Subacute bacterial endocarditis

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Subacute bacterial endocarditis
Endocarditis ultrasound.gif
Vegetation of tricuspid valve by ECHO
Classification and external resources
Specialty cardiology
ICD-10 I33.0
ICD-9-CM 421.0
MeSH D004698

Subacute bacterial endocarditis (also called endocarditis lenta) is a type of endocarditis (more specifically, infective endocarditis).[1] Subacute bacterial endocarditis can be considered a form of type III hypersensitivity.[2]

Signs and symptoms[edit]

Among the signs of subacute bacterial endocarditis are:[3]

Causes[edit]

Streptococci

It is usually caused by a form of streptococci viridans bacteria that normally live in the mouth[4] (Streptococcus mutans, mitis, sanguis or milleri).[5]

Other strains of streptococci can also cause subacute endocarditis, streptococcus intermedius: acute and subacute infection ( can causes about 15% of cases pertaining to infective endocarditis). Additional enterococci (urinary tract infections) and coagulase negative staphylococci can also be causative agents.[6]

Mechanism[edit]

The mechanism of subacute bacterial endocarditis could be due to malformed stenotic valves which in the company of bacteremia, become infected, via adhesion and subsequent colonization of the surface area. This causes an inflammatory response, with recruitment of matrix metalloproteinases, and destruction of collagen.[7]

Underlying structural valve disease is usually present in patients before developing subacute endocarditis, and is less likely to lead to septic emboli than is acute endocarditis, but subacute endocarditis has a relatively slow process of infection and, if left untreated, can worsen for up to one year before it is fatal.[medical citation needed]In cases of subacute bacterial endocarditis, the causative organism (streptococcus viridans) needs a previous heart valve disease to colonize.[8] On the other hand, in cases of acute bacterial endocarditis, the organism can colonize on the healthy heart valve, causing the disease.[9]

Diagnosis[edit]

Diagnosis of subacute bacterial endocarditis can be done by collecting three blood culture specimens over a 24 hour period for analysis,[10] also it can usually be indicated by the existence of:

Treatment[edit]

Aminoglycoside

The standard treatment is with a minimum of four weeks of high-dose intravenous penicillin with an aminoglycoside such as gentamicin. The use of high-dose antibiotics is largely based upon animal models.[14] Leo Loewe of Brooklyn Jewish Hospital was the first to successfully treat subacute bacterial endocarditis with penicillin. Loewe reported at the time seven cases of subacute bacterial endocarditis in 1944.[15][16]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Subacute Bacterial Endocarditis". FreeDictionary. Farlex. 2014. Retrieved 2015. 
  2. ^ Keogan, Mary; Wallace, Eleanor M.; O'Leary, Paula (2006-04-18). Concise Clinical Immunology for Healthcare Professionals. Routledge. ISBN 9781134428021. 
  3. ^ Jefferson, James W. (2012-12-06). Neuropsychiatric Features of Medical Disorders. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 9781468439205. 
  4. ^ deWit, Susan C.; Kumagai, Candice K. (2014-04-14). Medical-Surgical Nursing: Concepts & Practice. Elsevier Health Sciences. ISBN 9780323293211. 
  5. ^ Verhagen, D. W. M.; Vedder, A. C.; Speelman, P.; Meer, J. T. M. van der (2006-05-01). "Antimicrobial treatment of infective endocarditis caused by viridans streptococci highly susceptible to penicillin: historic overview and future considerations". Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 57 (5): 819–824. doi:10.1093/jac/dkl087. ISSN 0305-7453. PMID 16549513. 
  6. ^ "Infective Endocarditis. Information; prevention of endocarditis | Patient". Patient. Retrieved 2015-08-28. 
  7. ^ "Pathology of Infectious Endocarditis: Overview, Etiology and Pathophysiology, Affected Sites". 
  8. ^ Pommerville, Jeffrey C. (2012-01-15). Alcamo's Fundamentals of Microbiology: Body Systems Edition. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. ISBN 9781449605940. 
  9. ^ Copstead-Kirkhorn, Lee-Ellen C.; Banasik, Jacquelyn L. (2014-06-25). Pathophysiology. Elsevier Health Sciences. ISBN 9780323293174. 
  10. ^ Engelkirk, Paul G.; Duben-Engelkirk, Janet L. (2008-01-01). Laboratory Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases: Essentials of Diagnostic Microbiology. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ISBN 9780781797016. 
  11. ^ Kahan, Scott (2008-03-01). Signs and Symptoms. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ISBN 9780781770439. 
  12. ^ "Osler nodes" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary
  13. ^ "Clubbing of the Nails Clinical Presentation: History, Physical, Causes". emedicine.medscape.com. Retrieved 2015-08-28. 
  14. ^ Verhagen DW, Vedder AC, Speelman P, van der Meer JT (2006). "Antimicrobial treatment of infective endocarditis caused by viridans streptococci highly susceptible to penicillin: historic overview and future considerations". J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 57 (5): 819–24. doi:10.1093/jac/dkl087. PMID 16549513. 
  15. ^ Loewe L, Rosenblatt P, Greene HJ, Russell M (1944). "Combined penicillin and heparin therapy of subacute bacterial endocarditis: report of seven consecutive successfully treated patients". JAMA 124 (3): 144–149. doi:10.1001/jama.1944.02850030012003. 
  16. ^ Loewe L, Rosenblatt P, Greene HJ (May 1946). "Combined Penicillin and Heparin Therapy of Subacute Bacterial Endocarditis". Bull N Y Acad Med 22 (5): 270–272. PMC 1871521. PMID 21023937. 

Further references[edit]