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Queen of Assyria
Reign 811 BCE – 808 BCE or 809 BCE - 792 BCE
Successor Adad-nirari III
Spouse Shamshi-Adad V
Issue Adad-nirari III

Shammurāmat or Sammuramat was an empress regnant of Assyria between 811 and 808 BCE [1] or from 809 to 792 BCE.[2] She was the first woman to rule an empire ("empress regnant") without a man ruling with her (an "empress consort"). [3]


Shammuramat was a wife of King Shamshi-Adad V and after he died in 811 BC, she ruled the Neo-Assyrian Empire as its regent for five years until her son Adad-nirari III came of age.[1] Other chronologies suggest that her regency lasted from 809 to 792 BCE.[2]

Her son was King Adad-nirari III and her grandson was King Shalmaneser IV.[4]


Shammuramat's stela (memorial stone) has been found at Assur, while an inscription at Nimrud indicates that she was dominant there after the death of her husband and before the rule of her son.


The legendary Semiramis is usually considered a purely mythical figure; however, there is evidence in Assyrian records suggesting that she may, in fact, be a Greek reflection of Shammuramat. This identification is disputed. Another possibility is that she is given that title after death to reflect similarities with an earlier Sumerian deity.[1]


  1. ^ a b c Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "britannica" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  2. ^ a b Reilly, Jim (2000) "Contestants for Syrian Domination" in "Chapter 3: Assyrian & Hittite Synchronisms" The Genealogy of Ashakhet;
  3. ^
  4. ^ Georges Roux: Ancient Iraq, Penguin Books, London 1992, ISBN 0-14-012523-X, page 302.