Space flight simulation game
|Part of a series on:|
|Simulation video games|
A space flight simulation game is a genre of flight simulator video games that lets players experience space flight to varying degrees of realism. Many games feature space combat, and some games feature commerce and trading in addition to combat.
- 1 Overview
- 2 Subgenres
- 3 Control systems
- 4 History
- 5 See also
- 6 References
Some games in the genre aim to recreate a realistic portrayal of space flight, involving the calculation of orbits within a more complete physics simulation than pseudo space flight simulators. Others focus on gameplay rather than simulating space flight in all its facets. The realism of the latter games is limited to what the game designer deems to be appropriate for the gameplay, instead of focusing on the realism of moving the spacecraft in space. Some "flight models" use a physics system based on Newtonian physics, but these are usually limited to maneuvering the craft in its direct environment, and do not take into consideration the orbital calculations that would make such a game a simulator. Many of the pseudo simulators feature faster than light travel.
Examples of true simulators which aim at piloting a space craft in a manner that conforms with the laws of nature include Orbiter, Kerbal Space Program and Microsoft Space Simulator. Examples of more fantastical video games that bend the rules of physics in favor of streamlining and entertainment, include Wing Commander, Star Wars: X-Wing and Freelancer.
The modern space flight game genre emerged at the point when home computers became sufficiently powerful to draw basic wireframe graphics in real-time. The game Elite is widely considered to be the breakthrough game of the genre, and as having successfully melded the "space trading" and flight sim genres. Elite was highly influential upon later games of its type, although it did have some precursors. Games similar to Elite are sometimes called "Elite-clones".
Space flight games and simulators, at one time popular, had for much of the new millennium been considered a "dead" genre. However, open-source and enthusiast communities managed to produce some working, modern titles (e.g. Orbiter Spaceflight Simulator); and 2011's commercially released Kerbal Space Program was notably well-received, even by the aerospace community. Some more recent games, most notably Star Citizen, Elite: Dangerous, and No Man's Sky, have brought new attention to the space trading and combat game subgenre.
Realistic space simulators seek to represent a vessel's behaviour under the influence of the laws of physics. As such, the player normally concentrates on following checklists or planning tasks. Piloting is generally limited to dockings, landings or orbital maneuvers. The reward for the player is on mastering real or realistic spacecraft, celestial mechanics and astronautics.
Classical games with this approach include Space Shuttle: A Journey into Space (1982), Rendezvous: A Space Shuttle Simulation (1982), The Halley Project (1985), Shuttle (1992) and Microsoft Space Simulator (1994).
If the definition is expanded to include decision making and planning, then Buzz Aldrin's Race Into Space (1992) is also notable for historical accuracy and detail. On this game the player takes the role of Administrator of NASA or Head of the Soviet Space Program with the ultimate goal of being the first side to conduct a successful manned moon landing.
Kerbal Space Program can be considered a space simulator, even though it portrays an imaginary universe with tweaked physics, masses and distances to enhance gameplay. Nevertheless, the physics and rocket design principles are much more realistic than in the space combat or trading subgenres.
The game Lunar Flight (2012) simulates flying around the lunar surface in a craft resembling the Apollo Lunar Module.
Space combat game
Most games in the space combat genre feature futuristic scenarios involving space flight and extra planetary combat. Such games generally place the player into the controls of a small starfighter or smaller starship in a military force of similar and larger spaceships and do not take into account the physics of space flight, usually often citing some technological advancement to explain the lack thereof. The prominent Wing Commander, X-Wing and Freespace series all use this approach. Exceptions include the first Independence War and the Star Trek: Bridge Commander series, which model craft at a larger scale and/or in a more strategic fashion. I-War also features Newtonian style physics for the behaviour of the spacecraft, but not orbital mechanics.
Space combat games tend to be mission-based, as opposed to the more open-ended nature of space trading and combat games.
