Shammurāmat or Sammuramat was an empress regnant of Assyria between 811 and 808 BCE  or from 809 to 792 BCE. She was the first woman to rule an empire ("empress regnant") without a man ruling with her (an "empress consort"). 
The legendary Semiramis is usually considered a purely mythical figure; however, there is evidence in Assyrian records suggesting that she may, in fact, be a Greek reflection of Shammuramat. This identification is disputed. Another possibility is that she is given that title after death to reflect similarities with an earlier Sumerian deity.