Sugon

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Sugon (Chinese: 曙光; pinyin: Shǔguāng), officially Dawning Information Industry Company Limited, is a supercomputer manufacturer in the People's Republic of China. The Chinese Academy of Science still retains stock in the company.[citation needed]

Dawning supercomputers[edit]

Dawning No.1[edit]

The very first member of Dawning family is Dawning No.1 (Shuguang Yihao, 曙光一号), which received state certification in October 1993. This supercomputer achieved 640 million FLOPS and utilizes Motorola 88100 CPUs (4 total) and 88200 CPUs (8 total), and over 20 were built. The operating system is UNIX V.

Dawning 1000[edit]

Originally named as Dawning No.2 (Shuguang Erhao, 曙光二号) but subsequently renamed as Dawning 1000, this is the second generation of the family, and received state certification on May 11, 1995. This is the first Chinese built supercomputer that is capable of 1 billion FLOPS. This series of the Dawning family consists of the Dawning 1000A and 1000L.

Dawning 2000[edit]

The third member of the Dawning family is Dawning 2000, which passed state certification on January 28, 2000. The number of CPUs used was greatly increased to 164 in comparison to older models, and like earlier models, the operating system is UNIX. This series consisted of the Dawning 2000-I and II.

Dawning 3000[edit]

The fourth member of the Dawning family is Dawning 3000, which passed state certification on March 9, 2001. The number of CPU increased to 280, and the system consists of ten 2-meter tall racks, weighing 5 tons total. Power consumption is 25 kW, and one of the tasks it was used for was the part of human genome mapping that China was responsible for.

Dawning 4000A[edit]

The fifth member of the Dawning family, Dawning 4000A, debuted as one of the top 10 fastest supercomputers in the world on the TOP500 list,[1] capable of 806.1 billion FLOPS. The system, at the Shanghai Supercomputer Center, utilizes over 2,560 AMD Opteron processors, and can reach speeds of 8 teraflops.

Dawning 5000A[edit]

Dawning 5000A uses 7,680 1.9 GHz AMD Opteron Quad-core processors, resulting in 30,720 cores, and Infiniband interconnecting network. Dawning 5000A occupies an area of 75 square meters and the power consumption is 700 kW. The general designer is Dr. Sun Ninghui (孙凝晖) and the unit price of Dawning 5000A is less than 100 million RMBY (~US$15 million). The supercomputer is capable of 180 teraflops and received state certification in June 2008. Ranked 10th in the November 2008 TOP500 list,[2] it is also the largest system at that time, using Windows HPC Server 2008 for this benchmark. This system is also installed at the Shanghai Supercomputer Center and runs with SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 10.[3]

Dawning 5000L[edit]

The Dawning 5000 series supercomputer planned to use Loongson 3 processors which has 16 cores each and 8MB L2 shared cache.[4] However, when the 5000A was revealed in June 2008, it used AMD K10 CPUs instead. It was reported that Shanghai Supercomputer Center required Microsoft Windows support whereas Loongson only ran under Linux. Dawning claimed that Dawning 5000L may use Loongson 3 processors with petaflop performance, which is expected by 2010.[5]

Dawning 6000[edit]

The high-performance Dawning 6000 was announced in 2011, at 300 TFLOPS, incorporating 3000 8-core Godson 3B processors (a 64-bit MIPS architecture) at 3.2 GFLOP/W. It is the "first supercomputer made exclusively of Chinese components"[6] and has a projected speed of over a PFLOP (one quadrillion operations per second). For comparison, the fastest supercomputer as of June 2014 runs at 33 PFLOPS.[7] Dawning 6000 is currently[when?] jointly developed by the Institute of Computing Technology under the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Dawning Information Industry Company. The same announcement said that a petascale supercomputer was under development and that the launch was anticipated in 2012 or 2013.[6]

Controversy[edit]

According to the United States Department of Defense, the company has links to the People's Liberation Army and, in 2019, Sugon was added to the Bureau of Industry and Security's Entity List due to U.S. national security concerns.[8][9][10] In November 2020, Donald Trump issued an executive order prohibiting any American company or individual from owning shares in companies that the United States Department of Defense has listed as having links to the People's Liberation Army, which included Sugon.[11][12][13]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ TOP500 List - June 2004 (1-100) | TOP500 Supercomputing Sites
  2. ^ November 2008 TOP500 list
  3. ^ Shanghai Supercomputer Center Computing Resources
  4. ^ [1]
  5. ^ "China Ditches Home-Grown Chips in New Supercomputer". Archived from the original on 2008-06-30. Retrieved 2008-07-16.
  6. ^ a b Mims, Christopher (March 2, 2011). "China's Homemade Supercomputer May be the Most Efficient Ever". MIT Technology Review.
  7. ^ CHINA’S TIANHE-2 SUPERCOMPUTER RETAINS TOP SPOT ON 43RD EDITION OF THE TOP500 LIST
  8. ^ Allen-Ebrahimian, Bethany (June 24, 2020). "Defense Department produces list of Chinese military-linked companies". Axios. Retrieved June 24, 2020.
  9. ^ Swanson, Ana; Mozur, Paul; Lohr, Steve (2019-06-21). "U.S. Blacklists More Chinese Tech Companies Over National Security Concerns". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2020-06-07.
  10. ^ O’Keeffe, Kate; Fitch, Asa (2019-06-21). "U.S. Targets China's Supercomputing Push With New Export Restrictions". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 2020-06-07.
  11. ^ Chen, Shawna (November 12, 2020). "Trump bans Americans from investing in 31 companies with links to Chinese military". Axios. Retrieved November 12, 2020.
  12. ^ Pamuk, Humeyra; Alper, Alexandra; Ali, Idrees (2020-11-12). "Trump bans U.S. investments in firms linked to Chinese military". Reuters. Retrieved 2020-11-12.
  13. ^ Swanson, Ana (2020-11-12). "Trump Bars Investment in Chinese Firms With Military Ties". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2020-11-13.

External links[edit]