purpose; and by extension, promotes the development and use of animal-free alternatives ..."[35]

  5. ^ Bruce Friedrich, 2006: "We all know that the number one reason why people don’t go vegan is that they don’t think it’s convenient enough, and we all know people whose reason for not going vegan is that they 'can't' give up cheese or ice cream. ... Instead of encouraging them to stop eating all other animal products besides cheese or ice cream, we preach to them about the oppression of dairy cows. Then we go on about how we don’t eat sugar or a veggie burger because of the bun, even though a tiny bit of butter flavor in a bun supports significantly less suffering than eating any non-organic fruit or vegetable ... Our fanatical obsession with ingredients not only obscures the animals’ suffering—which was virtually non-existent for that tiny modicum of ingredient—but nearly guarantees that those around us are not going to make any change at all. So, we’ve preserved our personal purity, but we’ve hurt animals—and that's anti-vegan."[154]
  6. ^ United Nations Environment Programme, 2010: "Impacts from agriculture are expected to increase substantially due to population growth, increasing consumption of animal products. Unlike fossil fuels, it is difficult to look for alternatives: people have to eat. A substantial reduction of impacts would only be possible with a substantial worldwide diet change, away from animal products."[162]:82


  1. ^ Records of Buckinghamshire, Volume 3, BPC Letterpress, 1870, p. 68.
  2. ^ Rynn Berry, "A History of the Raw-Food Movement in the United States" in Brenda Davis and Vesanto Melina (eds.), Becoming Raw: The Essential Guide to Raw Vegan Diets, Book Publishing Company, 2010, p. 9ff.
  3. ^ a b James D. Hart, "Alcott, Amos Bronson", in The Oxford Companion to American Literature, Oxford University Press, 1995, p. 14; Richard Francis, Fruitlands: The Alcott Family and their Search for Utopia, Yale University Press, 2010.
  4. ^ For commodification of animals in general, Kathryn Gillespie, Rosemary-Claire Collard, Critical Animal Geographies, Routledge, 2015, p. 2ff; for the idea of "sentient commodities," Rhoda Wilkie, Livestock/Deadstock: Working with Farm Animals from Birth to Slaughter, Temple University Press, 2010, chapter 6, pp. 115–128.

    For veganism and commodification of animals, Helena Pedersen, Vasile Staescu, "Conclusion: Future Directions for Critical Animal Studies," in Nik Taylor, Richard Twine (eds.), The Rise of Critical Animal Studies: From the Margins to the Centre, Routledge, 2014 (pp. 262–276), pp. 267–268.

    Gary Francione, "Animal Welfare, Happy Meat and Veganism as the Moral Baseline," in David M. Kaplan, The Philosophy of Food, University of California Press, 2012 (pp. 169–189) pp. 182–183.

    Gary Francione, Robert Garner, The Animal Rights Debate: Abolition Or Regulation?, Columbia University Press, 2010, pp. 27–29, 62–63.

    Gary Steiner, "Animal, Vegetable, Miserable", The New York Times, 21 November 2009, p. 2.

  5. ^ Francione and Garner, p. 62.
  6. ^ a b c Michael Shapiro, "Sea Shepherd's Paul Watson: 'You don't watch whales die and hold signs and do nothing'", The Guardian, 21 September 2010; Matthew Cole, "Veganism," in Margaret Puskar-Pasewicz (ed.), Cultural Encyclopedia of Vegetarianism, ABC-Clio, 2010, p. 241.
  7. ^ Donald Watson, Vegan News, No. 1, November 1944; "Interview with Donald Watson", Vegetarians in Paradise, 11 August 2004; Leslie Cross, "Veganism Defined", The Vegetarian World Forum, 5(1), Spring 1951.
  8. ^ Rynn Berry, "Veganism", The Oxford Companion to American Food and Drink, Oxford University Press, 2007, pp. 604–605; "Vegan Diets Become More Popular, More Mainstream", Associated Press, 5 January 2011; Nijjar, Raman. "From pro athletes to CEOs and doughnut cravers, the rise of the vegan diet", CBC News, 4 June 2011.
  9. ^ a b c Winston J. Craig, "Health effects of vegan diets", The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 89(5), May 2009 (pp. 1627S–1633S), p. 1627S: "Vegan diets are usually higher in dietary fiber, magnesium, folic acid, vitamins C and E, iron, and phytochemicals, and they tend to be lower in calories, saturated fat and cholesterol, long-chain n–3 (omega-3) fatty acids, vitamin D, calcium, zinc, and vitamin B-12. ... A vegan diet appears to be useful for increasing the intake of protective nutrients and phytochemicals and for minimizing the intake of dietary factors implicated in several chronic diseases."
  10. ^ a b Note: several sources use the word vegetarian to refer to a vegan or entirely plant-based diet:

    Marian Glick-Bauer, Ming-Chin Yeh, "The Health Advantage of a Vegan Diet: Exploring the Gut Microbiota Connection", Nutrients, 6(11), November 2014, pp. 4822–4838. PMID 25365383

    Gabrielle Turner-McGrievy, Metria Harris, "Key elements of plant-based diets associated with reduced risk of metabolic syndrome," Current Diabetes Reports, 14(9), August 2014, p. 524. PMID 25084991

    Lap Tai Le, Joan Sabaté, "Beyond Meatless, the Health Effects of Vegan Diets: Findings from the Adventist Cohorts", Nutrients, 6(6), June 2014, pp. 2131–2147: "In summary, vegetarians have consistently shown to have lower risks for cardiometabolic outcomes and some cancers across all three prospective cohorts of Adventists. Beyond meatless diets, further avoidance of eggs and dairy products may offer a mild additional benefit. Compared to lacto-ovo-vegetarian diets, vegan diets seem to provide some added protection against obesity, hypertension, type-2 diabetes; and cardiovascular mortality. In general, the protective effects of vegetarian diets are stronger in men than in women." doi:10.3390/nu6062131 PMID 24871675

