Loongson

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龙芯中科技术有限公司
Loongson Technology Corporation Limited
TypeMixed ownership enterprise
IndustrySemiconductor technology industry
FoundedApril 2010
FounderDr.Hu Wei Wu
HeadquartersPeople's Republic of China
Loongson Industrial Park, Building 2, Zhongguancun Environmental protection park, Haidian District, Beijing, China
Area served
global
Key people
  • chairman
  • Dr.Hu Wei Wu
ServicesChip design, motherboard design, operating system and kernel maintenance, important software and library maintenance
Number of employees
More than 400 (estimate)
WebsiteLoongson Official website
Loongson
Loongson logo.svg
General information
Marketed byLoongson Technology, Jiangsu Lemote Tech Co., Ltd, Dawning Information Industry, and others
Designed byInstitute of Computing Technology (ICT), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Loongson Technology, Jiangsu Lemote Tech Co., Ltd
Common manufacturer(s)
Performance
Max. CPU clock rate8 MHz to 2.0 GHz
HyperTransport speeds800 MHz to 3.0 GHz
Architecture and classification
ApplicationDesktop, Server, Supercomputer, Industrial Device, Embedded Device, Aerospace
Min. feature size180 nm to 28 nm
Microarchitecturesee text
Instruction setMIPS64 (with LoongISA extensions)
LoongArch
Physical specifications
Cores
  • 1–8

Loongson (simplified Chinese: 龙芯; traditional Chinese: 龍芯; pinyin: Lóngxīn; lit. 'Dragon Chip')[1] is the name of a family of general-purpose, MIPS architecture-compatible, microprocessors, as well as the name of the Chinese fabless company (Loongson Technology) that develops them. The processors are alternately called Godson processors.[2]

History[edit]

The initial Godson processors, based on MIPS architecture, were initially developed at the Institute of Computing Technology (ICT), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) in China.[3] The chief architect was Professor Hu Weiwu [zh].[citation needed] The development of the first Loongson chip was started in 2001.[citation needed]

The aim of the Godson project was to develop "high performance general-purpose microprocessors in China".[2]

On 25 June 2008, Hu Weiwu gave a keynote speech at ISCA 2008, held in Beijing. The topic of the speech was "Research and Development of Godson processors".[4]

In January 2010, Jiangsu province planned to buy 1.5 million Loongson PCs.[5]

In April 2010, Loongson Technology Corporation Limited was formally established and settled in Zhongguancun, Beijing, China.[citation needed]

The Loongson processors are a result of a public–private partnership. BLX IC Design Corporation was founded in 2002 by ICT and Jiangsu Zhongyi Group. Based in Beijing, BLX focuses on designing the 64-bit Loongson general-purpose and embedded processors, together with developing software tools and reference platforms.[citation needed] STMicroelectronics fabricates and markets Loongson chips for BLX, which is fabless.[citation needed]

Instruction set architectures[edit]

MIPS[edit]

Loongson began by using the MIPS64 instruction set architecture (ISA). The internal microarchitecture was independently developed by ICT.[citation needed] Early implementations of the family lacked four instructions patented by MIPS Technologies (US4814976A, unaligned load-store) to avoid legal issues.[6][7]

In 2007, a deal was reached by MIPS Technologies and ICT. STMicroelectronics bought a MIPS license for Loongson, and thus the processor can be promoted as MIPS-based or MIPS-compatible instead of MIPS-like.[8][9][10]

In June 2009, ICT licensed the MIPS32 and MIPS64 architectures directly from MIPS Technologies.[11]

In August 2011, Loongson Technology Corp. Ltd. licensed the MIPS32 and MIPS64 architectures from MIPS Technologies, Inc. for continued development of MIPS-based Loongson CPU cores.[12][13]

LoongISA[edit]

The Loongson 3 series saw the adoption of LoongISA 1.0, an expanded instruction set that is a superset of MIPS64 release 2. It can be broken down into:[14]