Space trading and combat game
The general formula for the space trading and combat game, which has changed little since its genesis, is for the player to begin in a relatively small, outdated ship with little money or status and for the player to work his or her way up, gaining in status and power through trading, exploration, combat or a mix of different methods. The ship the player controls is generally larger than that in pure space combat simulator. Notable examples of the genre include Elite, Wing Commander: Privateer, and Freelancer.
In some instances, plot plays only a limited role and only a loose narrative framework tends to be provided. In certain titles of the X series, for instance, players may ignore the plot for as long as they wish and are even given the option to disable the plot completely and instead play in sandbox mode. Many games of this genre place a strong emphasis on factional conflict, leading to many small mission-driven subplots that unravel the tensions of the galaxy.
Games of this type often allow the player to choose among multiple roles to play and multiple paths to victory. This aspect of the genre is very popular, but some people have complained that, in some titles, the leeway given to the player too often is only superficial, and that, in reality, the roles offered to players are very similar, and open-ended play too frequently restricted by scripted sequences. As an example, Freelancer has been criticised for being too rigid in its narrative structure, being in one case compared negatively with Grand Theft Auto, another series praised for its open-ended play.
All space trading and combat games feature the core gameplay elements of directly controlling the flight of some sort of space vessel, generally armed, and of navigating from one area to another for a variety of reasons. As technology has improved it has been possible to implement a number of extensions to gameplay, such as dynamic economies and cooperative online play. Overall, however, the core gameplay mechanics of the genre have changed little over the years.
Some more recent games, such as 2003's EVE Online, have expanded the scope of the experience by including thousands of simultaneous online players in what is sometimes referred to as a "living universe" – a dream some have held since the genre's early beginnings. Star Citizen, a title currently in open, crowd-funded development by Chris Roberts and others involved in Freelancer and Wing Commander, aims to bridge the gap between the EVE-like living universe game and the fast action of other games in the genre.
An additional sub-class of space trading games eliminate combat entirely, focusing instead entirely on trading and economic manipulation in order to achieve success.
Most modern space flight games on the personal computer allow a player to utilise a combination of the WASD keys of the keyboard and mouse as a means of controlling the game (games such as Microsoft's Freelancer use this control system exclusively). By far the most popular control system among genre enthusiasts, however, is the joystick. Most fans prefer to use this input method whenever possible, but expense and practicality mean that many are forced to use the keyboard and mouse combination (or gamepad if such is the case). The lack of uptake among the majority of modern gamers has also made joysticks a sort of an anachronism, though some new controller designs and simplification of controls offer the promise that space sims may be playable in their full capacity on gaming consoles at some time in the future. In fact, X3: Reunion, sometimes considered one of the more cumbersome and difficult series to master within the trading and combat genre, was initially planned for the Xbox but later cancelled. Another example of space simulators is an arcade space flight simulation action game called Star Conflict, where the players can fight in both PvE and PvP modes.
Realistic simulators feature spacecraft systems and instrument simulation, using a combination of extensive keyboard shortcuts and mouse clicks on virtual instrument panels. Most of the maneuvers and operations consist of setting certain systems into the desired configuration, or in setting autopilots. Real time hands on piloting can happen, depending on the simulated spacecraft. For example, it is common to use a joystick analog control to land a space shuttle (or any other spaceplane) or the LEM (or similar landers). Dockings can be performed more precisely using the numerical keypad. Overall, the simulations have more complex control systems than game, with the limit being the physical reproduction of the actual simulated spacecraft (see Simulation cockpit).
Early attempts at 3D space simulation date back as far as 1974's Spasim, an online multi-player space simulator in which players attempt to destroy each other's ships. The earliest known space trader dates to 1974's Star Trader, a game where the entire interface was text-only and included a star map with multiple ports buying and selling 6 commodities. It was written in BASIC.