    Winston J. Craig, "Health effects of vegan diets", The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 89(5), May 2009 (pp. 1627S–1633S), p. 1627S: "A vegan diet appears to be useful for increasing the intake of protective nutrients and phytochemicals and for minimizing the intake of dietary factors implicated in several chronic diseases." PMID 19279075

    Timothy J. Key, Paul N. Appleby, and M. S. Rosell, "Health effects of vegetarian and vegan diet," Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 65(1), February 2006, pp. 35–41. PMID 16441942

    Claus Leitzmann, "Vegetarian diets: what are the advantages?," Forum of Nutrition, 57, 2005, pp. 147–156: "A growing body of scientific evidence indicates that wholesome vegetarian diets offer distinct advantages compared to diets containing meat and other foods of animal origin. The benefits arise from lower intakes of saturated fat, cholesterol and animal protein as well as higher intakes of complex carbohydrates, dietary fiber, magnesium, folic acid, vitamin C and E, carotenoids and other phytochemicals. ... In most cases, vegetarian diets are beneficial in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, cancer, osteoporosis, renal disease and dementia, as well as diverticular disease, gallstones and rheumatoid arthritis." PMID 15702597

  11. ^ a b c "Position of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada: Vegetarian diets", Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 103(6), June 2003 (pp. 748–765), p. 748: "Well-planned vegan and other types of vegetarian diets are appropriate for all stages of the life-cycle including during pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adolescence."

    Also see J. Winston Craig and Reed Mangels, "Position of the American Dietetic Association: vegetarian diets", Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 109(7), July 2009, pp. 1266–1282.

    "Dietary Guidelines for Australia", National Health and Medical Research Council, p. 13; "Government recognises vegan diet as viable option for all Australians", MND Australia, 12 July 2013.

  12. ^ a b R. Pawlak, et al., "How prevalent is vitamin B(12) deficiency among vegetarians?", Nutrition Reviews, 71(2), February 2013, pp. 110–117: "The main finding of this review is that vegetarians develop B12 depletion or deficiency regardless of demographic characteristics, place of residency, age, or type of vegetarian diet. Vegetarians should thus take preventive measures to ensure adequate intake of this vitamin, including regular consumption of supplements containing B12."

    Mangels, Messina, and Messina, 2011, pp. 181–192; "Vitamin B12", Office of Dietary Supplements, National Institutes of Health, accessed 17 December 2012.

    Reed Mangels, "Vitamin B12 in the Vegan Diet", Vegetarian Resource Group, accessed 17 December 2012: "Vitamin B12 is needed for cell division and blood formation. Neither plants nor animals make vitamin B12. Bacteria are responsible for producing vitamin B12. Animals get their vitamin B12 from eating foods contaminated with vitamin B12 and then the animal becomes a source of vitamin B12. Plant foods do not contain vitamin B12 except when they are contaminated by microorganisms or have vitamin B12 added to them. Thus, vegans need to look to fortified foods or supplements to get vitamin B12 in their diet."

    Jack Norris, "Vitamin B12: Are you getting it?", Vegan Outreach, 26 July 2006: "Contrary to the many rumors, there are no reliable, unfortified plant sources of vitamin B12 ... [There is an] overwhelming consensus in the mainstream nutrition community, as well as among vegan health professionals, that vitamin B12 fortified foods or supplements are necessary for the optimal health of vegans, and even vegetarians in many cases. Luckily, vitamin B12 is made by bacteria such that it does not need to be obtained from animal products."

  13. ^ a b Mahatma Gandhi, "The Moral Basis of Vegetarianism", speech to the Vegetarian Society, London, 20 November 1931: "I feel especially honoured to find on my right, Mr. Henry Salt. It was Mr. Salt's book 'A Plea for Vegetarianism’, which showed me why apart from a hereditary habit, and apart from my adherence to a vow administered to me by my mother, it was right to be a vegetarian. He showed me why it was a moral duty incumbent on vegetarians not to live upon fellow-animals. It is, therefore, a matter of additional pleasure to me that I find Mr. Salt in our midst."
  14. ^ Fanny Kemble, Journal of a Residence on a Georgian Plantation in 1838–1839, Harper and Brothers, New York, 1839, pp. 197–198.
  15. ^ John Davis, "The earliest known uses of the word 'vegetarian'", and "Extracts from some journals 1842–48 – the earliest known uses of the word 'vegetarian'", International Vegetarian Union, accessed 17 December 2012.

    Also see Rod Preece, Sins of the Flesh: A History of Ethical Vegetarian Thought, University of British Columbia Press, 2008, pp. 12–13: Another early use of vegetarian is the April 1842 edition of The Healthian, a journal published by Alcott House: "Tell a healthy vegetarian that his diet is very uncongenial to the wants of his nature."

  16. ^ Daniel A. Dombrowski, "Vegetarianism and the Argument from Marginal Cases in Porphyry", Journal of the History of Ideas, 45(1), January – March 1984, pp. 141–143 (see Porphyry (c. 234 – c. 305 CE), De Abstinentia ("On Abstinence from Animal Food").
  17. ^ Daniel A. Dombrowski, The Philosophy of Vegetarianism, University of Massachusetts Press, 1984.
  18. ^ "Under Examination," The Dietetic Reformer and Vegetarian Messenger, Vol XI, 1884, p. 237: "There are two kinds of Vegetarians – an extreme sect, who eat no animal food whatever; and a less extreme sect, who do not object to eggs, milk, or fish ... The Vegetarian Society ... belongs to the more moderate division."
  19. ^ Karen Iacobbo and Michael Iacobbo, Vegetarians and Vegans in America Today, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2006, p. 142.
  20. ^ John Davis, World Veganism, International Vegetarian Union, 2012, p. 31.
  21. ^ "History of the Vegetarian Society", Vegetarian Society, accessed 7 February 2011; John Davis, "The Origins of the "Vegetarians", International Vegetarian Union", 28 July 2011.
  22. ^ "History of Vegetarianism: The Origin of Some Words", International Vegetarian Union, 6 April 2010.
  23. ^ Henry Stephens Salt, A Plea for Vegetarianism and other essays, The Vegetarian Society, 1886, p. 7.