  • LoongEXT, general-purpose extensions, 148 instructions
  • LoongVZ, extensions to the "VZ" system introduced in MIPS64 release 5, 5 instructions
  • LoongBT, faster x86 and ARM binary translation, 213 instructions
  • LoongSIMD, formerly LoongMMI (in Loongson 2E/F), for 128-bit SIMD, 1014 instructions
  • MIPS SIMD Architecture (MSA), DSP, and VZ modules from MIPS Release 5

The Loongson 3 adds over 200 new "LoongBT" instructions over Loongson 2. Their addition has the specific benefit of speeding up Intel x86 CPU emulation at a cost of 5% of the total die area. The new instructions help with emulation performance, for example QEMU (the only known example). The new instructions reduce the impact of executing x86/CISC-style instructions in the MIPS pipeline. With added improvements in QEMU from ICT, Loongson-3 achieves an average of 70% the performance of executing native binaries when running x86 binaries from nine benchmarks.[15]

LoongISA 2.0 was introduced for the GS464V R2 core, with the release of the Loongson 3 4000 series. Compared to LoongISA 1.0, the DSP module is removed, and a few sets are added:[citation needed]

  • LoongSX
  • LoongASX
  • LoongEXT3 (updated)
  • LoongAMU

LoongArch[edit]

Loongson moved to their own processor instruction set architecture (ISA) in 2021 with the release of the Loongson 3 5000 series.[16][17][18] A Loongson developer described it as "...a new RISC ISA, which is a bit like MIPS or RISC-V. LoongArch includes a reduced 32-bit version (LA32R), a standard 32-bit version (LA32S) and a 64-bit version (LA64)".[19] The rationale was to make Loongson and China not dependent on foreign technology or authorisation to develop their processor capability, whilst not infringing on any technology patents.[20]

As of July 2021, the full ISA manual has not been published, but the ISA has been reported to be "MIPS64-compatible" by Loongson.[21] It has been suggested that LoongArch is "just a fork of MIPS64r6", with slightly renamed extensions compared to MIPS64.[22][21]

Cores[edit]

Loongson has three main families of processor cores, some of which are available as IP cores:[23]

  • GS1xx: basic embedded MIPS32 cores with hardware divider. 3- (GS132) or 5- (GS132E) stage pipeline.
  • GS2xx: high-end embedded MIPS32 (GS232/GS232E) or MIPS64 (GS264) cores.
    • GS232 has a 5-stage pipeline at max. 500 MHz. L1 = 16KB.
    • GS232E/GS264 has a 10-stage pipeline at max. 1000 MHz. L1 = 16 KB, L2 = 4 MB shared. Out-of-order issue.
  • GS464: MIPS64 core with four-way superscalar out-of-order issue.[24] Developed from Loongson 2 cores, and first used in Loongson 3A.[24]
    • GS464 has support for MIPS64 R2 + LoongMMI (two different versions in 2E and 2F).
    • GS464E has support for MIPS64 R2 + LoongISA. The cache is much larger.
    • GS464V and GS464EV are variants to 464/464E with greatly increased vector capabilities.[25]

All Loongson cores are little-endian.[citation needed]

Processor families[edit]

Godson[edit]

The first Loongson processor, the Godson-1, is a pure 32-bit CPU running at a clock speed of 266 MHz. It is fabricated with 0.18 micron CMOS process, has 8 KB of data cache, 8 KB of instruction cache and a 64-bit floating-point unit, capable of 200 double-precision MFLOPS.[26]

Loongson 1[edit]

After the establishment of the company, the Loongson survey market re-established the low-end embedded product line - Loongson 1 Series. Currently known products are Loongson 1A, 1B, 1C300/1C101 (fingerprint biometric application chip), 1D (ultrasonic measurement chip), 1E04/1E300/1E1000 (1E series is Loongson Aerospace special anti-irradiation processor) 1F04/1F300 ( 1F series is 1E series supporting Loongson Aerospace special anti-irradiation bridge),[27] 1G (audio special chip), 1H (oil drilling high temperature resistant chip), 1J (anti-irradiation single-chip chip).[27]

Loongson 2[edit]

The Loongson 2 is a family of MIPS III compatible processors.[28] It adds 64-bit ability to the Loongson architecture. Initially running at 500 MHz, later revisions to Godson 2E were produced that run up to 1 GHz. The Godson 2F, released to market in early 2008, ran at 1.2 GHz.

