A Sierra II-class submarine on the surface
|Builders:||Designed by Lazurit|
|Preceded by:||Alfa class, Victor class|
|Succeeded by:||Akula class|
|Active:||2 (+1 undergoing and 1 awaiting modernization)|
|Range:||Effectively unlimited, except by food supplies|
|Complement:||Sierra I & II: 61|
The Sierra I class is the NATO reporting name for a type of nuclear attack submarines intended for the Soviet Navy and Russian Navy. The Soviet designation is Project 945 (Barrakuda). The Sierra class has a light and strong titanium pressure hull which enables the class to dive to greater depths, reduce the level of radiated noise and increase resistance to torpedo attacks. It is powered by a single OK-650 pressurized water reactor.
The upgraded version is the Sierra II class or Project 945A (Kondor) with improved quieting and sonar. The Sierra II class was specifically developed for search and destroy missions against US nuclear submarines. It has a smaller turning circle than any other modern submarine, with speeds and diving depth greater than its American counterparts.
The first submarine of the Project 945, Carp, was laid down in May 1982 at the Gorky shipyard and was launched in August 1983 before being transferred to Severodvinsk for fitting out. It was laid up in 1987. The next hull to be built was Kostroma, which was launched in July 1986 and was commissioned in September 1987. K-276 Kostroma was put into a drydock after its 11 February 1992 collision with the US submarine USS Baton Rouge in the Barents Sea, off Kildin Island. The submarine was repaired on 3 June 1992 and was renamed Krab on 6 April 1993, but in 1996 its original name, Kostroma was returned and it is in active service with the Russian Northern Fleet. The Sierra I class was also fitted with a releasable escape pod for the crew. The pod is covered by a V-shaped casing on the port side of the sail.
The Project 945A has a considerably larger sail which is 5 m (16.4 ft) longer than the Sierra I class. The sail also has a curious flat, square leading edge. The masts are offset on the starboard side to make way for two escape pods in the sail. The starboard side also has a 10-point environment sensor fitted at right angles to the front end of the sail. Also, the Sierra II class has a much larger pod on its after fin. The pod houses the Skat 3 passive very low frequency towed sonar array.
In January 2013 a contract for refit and recommission of the submarines Carp and Kostroma of Project 945 was signed with the Zvezdochka. The necessary upgrade work was expected to take three years and would be carried out in Zvezdochka Shipyard at Severodvinsk. It was expected that the submarines would be transferred to the Zvezdochka before end of April 2013 and the overhaul of the submarines would begin in summer 2013. Zvezdochka would carry out ship defects, repair mechanical parts, replace nuclear fuel and all electrical equipment of the submarines. The submarines were also expected to receive a new sonar station, combat information management system, the GLONASS navigation system and new armament consisting of the Kalibr cruise missiles. In March 2015 it was reported that the final decision on the modernization of submarines Carp and Kostroma was yet to be made due to cost issues.
|B-239||Carp||945||20 July 1979||29 July 1983||29 September 1984||Northern Fleet||Undergoing modernization||To be reactivated in 2017.|
|B-276||Kostroma||945||21 April 1984||26 July 1986||27 November 1987||Northern Fleet||Awaiting modernization|
|B-534||Nizhniy Novgorod||945A||15 February 1986||8 July 1989||26 December 1990||Northern Fleet||Active||Overhaul completed in 2008.|
|B-336||Pskov||945A||29 July 1989||28 July 1992||14 December 1993||Northern Fleet||Active||Overhaul completed in 2015.|
- List of Soviet and Russian submarine classes
- List of submarine classes in service
- Future of the Russian Navy
- Attack submarine
- Cruise missile submarine
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