Star Raiders was introduced in 1979 for the then-new Atari 8-bit family and became the killer app for the system. Doug Neubauer created the game as a combination of Star Wars and the text-based Star Trek mainframe game. Using smoothly scaled 2D sprites and 3D particles to mimic a first person view of a volume of space, Star Raiders simulates clearing sectors of enemy ships while managing resources and damage to the ship's different systems. In addition to forward and rear views from the ship, the game provides both a galactic map and sector scanner to show enemy and friendly starbase locations. The game does not pause while these displays are active; they keep updating in real-time.
It is one of the games that inspired Elite and the Wing Commander series. It also resulted in direct clones, including Space Spartans for Intellivision and Starmaster for the Atari 2600, both from 1982.
Elite has made a lasting impression on developers, worldwide, extending even into different genres. In interviews, senior producers of CCP Games cited Elite as one of the inspirations for their acclaimed MMORPG, EVE Online. Þórólfur Beck, CCP's co-founder, credits Elite as the game that impacted him most on the Commodore 64. Developers of Jumpgate Evolution, Battlecruiser 3000AD, Infinity: The Quest for Earth, Hard Truck: Apocalyptic Wars and Flatspace likewise all claim Elite as a source of inspiration.
Elite was named one of the sixteen most influential games in history at Telespiele, a German technology and games trade show, and is being exhibited at such places as the London Science Museum in the "Game On" exhibition organized and toured by the Barbican Art Gallery. Elite was also named #12 on IGN's 2000 "Top 25 PC Games of All Time" list, the #3 most influential video game ever by the Times Online in 2007, and "best game ever" for the BBC Micro by Beebug Magazine in 1984. Elite's sequel, Frontier: Elite II, was named #77 on PC Zone's "101 Best PC Games Ever" list in 2007. Similar praise has been bestowed elsewhere in the media from time to time.
Elite is one of the most popularly requested games to be remade, and some argue that it is still the best example of the genre to date, with more recent titles—including its sequel—not rising up to its level. It has been credited as opening the door for future online persistent worlds, such as Second Life and World of Warcraft, and as being the first truly open-ended game. It is to this day one of the most ambitious games ever made, residing in only 22 kilobytes of memory and on a single floppy disk. The latest incarnation of the franchise, titled Elite: Dangerous, was released on 16 December 2014, following a successful Kickstarter campaign.
This section needs additional citations for verification. (November 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Though not as well known as Elite, Trade Wars is noteworthy as the first multiplayer space trader. A BBS door, Trade Wars was released in 1984 as an entirely different branch of the space trader tree, having been inspired by Hunt the Wumpus, the board game Risk, and the original space trader, Star Trader. As a pure space trader, Trade Wars lacked any space flight simulator elements, instead featuring abstract open world trading and combat set in an outer space populated by both human and NPC opponents. In 2009, it was named the #10 best PC game by PC World Magazine.
Other early examples
Other notable early examples include Space Shuttle: A Journey into Space (1982), Rendezvous: A Space Shuttle Simulation (1982), and Star Trek: Strategic Operations Simulator (1982), which featured five different controls to learn, six different enemies, and 40 different simulation levels of play, making it one of the most elaborate vector games ever released. Other early examples include Nasir Gebelli's 1982 Apple II computer games Horizon V which featured an early radar mechanic and Zenith which allowed the player ship to rotate, and Ginga Hyoryu Vifam, which allowed first-person open space exploration with a radar displaying the destination and player/enemy positions as well as an early physics engine where approaching a planet's gravitational field pulls the player towards it. Following Elite were games such as The Halley Project (1985), Echelon (1987) and Microsoft Space Simulator (1994). Star Luster, released for the NES console and arcades in 1985, featured a cockpit view, a radar displaying enemy and base locations, the ability to warp anywhere, and a date system keeping track of the current date.
Some tabletop and board games, such as Traveller or Merchant of Venus, also feature themes of space combat and trade. Traveller influenced the development of Elite (the main character in Traveller is named "Jamison"; the main character in Elite is named "Jameson") and Jumpgate Evolution.