    Henry Salt, "The Humanities of Diet", in Kerry S. Walters and Lisa Portmess (eds.), Ethical Vegetarianism: from Pythagoras to Peter Singer, State University of New York Press, 1999, p. 115ff, an extract from Salt's The Logic of Vegetarianism (1899).

    For Salt being the first modern animal rights advocate, Angus Taylor, Animals and Ethics, Broadview Press, 2003, p. 62.

  24. ^ Leah Leneman, "No Animal Food: The Road to Veganism in Britain, 1909–1944",Society and Animals, 7(3), 1999 (pp. 219–228), p. 220.

    Rupert Wheldon, No Animal Food, Health Culture Co, New York-Passaic, New Jersey, 1910.

  25. ^ Leneman 1999, pp. 219–220, 222.

    C.P. Newcombe, editor of TVMHR, the journal of the society's Manchester branch, started a debate about it in 1912 on the letters page, to which 24 vegetarians responded. He summarized their views: "The defence of the use of eggs and milk by vegetarians, so far as it has been offered here, is not satisfactory. The only true way is to live on cereals, pulse, fruit, nuts and vegetables."

  26. ^ Leneman 1999, p. 221.
  27. ^ Mahatma Gandhi, "The Moral Basis of Vegetarianism", speech to the Vegetarian Society, London, 20 November 1931, pp. 11–14.
  28. ^ a b Harry Maher, "The Milk of Human Kindness", interview with Arthur Ling, Vegan Views, 37, Autumn 1986; "C Arthur Ling, 1919–2005", Plamil Foods; "The Plantmilk Society", The Vegan, X(3), Winter 1956, pp. 14–16.
  29. ^ Leneman 1999, pp. 222–223.
  30. ^ a b c Donald Watson, "The Early History of the Vegan Movement", The Vegan, Winter 1965, pp. 5–7.
  31. ^ a b "Interview with Donald Watson", Vegetarians in Paradise, 11 August 2004.
  32. ^ "World Vegan Day", Vegan Society, accessed 13 August 2009.
  33. ^ The Vegan, 5(3), Autumn 1949, inside cover.
  34. ^ Leslie Cross, "Veganism Defined", The Vegetarian World Forum, 5(1), Spring 1951, pp. 6–7.

    Also see Matthew Cole, "'The greatest cause on earth': the historical formation of veganism as an ethical practice," in Nik Taylor, Richard Twine (eds.), The Rise of Critical Animal Studies: From the Margins to the Centre, Routledge, 2014 (pp. 262–276), pp. 203–224.

  35. ^ "Memorandum of Association of the Vegan Society", Vegan Society, 20 November 1979.
  36. ^ The Vegan, Summer 1946, pp. 6–7.
  37. ^ Stepaniak 2000(a)), p. 5.
  38. ^ Stepaniak 2000(a), pp. 6–7; Linda Austin and Norm Hammond, Oceano, Arcadia Publishing, 2010, p. 39; Freya Dinshah, "Vegan, More than a Dream", American Vegan, Summer 2010, p. 31.
  39. ^ Stepaniak 2000(a), pp. 6–7; "American Vegan Society: History", American Vegan Society, accessed 17 December 2012.
  40. ^ Stepaniak 2000(a), p. 3.
  41. ^ a b Meat Atlas, Heinrich Böll Foundation, Friends of the Earth Europe, 2014, p. 57; Mona Chalabi, "Meat atlas shows Latin America has become a soybean empire", The Guardian, 9 January 2014.
  42. ^ For Ornish, Campbell, Esselstyn and Barnard informally discussing veganism and health, see Kathy Freston, Veganist: Lose Weight, Get Healthy, Change the World, Weinstein Publishing, 2011:

    Dean Ornish on weight loss and reversing heart disease, p. 21ff; T. Colin Campbell on cancer, heart disease and diabetes, p. 41ff; Caldwell Esselstyn on heart disease, p. 57ff; Neal D. Barnard on diabetes, p. 73ff. Also see:

    Soren Ventegodt and Joav Merrick, "The Nobel Prize in Medicine should go to Dean Ornish", British Medical Journal, 29 December 2010.

    C. B. Trapp and Neal D. Barnard, "Usefulness of vegetarian and vegan diets for treating type 2 diabetes", Current Diabetes Reports, 10(2), April 2010.

    Roger Segelken, "China Study II: Switch to Western diet may bring Western-type diseases", Cornell Chronicle, 28 June 2001.<p "China-Cornell-Oxford Project On Nutrition, Environment and Health at Cornell University", Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, archived December 2002.

    T. Colin Campbell, B. Parpia, and J. Chen, "Diet, lifestyle, and the etiology of coronary artery disease: the Cornell China study", American Journal of Cardiology, 82(10B), November 1998, pp. 18T-21T.

    Neal D. Barnard, et al. "Vegetarian and vegan diets in type 2 diabetes management", Nutrition Reviews, 67(5), May 2009, pp. 255–263.

    Dean Ornish, S. E. Brown, and L. W. Scherwitz, et al., "Can lifestyle changes reverse coronary heart disease? The Lifestyle Heart Trial", The Lancet, 336(8708), July 1990, pp. 129–133.

    Dean Ornish, et al. "Effects of a vegetarian diet and selected yoga techniques in the treatment of coronary heart disease", Clinical Research, 27, 1979.

    Caldwell Esselstyn, "Updating a 12-year experience with arrest and reversal therapy for coronary heart disease (an overdue requiem for palliative cardiology)", American Journal of Cardiology, 84(3), August 1999, pp. 339–341.