Loongson 3[edit]

Loongson 3B1500E CPU
Lemote-A1310 motherboard(with Loongson 3B1500E)
Loongson 3A3000 CPU

The Loongson 3 family of processors are "...multi-core CPU[s] designed for high performance desktops, servers and clusters".[29] They were designed as the first Loongson processors that had multiple cores.[24] The processors were designed to use LoongISA - i.e. the MIPS64 ISA with additional extensions.[24] The first version was the Loongson 3A, which used 4 GS464 cores.[24][30]

The 65 nm Loongson 3A1000 is able to run at a clock speed near 1 GHz, with 4 CPU cores (~15 W) first and 8 cores later (40 W). In April 2010, Loongson 3A1000 was released with DDR2/3 DRAM support.

In 2017, Loongson released latest version of 3A cpu, 3A3000. As one of the domestic CPU of China, Loongson 3A3000 is being commercialized, and in the recently exhibition in Nanjing (2017), based on the Loongson 3A3000 motherboard developers computer quietly debut.

3A3000 is designed with quad-core 64-bit and clocked at 1.5 GHz, power consumption is only 30 W. 3A3000 single-threaded performance is lower than Intel or AMD products. For comparison, the 3A3000's performance is about one-third of the Intel i5-4460 running at about twice the clock frequency (3.2 GHz/84 W), or a relative performance of roughly 66%.

In late-2019, Loongson released latest versions, 3A4000 and 3B4000. The processors are designed with four cores, 8MB of L3 cache and operating clocks between 1.8 GHz to 2 GHz.

Loongson 3 5000 series[edit]

In July 2021 the Loongson 3 5000 series was released.[18] The processor series is Loongson's first with their own developed ISA, "LoongArch".[18] The processors announced include the 3A5000, a four-core desktop CPU, and the 3C5000, a sixteen-core server CPU.[21][17] Both CPUs are reported to be fabricated on a 12nm process.

Phoronix reports that the 3A5000 CPU is "roughly on a par with the likes of the Intel Core i3 8109U / Core 2 Quad Q9500 / Core i5 750, or Armv8-based Phytium FT-2000".[18][16]

Supported software[edit]

Operating systems[edit]

The Loongson processors are mainly designed around using the Linux operating system.[31] Any operating system supporting the MIPS architecture should theoretically work. Windows CE was ported to a Loongson-based system with minimal effort.[32] In 2010, Lemote ported an Android distribution to the Loongson platform.[33]

Loongson machines are used in the package-building and CI infrastructure of Debian and Golang, respectively. This is partially because of Loongson's status as the only vendor producing application-grade MIPS CPUs for retail.[34][35]

Compiler support[edit]

The GNU Compiler Collection (GCC) is the main compiler for software development on the Loongson platform.[36][37] LLVM is still inadequate due to missing workarounds for loongson's CPU errata.[38] Loongson SIMD instructions are semi-classified and are unavailable in publicly available compilers, with Loongson 2F’s LoongMMI being the sole exception. A similar status applies to other LoongISA extensions.