The Wing Commander (1990–2007) series from Origin Systems, Inc. was a marked departure from the standard formula up to that point, bringing space combat to a level approaching the Star Wars films. Set beginning in the year 2654, and characterized by designer Chris Roberts as "World War II in space", it features a multinational cast of pilots from the "Terran Confederation" flying missions against the predatory, aggressive Kilrathi, a feline warrior race (heavily inspired by the Kzinti of Larry Niven's Known Space universe). Wing Commander (1990) was a best seller and caused the development of competing space combat games, such as LucasArts' X-Wing. Wing Commander eventually became a media franchise consisting of space combat simulation video games, an animated television series, a feature film, a collectible card game, a series of novels, and action figures.
Game designer Chris Crawford said in an interview that Wing Commander "raised the bar for the whole industry", as the game was five times more expensive to create than most of its contemporaries. Because the game was highly successful, other publishers had to match its production value in order to compete. This forced a large portion of the video game industry to become more conservative, as big-budget games need to be an assured hit for it to be profitable in any way. Crawford opined that Wing Commander in particular affected the marketing and economics of computer games and reestablished the "action game" as the most lucrative type of computer game.
The seeming decline of the space flight simulators and games in the late 1990s also coincided with the rise of the RTS, FPS and RPG game genres, with such examples as Warcraft, Doom and Diablo. The very things that made these games classics, such as their open-endedness, complex control systems and attention to detail, have been cited as reasons for their decline. It was believed that no major new space sim series would be produced as long as the genre relied on complex control systems such as the keyboard and joystick. There were outliers, however, such as the X series (1999–2016) and Eve Online.
Crowdfunding has been a good source for space sims in recent years, however. In November 2012 Star Citizen set a new record, managing to raise more than $114 million as of May 2016, and is still under development. Elite: Dangerous was also successfully crowdfunded on Kickstarter in November and December 2012. The game was completed and released in 2014, and expansions are being released in stages, or "seasons". Born Ready Games also closed a successful Kickstarter campaign at the end of 2012, having raised nearly $180,000 to assist with the completion of Strike Suit Zero. The game was completed and released in January 2013. Lastly, the non-linear roguelike-like space shooter Everspace garnered almost $250,000 dollars on Kickstarter, was released in May 2017.
No Man's Sky (2016) is another self-published, open-ended space sim (though this one was not crowdfunded). According to the developers, through procedural generation the game is able to produce more than 18 quintillion (18×1015 or 18,000,000,000,000,000) planets for players to explore. However, several critics found that the nature of the game can become repetitive and monotonous, with the survival gameplay elements being lackluster and tedious. As summarized by Jake Swearingen in New York, "You can procedurally generate 18.6 quintillion unique planets, but you can't procedurally generate 18.6 quintillion unique things to do." Further, there was considerable disappointment upon its release among players, as players felt betrayed by dishonest marketing practices.
The open source community has also been active, with projects such as FS2 Open and Vega Strike serving as platforms for non-professional efforts. Unofficial remakes of Elite and Privateer are being developed using the Vega Strike engine, and the latter has reached the stage where it is offered as a working title to the public. In 2013 a hobbyist space flight simulator project was realized under usage of the open source Pioneer software.
- Willimas, Bryn (September 2000). "GameSpy.com - Hall of Fame: Elite". GameSpy. Archived from the original on 2008-02-11. Retrieved 2008-06-20.
- Hartmeyer, Steve (February 13, 2008). "Dev Diary: The Inspirations Behind Jumpgate Evolution". The MMO Gamer. Archived from the original on April 4, 2008. Retrieved 2008-06-20.
- Aihoshi, Richard (August 1, 2000). "EVE Interview". RPGVault. Archived from the original on November 7, 2013. Retrieved 2008-06-19.
- Barton, Matt; Bill Loguidice (April 7, 2009). "The History of Elite: Space, the Endless Frontier". Gamasutra. Archived from the original on June 6, 2011. Retrieved 2009-12-27.