    J. McDougall, et al. "Effects of a Very Low-Fat, Vegan Diet in Subjects with Rheumatoid Arthritis", Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 8(1), February 2002, pp. 71–75.

  43. ^ Sanjay Gupta, "Gupta: Becoming heart attack proof", CNN, 25 August 2011.
  44. ^ "Vegan diets becoming more popular, more mainstream", Associated Press, 6 January 2011.

    Antonia Molloy, "No meat, no dairy, no problem: is 2014 the year vegans become mainstream?", The Independent, 31 December 2013.

  45. ^ Amanda Holpuch, "Al Gore follows Bill Clinton's lead with apparent turn to veganism", The Guardian, 26 November 2013.

    Joel Stein, "The Rise of the Power Vegans", Bloomberg Businessweek, 4 November 2010.

  46. ^ a b Susie Mesure, "Veganism 2.0: Let them eat kale", The Independent, 8 December 2013.
  47. ^ Liz Neoporent, "How Veganuary Can Help You Go Vegan for a Full Month", ABC News, 31 December 2014.
  48. ^ "European Parliament legislative resolution of 16 June 2010", European Parliament: "The term 'vegan' shall not be applied to foods that are, or are made from or with the aid of, animals or animal products, including products from living animals."
  49. ^ Michael Valraven, "Vegetarian butchers make a killing", Radio Netherlands Worldwide, 14 September 2011; The Vegetarian Butcher, accessed 16 July 2014.
  50. ^ "Europe's first vegan supermarket opens in Dortmund", Deutsche Welle, 3 October 2011.
  51. ^ a b Amy Guttman, "Meat-Drenched Oktoberfest Warms To Vegans", National Public Radio, 4 October 2013.
  52. ^ Frank Newport, "In U.S., 5% Consider Themselves Vegetarians", Gallup, 26 July 2012.
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    Anna-Louise Taylor, "Rise of the 'semi-vegetarians'", BBC News, 25 August 2012.

  54. ^ "Wat is veganisme?", Nederlandse Vereniging voor Veganisme, accessed 16 July 2014.
  55. ^ Ben Sales (17 October 2014). "Israelis growing hungry for vegan diet". The Times of Israel. 
  56. ^ a b Rosie Mestel, "Cochineal and Starbucks: Actually, this dye is everywhere", Los Angeles Times, 20 April 2012; Raymond Eller Kirk, Donald Frederick Othmer, Kirk-Othmer Chemical Technology of Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, 2012, p. 535.
  57. ^ Francione and Garner 2010, p. 257.
  58. ^ Francione and Garner 2010, p. 62.
  59. ^ "Criteria for Vegan food", "Trademark Standards", Vegan Society; "What is Vegan?", American Vegan Society, accessed 17 December 2012.
  60. ^ Gary Steiner, Animals and the Limits of Postmodernism, Columbia University Press, 2013, pp. 127–128.
  61. ^ "Animal ingredients and products", Vegan Peace, accessed 17 December 2012; D. L. Meeker, Essential Rendering: All About The Animal By-Products Industry, National Renderers Association, 2006; "Vegan FAQs", Vegan Outreach, accessed 17 December 2012.
  62. ^ Stepaniak 2000(a), pp. 20, 115–118, 154; see p. 116 for the environmental damage associated with petroleum-based products.
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  64. ^ Lori Gruen, Ethics and Animals, Cambridge University Press, 2011, pp. 85–86.

    Erik Marcus, Veganism: The New Ethics of Eating, McBooks Press, 2000, pp. 128–129; "Dairy Cows & Welfare", Vegetarian Society, accessed 17 December 2012.

  65. ^ Chloe Coscarelli, Chloe's Kitchen, Simon and Schuster, 2012, p. 9.
  66. ^ Daniel Engber, "The Great Vegan Honey Debate: Is honey the dairy of the insect world?", Slate, 30 July 2008.

    "Honey: Ain't so sweet for the bees", Vegan Society, accessed 16 December 2012; "What is Vegan?", American Vegan Society, accessed 16 December 2012.

    "Is honey vegan?", Vegan Action, accessed 16 December 2012; "What about honey and silk?" and "What about insects killed by pesticides or during harvest?", Vegan Outreach, accessed 16 December 2012.

  67. ^ Reed Mangels, Virginia Messina and Mark Messina, The Dietitian's Guide to Vegetarian Diets, Jones & Bartlett Learning, 2011, p. 7.
  68. ^ a b Mangels, Messina and Messina 2011, pp. 256–257: "Soy protein products typically have a protein digestibility corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) ... >0.9, which is similar to that of meat and milk protein. Consequently, consuming the recommended dietary allowance (RDA, 0.8 mg/kg body weight [bw]), for protein entirely in the form of soy will meet the biologic requirement for amino acids. ... Formal recognition of the high quality of soy protein came in the form of a ruling by the USDA [United States Department of Agriculture] allowing soy protein to replace 100 percent of meat protein in the Federal School Lunch Program."
  69. ^ Mangels, Messina and Messina, 2011, p. 444.
  70. ^ "Milk, whole, 3.25% milkfat, with added vitamin D", United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service.
  71. ^ "Soymilk (all flavors), unsweetened, with added calcium, vitamins A and D", United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service.
  72. ^ "Almond Breeze Original Unsweetened",
  73. ^ Popular plant-milk brands include Dean Foods' Silk soy milk and almond milk, Blue Diamond's Almond Breeze, Taste the Dream's Almond Dream and Rice Dream, and Plamil Foods' Organic Soya and Alpro's Soya. Vegan ice-creams based on plant milk include Tofutti, Turtle Mountain's So Delicious, and Luna & Larry’s Coconut Bliss. See Miriam Krule, "Two Scoops, Hold the Dairy", Slate, 15 August 2012.
  74. ^ Monica Reinagel, Nutrition Diva's Secrets for a Healthy Diet, Macmillan 2011, pp. 20–21.
  75. ^ Reed Mangels, The Everything Vegan Pregnancy Book, Adams Media, 2011, p. 174.