ICT also ported Open64 to the Loongson II platform.[39]

Loongson microprocessor specifications[edit]

Series Model Frequency
(MHz)
Architecture
MicroArchitecture Year Cores Process
(nm)
Transistor
(million)
Die Size
(mm²)
Power
(W)
Voltage
(V)
Cache (KiB) Peak Floating Point Performance
(GFLOPS)
Performance
[ SPEC CPU2000]
Remarks
L1(Single Core) L2 L3
Data instruction
Godson 1 266 MIPS-II 32-bit N/A 2001 1 180 22 71.4 1.0 Un­known 8 8 N/A N/A 0.6 19/25 [40]
FCR_SOC 266 MIPS-II 32-bit N/A 2007 1 180 Un­known Un­known Un­known Un­known 8 8 N/A N/A 0.6 Un­known [41][42]
2B 250 MIPS-III 64-bit N/A 2003 1 180 Un­known Un­known Un­known Un­known 32 32 N/A N/A Un­known 52/58
2C 450 MIPS-III 64-bit N/A 2004 1 180 13.5 41.5 Un­known Un­known 64 64 N/A N/A Un­known 159/114
2E 1000 MIPS-III 64-bit GS464 (r1)(Prototype) 2006 1 90 47 36 7 1.2 64 64 512 N/A Un­known 503/503
Loongson 1 1A 300 MIPS32 GS232 2010 1 130 22 71.4 1.0 Un­known 16 16 N/A N/A 0.6 Un­known [43]
1B 266 MIPS32 GS232 2010 1 130 13.3 28 0.6 Un­known 8 8 N/A N/A Un­known Un­known [44]
1C 300 MIPS32 GS232 2013 1 130 11.1 28.3 0.5 Un­known 16 16 N/A N/A Un­known Un­known [45]
1C101 8 MIPS32 GS132R 2018 1 130 Un­known Un­known Un­known Un­known N/A N/A N/A N/A Un­known Un­known [46]
1D 8 MIPS32 GS132 2014 1 130 1 6 3 × 10−5 Un­known N/A N/A N/A N/A Un­known Un­known [47]
Loongson 2 2F 1200 MIPS-III 64-bit GS464 (r1) 2007 1 90 51 43 5 1.2 64 64 512 N/A 3.2 Un­known [48]
2G 1000 MIPS64 GS464 (r2) 2012 1 65 Un­known Un­known Un­known 1.15 64 64 4096 N/A Un­known Un­known [49]
2GP 800 MIPS64 GS464 (r2) 2013 1 65 82 65.7 8 1.15 64 64 1024 N/A 3.2 Un­known
2I
2H 1000 MIPS64 GS464 (r2) 2012 1 65 152 117 5 1.15 64 64 512 N/A 4 Un­known
2K1000 1000 MIPS64 Release 2 LoongISA 1.0 GS264E 2017 2 40 1900 79 5 1.1 32 32 256 × 2 1024 8 Un­known [50]
Loongson3 3A1000 1000 MIPS64 Release 2

LoongISA 1.0

GS464 (r2) 2009 4 65 425 174.5 10 1.15 64 64 256 × 4 N/A 16 568/788, Single Core 2.4/2.3 (SPEC CPU2006) [51]
3B1000 1000 MIPS64 Release2

LoongISA 1.0

GS464 (r2) 2010 4+4 65 > 600 Un­known 20 1.15 64 64 128 × 8 N/A Un­known Un­known [52]
3B1500 1200–1500 MIPS64 Release 2

LoongISA 1.0

GS464V 2012 4+4 32 1140 142.5 30(typical)
60(vector)
1.15–1.35 64 64 128 × 8 8192 150 Un­known [53][54]
3A1500-I 800–1000 MIPS64 Release2

LoongISA 1.0

GS464E 2015 4 40 621 202.3 15 1.15–1.25 64 64 256 × 4 4096 16 Single Core 6~7(SPEC CPU2006) [55]
3A2000
3B2000
3A3000 1500 MIPS64 Release 2

LoongISA 1.0

GS464E 2016 4 28 > 1200 155.78 30 1.15–1.25 64 64 256 × 4 8192 24 1100/1700, Single Core 11/10 & Multi Core 36/33(SPEC CPU2006) [56][57]
3B3000 GS464E
3A4000 1800-2000 MIPS64 Release 5

LoongISA 2.0

GS464EV(GS464v) 2019 4 28 ? ? <30 W@1.5 GHz

<40 W@1.8 GHz

<50 W@2.0 GHz[58]

0.95-1.25 64 64 256 x 4 8192 128 Single Core >20/>20 (SPEC CPU2006)(@2.0 GHz)
3B4000

Loongson-based systems[edit]

Lemote FuLoong and YeeLoong with a Loongson 2F microprocessor
Lemote's Fulong MiniPC on top of a CD-ROM drive as reference

In March 2006, a 100 Loongson II computer design called Longmeng (Dragon Dream) was announced by Lemote.[citation needed]

In June 2006 at Computex'2006, YellowSheepRiver announced the Municator YSR-639,[59] a small form factor computer based on the 400 MHz Loongson 2.