- Eberle, Matt (November 17, 2004). "Star Sonata Review". GameZone. Archived from the original on March 7, 2008. Retrieved 2008-06-18.
- Gillen, Kieron (July 17, 2006). "Darkstar One Review". Eurogamer. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved 2008-06-19.
- Vandervell, Andrew (August 16, 2006). "DarkStar One Review for PC". VideoGamer.com. Archived from the original on July 20, 2011. Retrieved 2008-06-19.
- Purchese, Robert (October 21, 1999). "X: Beyond The Frontier Review". Eurogamer. Archived from the original on October 28, 2004. Retrieved 2008-06-19.
- Peckham, Matt (September 26, 2006). "DarkStar One". SciFi.com. Archived from the original on October 17, 2006. Retrieved 2007-11-17.
- "Space Interceptor: Project Freedom". MyGamer. November 9, 2004. Archived from the original on January 7, 2008. Retrieved 2007-11-17.
- Weise, Matt (May 28, 2003). "Freelancer". GameCritics. Archived from the original on January 6, 2008. Retrieved 2007-11-17.
- LaMosca, Adam (July 18, 2006). "Lost in the Void". The Escapist. Archived from the original on February 25, 2008. Retrieved 2007-11-17.
- Wen, Howard (February 12, 2008). "What Happened To The Last Starfighters?". The Escapist. Archived from the original on June 7, 2008. Retrieved 2008-06-20.
- Andrew Groen (June 18, 2013). "NASA's Jet Propulsion Lab is obsessed with a certain game, and I bet you can guess what it is". The PA Report. Archived from the original on December 27, 2013. Retrieved June 19, 2013.
- "Kerbal Space Program by Squad". Archived from the original on 2015-04-26.
- "SW3DG releases Evochron Renegades". GameTunnel. October 20, 2007. Archived from the original on February 28, 2008. Retrieved 2007-11-16.
- "Evochron". GameZone. Archived from the original on 2008-03-07. Retrieved 2007-11-17.
- "Space Rangers 2: Rise of the Dominators". GamingTrend. Archived from the original on 2006-02-26. Retrieved 2007-11-17.
- "X3: Reunion". IGN. Archived from the original on 2007-10-13. Retrieved 2007-11-17.
- "Space Rangers 2: Rise of the Dominators (PC)". GameSpy. Archived from the original on 2007-11-16. Retrieved 2007-11-17.
- Brenesal, Barry (December 6, 2005). "IGN: X3: Reunion Review". IGN. Archived from the original on July 14, 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-20.
- Fahey, Rob (September 30, 2003). "X2 - The Threat preview". Eurogamer. Archived from the original on March 3, 2007. Retrieved 2008-06-19.
- Fahey, Rob (April 11, 2003). "Freelancer Review". Eurogamer. Archived from the original on December 11, 2008. Retrieved 2008-06-19.
- Whitehead, Dan (February 4, 2008). "Born Free: the History of the Openworld Game". Eurogamer. Retrieved 2008-06-20.
- Shoemaker, Richie (August 14, 2002). "Games that changed the world: Elite". Computer and Video Games. Archived from the original on February 11, 2007. Retrieved 2008-06-20.
- "X2 The Threat". GameInfoWire. Archived from the original on 2007-06-13. Retrieved 2008-06-20.
- Carless, Simon (March 5, 2008). "GDC: Game Designers Rant On Making Games That Matter". GameSetWatch. Archived from the original on June 23, 2008. Retrieved 2008-06-20.
- Hutchinson, Lee (2014-08-03). "Star Citizen and the triumphant, record-smashing return of Chris Roberts". Ars Technica. Condé Nast. Archived from the original on 2014-08-07. Retrieved 2014-11-24.
- Peckham, Matt (March 7, 2006). "Flatspace II: The Rise of the Scarrid". SciFi.com. Archived from the original on 2008-04-16. Retrieved 2008-06-20.
- Fahey, Rob (February 6, 2004). "X2: The Threat Review". Eurogamer. Archived from the original on June 25, 2007. Retrieved 2008-06-20.