    Russell J. Merritt, Belinda H. Jenks, "Safety of Soy-Based Infant Formulas Containing Isoflavones: The Clinical Evidence", The Journal of Nutrition, 134(5), 1 May 2004, pp. 1220–1224: "Modern soy formulas meet all nutritional requirements and safety standards of the Infant Formula Act of 1980." PubMed

  76. ^ Sarah E. Mosko, "The Cheese Challenge", E/The Environmental Magazine, 22(5), Sept–Oct 2011, pp. 38–39.
  77. ^ Coscarelli 2012, p. 4.
  78. ^ Joanne Stepaniak, Vegan Vittles (1996), The Nutritional Yeast Cookbook (1997), and The Uncheese Cookbook (2003); Mikoyo Schinner, Artisan Vegan Cheese (2012).
  79. ^ Kay Stepkin, "Vegan cheese replaces lingering brie craving", Chicago Tribune, 16 January 2013.
  80. ^ Jason Dorrier, "Lab-Grown Cheese Made by 'Milking' Genetically Modified Yeast Cells", Singularity Hub, 21 July 2014.
  81. ^ Coscarelli 2012, p. 12.
  82. ^ Victoria Moran and Adair Moran, Main Street Vegan, Penguin 2012, p. 168; Katherine Goldstein, "The Most Incredible Condiment You Probably Aren't Using", Slate, 27 December 2013; "Plamil Egg Free Mayonnaise",; "The Miso alternative to mayonnaise",
  83. ^ a b Mangels, Messina and Messina 2011, p. 445.
  84. ^ Caldwell Esselstyn, Prevent and Reverse Heart Disease: The Revolutionary, Scientifically Proven, Nutrition-Based Cure, Penguin, 2007, p. 266.
  85. ^ Coscarelli 2012, p. 183.
  86. ^ "Egg Replacements", People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals, accessed 13 December 2012.
  87. ^ a b "The New Four Food Groups", Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine, accessed 16 January 2013.
  88. ^ Marian Burros, "Eating Well; Rethink 4 Food Groups, Doctors Tell U.S.", The New York Times, 10 April 1991.
  89. ^ a b "What Foods Are in the Protein Foods Group?", United States Department of Agriculture: "All foods made from meat, poultry, seafood, beans and peas, eggs, processed soy products, nuts, and seeds are considered part of the Protein Foods Group."

    "Vegetarian Choices in the Protein Foods Group"; "What Foods Are Included in the Dairy Group?", USDA.

    William Neuman, "Nutrition Plate Unveiled, Replacing Food Pyramid", The New York Times, 2 June 2011.

  90. ^ a b "The eatwell plate", National Health Service; "The vegan diet", National Health Service.
  91. ^ Mangels, Messina and Messina 2011, p. 71; for their chapter on protein, pp. 65–79.
  92. ^ Mangels, Messina and Messina 2011, pp. 72, 78; Jack Norris and Virginia Messina, "Protein & Amino Acids in Common Foods", Vegan Outreach, December 2010.
  93. ^ M. Messina and V. Messina, "The role of soy in vegetarian diets," Nutrients, 2(8), August 2010, pp. 855–888. PMID 22254060

    A. Vega-Gálvez, et al, "Nutrition facts and functional potential of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa willd.), an ancient Andean grain: a review," Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 90(15), December 2010, pp. 2541–2547. PMID 20814881

    L. E. James Abugoch, "Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.): composition, chemistry, nutritional, and functional properties," Advances in Food and Nutrition Research, 58, 2009, pp. 1–31. PMID 19878856

    J. Fuhrman and D. M. Ferreri, "Fueling the vegetarian (vegan) athlete," Current Sports Medicine Reports, 9(4), July–August 2010, pp. 233–241. PMID 20622542

  94. ^ a b "Crediting Tofu and Soy Yogurt Products", USDA, 22 February 2012.
  95. ^ Mangels, Messina and Messina 2011, p. 75ff.
  96. ^ Mangels, Messina and Messina 2011, p. 77.
  97. ^ a b Fumio Watanabe, et al., "Vitamin B12-Containing Plant Food Sources for Vegetarians", Nutrients, 6(5), 5 May 2014, pp. 1861–1873. doi:10.3390/nu6051861 PMID 24803097

    Fumio Watanabe, et al., "Biologically active vitamin B12 compounds in foods for preventing deficiency among vegetarians and elderly subjects," Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 61(280), 17 July 2013, pp. 6769–6775. doi:10.1021/jf401545z PMID 23782218

  98. ^ Mangels, Messina and Messina 2011, p. 187.
  99. ^ a b Reed Mangels, Virginia Messina, and Mark Messina, "Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)", The Dietitian's Guide to Vegetarian Diets, Jones & Bartlett Learning, 2011, pp. 181–192.

    Reed Mangels, "Vitamin B12 in the Vegan Diet", Vegetarian Resource Group, accessed 28 November 2012.

    Also see Victor Herbert, "Vitamin B12: plant sources, requirements and assay", American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 48(3), September 1988, pp. 852–858.

  100. ^ Mangels, Messina and Messina 2011, p. 179.
  101. ^ "Vitamin B12", Office of Dietary Supplements, National Institutes of Health, 24 June 2011: The RDA for adults (14+ years) is 2.4 mcg (or µg) a day, rising to 2.4 and 2.6 mcg for pregnancy and lactation respectively; 0.4 mcg for 0–6 months, 0.5 mcg for 7–12 months, 0.9 mcg for 1–3 years, 1.2 mcg for 4–8 years, and 1.8 mcg for 9–13 years.
  102. ^ Jack Norris and Virginia Messina, Vegan for Life, Da Capo Press, 2011, p. 34.
  103. ^ Mangels, Messina and Messina 2011, p. 188; Herbert 1988, p. 854, citing research by James Halsted.