Currently,[when?] Loongson boxes that come with a 667 MHz Godson 2E processor or an 800 MHz Godson 2F processor are sold in China at CNY 1599 (US$200) or CNY 1800 respectively without monitor, mouse, or keyboard.[citation needed]

As of July 2008, two manufacturers have announced Loongson 2F products for sale outside China.

  • Van der Led, a Dutch company, announced an 8.9" subnotebook, named Jisus, in April 2008.[60] As of September 2008, however, no orders have been fulfilled, the manufacturer does not respond to inquiries, and the product is no longer on their catalogue.
  • EMTEC, a French company, announced in June 2008[61] a 10-inch subnotebook under the brand name GdiumHome - Gdium Products | Gdium.com (beta), to be sold for "less than 399€" running Mandriva Linux. EMTEC announced the subnotebook would be available for sale in September in Europe, the United States, and China. EMTEC has already shown the devices in public events,[62] and is reaching out to the developer community through the "one laptop per hacker" program.[63]

As of November 2008 the new 8.9" netbook from the Chinese manufacturer Lemote that replaced mengloong, Yeeloong (Portable Dragon),[64] running Debian, is available[65] in Europe from the Dutch company Tekmote Electronics.

Loongson 3A laptop[edit]

Loongson insiders[66] revealed a new model based on the Loongson 3A quad-core laptop has been developed and is expected to launch in August 2011. With a similar design to the MacBook Pro[67] from Apple Inc., it will carry a Linux operating system by default.

In September 2011, Lemote announced the Yeeloong-8133 13.3" laptop featuring 900 MHz, quad-core Loongson-3A/2GQ CPU.[68]

Supercomputers[edit]

On 26 December 2007, China revealed its first Loongson based supercomputer with performance 1 TFLOPS of peak performance, and about 350 GFLOPS measured by LINPACK in Hefei, designated as KD-50-I.[69] This supercomputer was designed by a joint team led by Chen Guoliang at the computer science technology department of the University of Science and Technology of China and ICT (the secondary contractor). KD-50-I is the first Chinese built supercomputer to utilize domestic Chinese CPUs, with a total of more than 336 Loongson-2F CPUs, and nodes are interconnected by Ethernet. The size of the computer was roughly equivalent to a household refrigerator and the cost was less than RMB800,000 (approximately US$120,000, 80,000).[70]

On 20 April 2010, USTC announced successful development of Loongson 3A based KD-60-1. The new supercomputer is a cluster of standard blade servers with a total of over 80 quad-core Loongson processors, providing theoretical peak performance of 1 TFLOPS and reduces power consumption by 56% compared to the KD-50-I system that has similar performance.[71]

On 26 December 2012, USTC announced successful development of Loongson 3B based KD-90-1. The new supercomputer is a cluster of standard blade servers with a total of over 10 octo-core Loongson processors, providing theoretical peak performance of 1 TFLOPS, and reduces power consumption by 62% compared to the KD-60 system that has similar performance.[72]

Dawning 6000[edit]

The high-performance Dawning 6000, which has a projected speed of over one quadrillion operations per second, will incorporate the Loongson processor as its core. Dawning 6000 is currently[when?] jointly developed by the Institute of Computing Technology under the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Dawning Information Industry Company. Li Guojie, chairman of Dawning Information Industry Company and director and academician of the Institute of Computing Technology, said research and development of the Dawning 6000 is expected to be completed in two years.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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