- "X3: Reunion for Xbox". GameSpot. Archived from the original on 2009-04-13. Retrieved 2008-06-20.
- Goldberg, Marty; Vendel, Curt (2012). Atari: Business is Fun. Syzygy Press. p. 526.
- Hague, James (1997). "Halcyon Days: Interview with Classic Computer and Video Game Programmers".
- "The History Of: Elite". NOW Gamer. January 29, 2009.
- "Space Spartans". INTV Funhouse.
- "Atari 2600 Review: Starmaster". AtariHQ.
- Scatteia, L. (2005). "Title: Space-themed videogames: an effective way to promote space". The Electronic Library. Emerald Group Publishing Limited. 23 (5): 553–566. doi:10.1108/02640470510631272. Archived from the original on 2010-02-20. Retrieved 2008-06-20.
- "Evolution and Risk: CCP on the Freedoms of EVE Online". Gamasutra. Archived from the original on 2007-09-14. Retrieved 2007-08-05.
- Breeden II, John. "Keep Looking Up: Space-based Eve Online Enjoys Success". GamesIndustry. Archived from the original on 2013-10-29. Retrieved 2008-06-20.
- Johnson, Joe (February 9, 2006). "Infinity: Quest for the Earth". ModDB. Archived from the original on June 10, 2008. Retrieved 2008-06-20.
- "Hard Truck: Apocalyptic Wars interview". Duck and Cover. April 25, 2005. Archived from the original on July 26, 2008. Retrieved 2008-06-20.
- Carroll, Russell (October 27, 2003). "Chat with Cornutopia about FLATSPACE by Game Tunnel". Game Tunnel. Archived from the original on February 28, 2008. Retrieved 2008-06-20.
- Bergman, Jason. "Serious Brass Ones (A peek inside the world of Derek Smart)". looneygames. Archived from the original on 2008-05-15. Retrieved 2008-06-20.
- Plunkett, Luke (August 27, 2007). "German Journos Pick Their Most Important Games Of All Time". Kotaku. Archived from the original on June 11, 2010. Retrieved 2008-06-20.
- Barnett, Jane (2006-10-24). "Game On in London!". Cite journal requires
- "The Top 25 PC Games of All Time". IGN. July 24, 2000. Archived from the original on June 13, 2002. Retrieved 2008-06-20.
- Moran, Michael (September 20, 2007). "The ten most influential video games ever". Times Online. Archived from the original on September 2, 2011. Retrieved 2008-06-20.
- Fell, David (November 1984). "Elite - An Outstanding New Game from Acornsoft". Beebug Magazine. Archived from the original on 2010-10-12.
- "The 101 best PC games ever". PC Zone. May 12, 2007. Archived from the original on May 15, 2007. Retrieved 2008-06-20.
- "The Hot 100 Game Developers Of 2007". GamesIndustry.biz. March 3, 2007. Archived from the original on August 5, 2011. Retrieved 2008-06-20.
David Braben is one of the old-time legends of British computer gaming – along with Ian Bell, he co-wrote the space simulator Elite, a hugely influential game often earmarked as one of the best ever made.
- "Presented in Retrovision: Elite". Gay Gamer. May 29, 2008. Archived from the original on October 31, 2010. Retrieved 2008-06-20.
Elite is still one of the most influential games to date, having inspired EVE Online, Freespace, Jumpgate, Homeworld and a handful of other space titles.
- Barrat, Andy (January 30, 2008). "Racing Into The Future". G4techTV Canada. Archived from the original on April 20, 2008. Retrieved 2008-06-20.
But [the BBC Micros] weren't just for learning on, a handful of games were actually released for the Beeb - two of the most influential games ever in fact – one of which was Revs. (...) The other super influential game [besides Revs] by the way, was Elite.
- Shoemaker, Richie (August 13, 2001). "PC Review: X - Beyond the Frontier". Computer and Video Games. Archived from the original on June 24, 2007. Retrieved 2008-06-20.