    James Halsted, et al., "Serum Vitamin B12 Concentration in Dietary Deficiency", The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 8(3), 1960, pp. 374–376 (for information on Halsted, see Cecil J. Smith and Marian Swendseid, "James A. Halsted", The Journal of Nutrition, undated).

    Victor Herbert writes that in the 1950s Sheila Callender, an English haematologist, made water extracts of faeces collected from vegans with anaemia caused by a lack of B12, and cured the deficiency by feeding them the extracts; see Herbert 1988, p. 852; David Weatherall, "Sheila Callender", British Medical Journal, 329(7470), 9 October 2004, p. 860.

    Herbert 1988, p. 854: "[S]trict vegetarians who do not practice thorough hand washing or vegetable cleaning may be untroubled by vitamin B-12 deficiency."

  104. ^ Mangels, Messina and Messina 2011, pp. 183–184.
  105. ^ Other sources of B12 cited are miso, and other edible seaweeds (arame, wakame and kombu), spirulina and rainwater. Barley malt syrup, shiitake mushrooms, parsley and sourdough bread have also been referenced, but may be sources of inactive B12. See Mangels, Messina and Messina 2011, p. 187.
  106. ^ a b Mangels, Messina and Messina 2011, pp. 182–183.
  107. ^ "Soymilk (all flavors), unsweetened, with added calcium, vitamins A and D", United States Department of Agriculture.
  108. ^ a b "Calcium", Office of Dietary Supplements, National Institutes of Health. The RDA for adults is 1,000 mg for 19–50 years, 1,000 mg for 51–70 years (men) and 1,200 mg (women), and 1,200 mg for 71+. The RDA for eighteen years and under is 200 mg for 0–6 months, 260 mg for 7–12 months, 700 mg for 1–3 years, 1,000 mg for 4–8 years, 1,300 mg for 9–18 years.

    Catherine A. Ross, et al (eds.), "DRI Dietary Reference Intakes, Calcium, Vitamin D", Food and Nutrition Board, The National Academies Press, 2011, particularly pp. 35–74.

    For a discussion of calcium and vegan/vegetarian diets, Mangels, Messina and Messina 2011, p. 109ff.

  109. ^ Mangels, Messina and Messina 2011, p. 110.
  110. ^ P. Appleby et al., "Comparative fracture risk in vegetarians and nonvegetarians in EPIC-Oxford", European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 61(12), February 2007, pp. 1400–1406: "In conclusion, fracture risk was similar for meat eaters, fish eaters and vegetarians in this study. The higher fracture risk among vegans appeared to be a consequence of their considerably lower mean calcium intake. Vegans, who do not consume dairy products, a major source of calcium in most diets, should ensure that they obtain adequate calcium from suitable sources such as almonds, sesame seeds, tahini (sesame paste), calcium-set tofu, calcium-fortified drinks and low-oxalate leafy green vegetables such as kale ..."

    "Calcium: Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet", National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements, November 21, 2013: "In the Oxford cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, bone fracture risk was similar in meat eaters, fish eaters and vegetarians, but higher in vegans, likely due to their lower mean calcium intake."

  111. ^ Appleby et al. 2007: "We observed similar fracture rates among meat eaters, fish eaters and vegetarians. A 30% higher fracture rate among vegans compared with meat eaters was halved in magnitude by adjustment for energy and calcium intake and disappeared altogether when the analysis was restricted to subjects who consumed at least 525 mg/day calcium, a quantity equal to the UK EAR.

    Jack Norris, "Bones, Vitamin D, and Calcium", Vegan Outreach, 9 January 2007: "Based on research showing that vegans who consumed less than 525 mg per day of calcium had higher bone fracture rates than people who consumed more than 525 mg per day (14), vegans should make sure they get a minimum of 525 mg of calcium per day. It would be best to get 700 mg per day for adults, and at least 1,000 mg for people age 13 to 18 when bones are developing. This can most easily be satisfied for most vegans by eating high-calcium greens on a daily basis and drinking a nondairy milk that is fortified with calcium."

  112. ^ L. T. Ho-Pham et al., "Effect of vegetarian diets on bone mineral density: a Bayesian meta-analysis", American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 90(4), October 2009, pp. 943–950. PMID 19571226

    L. T. Ho-Pham, "Veganism, bone mineral density, and body composition: a study in Buddhist nuns," Osteoporos Int, 20(12), December 2009, pp. 2087–2093. PMID 19350341

    A. M. Smith, "Veganism and osteoporosis: a review of the current literature," International Journal of Nursing Practice, 12(5), October 2006, pp. 302–330: "The findings gathered consistently support the hypothesis that vegans do have lower bone mineral density than their non-vegan counterparts. However, the evidence regarding calcium, Vitamin D and fracture incidence is inconclusive." PMID 16942519