If, however - like me - you consider Elite to be the best game ever made, X - Beyond The Frontier is by far its closest relation.
- Karlsson, Peter (2000). Gayk, Wanja (ed.). "GameWeb - Classic Commodore Games on The Net". GO64!. Winnenden: CSW Verlag (8/2000): 19–20. OCLC 85727011. Archived from the original on 2001-05-04. Retrieved 2014-11-25 – via Issuu.
In 1984, Ian Bell was the one of the authors of a game that by many still is regarded as the best game ever written, Elite (the other author was David Braben).
- "The complete history of open-world games". Computer and Video Games. May 24, 2008. Archived from the original on June 18, 2008. Retrieved 2008-06-20.
- "Inside TradeWars - History - Timeline - TradeWars Museum". wiki.classictw.com. Archived from the original on 31 January 2018. Retrieved 7 May 2018.
- "The Ten Greatest PC Games Ever". pcworld.com. Archived from the original on 6 June 2011. Retrieved 7 May 2018.
- Star Trek: Strategic Operations Simulator at AllGame
- Mark J. P. Wolf (2008), The video game explosion: a history from PONG to Playstation and beyond, p. 70, ABC-CLIO, ISBN 0-313-33868-X
- John Romero, Horizon V at MobyGames
- John Romero, Zenith at MobyGames
- Gingahyōryū Vifam at MobyGames
- "Star Luster". Virtual Console. Nintendo. Archived from the original on 2012-05-04. Retrieved 2011-05-08. (Translation)
- Ray Barnholt (August 6, 2008). "Star Luster: To boldly go". 1UP.com. Archived from the original on October 18, 2012. Retrieved 2011-05-08.
- Star Luster at the Killer List of Videogames
- Hooper, George. "Elite Trivia". George Hooper. Archived from the original on 2006-05-30. Retrieved 2007-11-26.
- Emrich, Alan (October 1992). "Flying the Rebel Alphabet in an X-Wing". Computer Gaming World. p. 80. Archived from the original on 2 July 2014. Retrieved 4 July 2014.
- Rouse III, Richard (2005). Game Design Theory & Practice. Second Edition. Wordware Publishing, Inc. p. 264. ISBN 1-55622-912-7.
- "Stretch Goals - Roberts Space Industries - Follow the development of Star Citizen and Squadron 42". Stretch Goals - Roberts Space Industries - Follow the development of Star Citizen and Squadron 42. Archived from the original on 18 March 2018. Retrieved 7 May 2018.
- "Kickstarter finished -- a huge thank you to all our backers!". Kickstarter.com. 2012-11-20. Archived from the original on 2017-04-15. Retrieved 2017-04-14.
- Miller, Matt (March 14, 2017). "The Kickstarter Compendium". Game Informer. Archived from the original on April 16, 2017. Retrieved 2017-04-16.
- Relaxnews (June 17, 2013). "PC Download Charts". xin.msn. Archived from the original on December 22, 2013. Retrieved July 22, 2014.
- Hiranand, Ravi (18 June 2015). "18 quintillion planets: The video game that imagines an entire galaxy". CNN. Archived from the original on 4 September 2015. Retrieved 21 October 2015.
- "Why Everyone Should Play No Man's Sky — Even If It's Not a Great Game". Archived from the original on 2016-08-17. Retrieved 2016-08-19.
- Caldwell, Brendan (August 17, 2016). "The Broken Promise Of No Man's Sky And Why It Matters". Rock, Paper, Shotgun. Archived from the original on August 18, 2016. Retrieved 2017-04-16.
- "Privateer Gemini Gold 1.02a Review". Macworld. January 9, 2008. Archived from the original on March 11, 2008. Retrieved 2008-06-20.
- Michelle Starr (April 11, 2013). "Amazing dad builds son a spaceship simulator". cnet.com. Archived from the original on April 13, 2018. Retrieved 2017-05-27.