  113. ^ T. Colin Campbell, The China Study, Benbella Books, 2006, pp.  205–208.
  114. ^ a b c "Vitamin D", Office of Dietary Supplements, National Institutes of Health; Ross et al. (Food and Nutrition Board) 2011; Mangels et al. 2011, pp. 204–209.
  115. ^ Mangels et al. 2011, pp. 207–208; "Vitamin D: Health Risks from Excessive Vitamin D", Office of Dietary Supplements, National Institutes of Health.
  116. ^ Mangels, Messina and Messina 2011, p.  209.
  117. ^ Ross et al. (Food and Nutrition Board) 2011, p. 75.
  118. ^ Mangels, Messina and Messina 2011, p. 141.
  119. ^ Mangels, Messina and Messina 2011, pp. 138ff, 143–144. For a detailed discussion, see "Iron", Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, National Academy Press, 2001, pp. 290–393.
  120. ^ Mangels, Messina and Messina 2011, p. 146.
  121. ^ Mangels, Messina and Messina 2011, p. 143.
  122. ^ "Iron: Health Risks from Excessive Iron", Office of Dietary Supplements, National Institutes of Health.
  123. ^ Davida Gypsy Breier and Reed Mangels, Vegan & Vegetarian FAQ: Answers to Your Frequently Asked Questions, Vegetarian Resource Group, 2001, p. 27.
  124. ^ a b c Mangels, Messina and Messina 2011, p. 142; Reed Mangels, "Iron in the Vegan Diet", The Vegetarian Resources Group.
  125. ^ Tom A. Sanders, "The nutritional adequacy of plant-based diets", The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 58(2), 1999, pp. 265–269. For information about Sanders, see "Professor Tom Sanders", King's College London.
  126. ^ "Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Health", Office of Dietary Supplements, National Institutes of Health. The Adequate Intake for ALA is 1.1–1.6 g/day.
  127. ^ Jack Norris, "Omega-3 Fatty Acid Recommendations for Vegetarians", Vegan Outreach, accessed 4 February 2011.
  128. ^ Paul N. Appleby et al, "The Oxford Vegetarian Study: an overview", American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 70(3), September 1999, pp. 525S–531S.
  129. ^ "Iodine", Vegan Outreach, 26 December 2006: "Iodine is needed for healthy thyroid function which regulates metabolism. Both too much and too little iodine can result in abnormal thyroid metabolism. ... Studies have shown that vegans in Europe (where salt is either not iodized or not iodized at high enough levels) who do not supplement (as well as those who oversupplement) have indications of abnormal thyroid function."

    H. J. Lightowler, G. J. Davies, and M. D. Trevan, "Iodine in the diet: perspectives for vegans", Journal of the Royal Society of Health, 116(1), February 1996, pp. 14–20.

  130. ^ "Iodine", Office of Dietary Supplements, National Institutes of Health. The RDA is 110 mcg (0–six months), 130 mcg (7–12 months), 90 mcg (1–8 years), 120 mcg (9–13 years), 150 mcg (14+). The RDA for pregnancy and lactation is 220 and 290 mcg respectively.
  131. ^ Ru-Yi Huang, et al, "Vegetarian Diets and Weight Reduction: a Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials", Journal of General Internal Medicine, 3390, 3 July 2015. doi:10.1007/s11606-015-3390-7 PMID 26138004
  132. ^ Lap Tai Le, Joan Sabaté, "Beyond Meatless, the Health Effects of Vegan Diets: Findings from the Adventist Cohorts", Nutrients, 6(6), June 2014, pp. 2131–2147.
  133. ^ [unreliable medical source?]Lanou AJ, Svenson B (2010). "Reduced cancer risk in vegetarians: an analysis of recent reports". Cancer Manag Res (Review) 3: 1–8. doi:10.2147/CMR.S6910. PMC 3048091. PMID 21407994. Although plant-based diets including vegetarian and vegan diets are generally considered to be cancer protective, surprisingly very few studies have directly addressed this question. 
  134. ^ "Position of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada: Vegetarian diets", Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 103(6), June 2003 (pp. 748–765), p. 755.

    M. A. O'Connor, et al, "Vegetarianism in anorexia nervosa? A review of 116 consecutive cases", Medical Journal of Australia, 147(11–12), 1987, pp. 540–542.

    Brenda Davis and Vesanto Melina, Becoming Vegan: The Complete Guide to Adopting a Healthy Plant-Based Diet, Book Publishing Company 2000, p. 224.

  135. ^ "Dietary Guidelines for Australia", National Health and Medical Research Council, p. 13; "Government recognises vegan diet as viable option for all Australians", MND Australia, 12 July 2013.
  136. ^ a b "Vegane Ernährung: Nährstoffversorgung und Gesundheitsrisiken im Säuglings- und Kindesalter", Deutsche Gesellschaft für Ernährung.

    For Switzerland, "Indikator 2.12: Vegetarismus", Bundesamt fuer Gesundheit.

  137. ^ "Position of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada: vegetarian diets", Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research, Summer 2003, 64(2), pp. 62–81 (also available here).
  138. ^ American Dietetic Association 2003, p. 754.
  139. ^ Ann Reed Mangels, "Vegetarian diets in pregnancy", in Carol Jean Lammi-Keefe, Sarah C. Couch, and Elliot H. Philipson (eds.), Handbook of Nutrition and Pregnancy, Humana Press, 2008, p. 215.
  140. ^ M. R. Pepper, M. M. Black, "B12 in fetal development," Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology, 22(6), August 2011, pp. 619–623. PMID 21664980

    T. Kuhne, R. Bubl, R. Baumgartner, "Maternal vegan diet causing a serious infantile neurological disorder due to vitamin B12 deficiency," European Journal of Pediatrics, 150(3), 1991, pp. 205–208. PMID 2044594

    R. Weiss, Y. Fogelman, M. Bennett, "Severe vitamin B12 deficiency in an infant associated with a maternal deficiency and a strict vegetarian diet", Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, 26(4), 2004, pp. 270–271.

  141. ^ American Dietetic Association, p. 753.
  142. ^ Mary Frances Picciano, Michelle Kay McGuire, "Dietary supplements during pregnancy: Needs, efficacy, and safety", in Carol Jean Lammi-Keefe, Sarah C. Couch, Elliot H. Philipson (eds.), Handbook of Nutrition and Pregnancy, Humana Press, 2008, p. 200.

    Lucia Lynn Kaiser and Lindsay Allen, "Nutrition and lifestyle for a healthy pregnancy outcome", Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 108(3), March 2008.

    Ann Reed Mangels and V. Messina, "Considerations in planning vegan diets: Infants," and "Considerations in planning vegan diets: Children," Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 101, June 2001. PMID 11424546 PMID 11424545

    Ann Reed Mangels, "Pediatric Vegetarianism", in S. Edelstein, J. Sharlin (eds.), Nutrition in the Life Cycle: An Evidence-based Approach, Jones and Bartlett Publishers, 2008, p.  229.

    "Vegan babies and children: a dietary guide, including pre-conception and pregnancy", British Vegan Society.

  143. ^ "Trademark Standards" and Trademark search, British Vegan Society.
  144. ^ "Accredited Cruelty-Free Vegan Companies", Choose Cruelty Free.
  145. ^ Linzey, Andrew. "Dowding, Lady Muriel," Encyclopedia of Animal Rights and Animal Welfare. Greenwood, 1998, p. 139; "History", Beauty Without Cruelty.
  146. ^ Britanny Helmrich, "13 Cool Vegan-Friendly Businesses That Inspire", Business New Daily, 10 June 2015; "Why aren't all your products vegan?", FAQ, Lush.
  147. ^ a b Animal Ingredients A to Z, E. G. Smith Collective, 2004, 3rd edition; Erik Marcus, The Ultimate Vegan Guide: Compassionate Living Without Sacrifice,, chapter 24. Also see "Animal ingredients list", PETA.
  148. ^ Tom Regan, The Case for Animal Rights, University of California Press, 1983, pp. 243, 333–334, 394.
  149. ^ Francione and Garner 2010, p. 62ff; also see Interview with Gary Francione, Vimeo, 2009, from 13:53 mins: "We all believe it's wrong to inflict unnecessary suffering and death on animals.&nsbp;... So now the next question becomes "what do we mean by necessity?" Well, whatever it means, whatever abstract meaning it has, if it has any meaning whatsoever, its minimal meaning has to be that it's wrong to inflict suffering and death on animals for reasons of pleasure, amusement or convenience&nsbp;... Okay. Problem is 99.9999999 percent of our animal use can only be justified by reasons of pleasure, amusement or convenience. It's gotta go."
  150. ^ Erik Marcus, "Erik Marcus Debates Professor Francione on Abolition vs. Animal Welfare", Erik's Diner, 25 February 2007, from c.&nsbp;2:20 mins (transcript).
  151. ^ Peter Singer, Practical Ethics, Cambridge University Press, 1999, p.&nsbp;50; Catherine Clyne, "Singer Says", Satya magazine, October 2006; Singer 1999, p.&nsbp;60ff.
  152. ^ Peter Singer and Jim Mason, The Way We Eat, Rodale, 2006, pp.&nsbp;281–282.
  153. ^ Francione and Garner 2010, pp.&nsbp;71–72.
  154. ^ Bruce Friedrich, "Personal Purity versus Effective Advocacy", PETA, 2006.
  155. ^ Francione and Garner 2010, pp.&nsbp;72–73.
  156. ^ Val Plumwood, "Gender, Eco-Feminism and the Environment," in Robert White (ed.), Controversies in Environmental Sociology, Cambridge University Press, 2004, pp. 52–53.
  157. ^ a b c d Henning Steinfeld, et al., Livestock's Long Shadow, Food and Agriculture Organization, United Nations, 2006.
  158. ^ "Inventory of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions and sinks: 1990–2009", United States Environmental Protection Agency, 2011.
  159. ^ Heinz-Ulrich Neue, "Methane emission from rice fields", BioScience, 43(7), 1993, pp. 466–473; Tim Hirsch, "Plants revealed as methane source", BBC News, 11 January 2006.
  160. ^ Lyle Munro, "Animals 'Nature' and Human Interests," in Robert White (ed.), Controversies in Environmental Sociology, Cambridge University Press, 2004, p. 67; Jim Mason and Peter Singer, Animal Factories: What Agribusiness is Doing to the Family Farm, the Environment and Your Health, Harmony Books, 1990, p. 8.
  161. ^ Christian J. Peters, Jennifer Wilkins, Gary W. Ficka, "Testing a complete-diet model for estimating the land resource requirements of food consumption and agricultural carrying capacity: The New York State example", Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems, 22(2), June 2007, pp. 145–153. doi:10.1017/S1742170507001767

    Susan Lang, "Diet for small planet may be most efficient if it includes dairy and a little meat, Cornell researchers report", Cornell Chronicle, Cornell University, 4 October 2007.

  162. ^ a b Assessing the Environmental Impacts of Consumption and Production, International Panel for Resource Management, United Nations Environment Programme, June 2010.
  163. ^ Felicity Carus, "UN urges global move to meat and dairy-free diet", The Guardian, 2 June 2010; "Energy and Agriculture Top Resource Panel's Priority List for Sustainable 21st Century", United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Brussels, 2 June 2010.

    For an opposing position, Simon Fairlie, Meat: A Benign Extravagance, Chelsea Green Publishing, 2010.

  164. ^ a b S. L. Davis, "The Least Harm Principle May Require That Humans Consume a Diet Containing Large Herbivores, Not a Vegan Diet," Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, 16(4), 2003, pp. 387–394 (courtesy link); also see George Schedler, "Does Ethical Meat Eating Maximize Utility?" Social Theory and Practice, 31(4), 2005, pp. 499–511.

    S. L. Davis, "What is the Morally Relevant Difference between the Mouse and the Pig?", Proceedings of EurSafe 2000, 2nd Congress of the European Society for Agricultural and Food Ethics, 2000, pp. 107–109.

  165. ^ Andy Lamey, "Food Fight! Davis versus Regan on the Ethics of Eating Beef", Journal of Social Philosophy, 38(2), Summer 2007 (pp. 331–348), pp. 336, 338, 344.
  166. ^ Gaverick Matheny, "Least Harm: A Defense of Vegetarianism from Steven Davis's Omnivorous Proposal," Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, 16(5), 2003, pp. 505–511 (courtesy link). Matheny uses the terms vegetarianism, strictly vegetarian (vegan), and vegan-vegetarian to refer to dietary veganism.

Further reading[edit]

Early vegan/vegetarian texts (chronological)