SCA (company)

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Svenska Cellulosa AB
TypePublicly traded Aktiebolag
Nasdaq StockholmSCA A,SCA B
ISINSE0000171886 [1]
SE0000112724 [2]
IndustryForestry, paper
FoundedNovember 27, 1929; 93 years ago (1929-11-27)[3]
HeadquartersSundsvall, Sweden
Key people
Pär Boman (Chairman), Ulf Larsson (President and CEO)
ProductsPublication paper
Sawn wood products
Wood pulp
Bioenergy
RevenueSEK 18,800 million (end 2021)[4]
SEK 7,634 million (2021)[4]
SEK 6,101 million (2021)[4]
Total assetsSEK 118,233 million (2021)[4]
Total equitySEK 83,055 million (2021)[4]
Websitewww.sca.com

Svenska Cellulosa AB (SCA, English: Swedish Cellulose Ltd.) is a Swedish forest industry company[5] with headquarters in Sundsvall.

SCA is the largest private forest owner in Europe.[6] It owns 2.6 million hectares of forest[6] in northern Sweden,[7] amounting to six per cent of Sweden’s surface area[8] and as big as the size of North Macedonia. The company also owns forests in Estonia and Latvia.[7] SCA produces wood-based products, such as pulp, packaging paper[5] and kraftliner. The company’s sawmills, wood processing units and planing mills produce spruce and pine wood products.[7]

The company leases land to wind farm operators[6] and produces solid and liquid biofuels from its by-products.[7] In 2022, SCA’s business units included Containerboard, Forest, Pulp, Renewable Energy and Wood.[7]

It has approximately 3,600 employees and a turnover of approximately SEK 18.8 billion (€1.8 billion).[4]

The company is listed on the Nasdaq stock exchange in Stockholm, Sweden.

Essity, a tissue paper company, was spun off from SCA in 2017 and is now a listed company on the Nasdaq stock exchange in Stockholm, Sweden.[5]

History[edit]

1929–1999[edit]

SCA was established in November 1929, when Swedish investor Ivar Kreuger merged ten Swedish forestry companies. Between them the companies employed 6,500 people and owned forests, sawmills, pulp mills, machine shops and power plants. After Kreuger’s death in 1932, control of the company passed to Handelsbanken.[3]

SCA was listed on the Stockholm stock exchange in 1950.[3] Axel Enström was the managing director from 1950 to 1960 and chairman of the board from 1960 to 1965.[9]

SCA acquired Swedish hygiene products Mölnlycke in 1975.[3]

In the 1980s, SCA acquired companies in France, Italy and Austria,[10] including Laakirchen, a producer of uncoated printing paper.[11]

In June 1990, SCA acquired Reedpack, a British packaging and paper company.[12] In December 1990, SCA, by now Sweden’s second largest forestry company, acquired a stake in Sweden’s third largest forestry company, MoDo, which produced around half a million tonnes of fine paper annually. SCA produced about one million tonnes of different grades of paperboard per year.[11]

In 1995, SCA became the largest forest industry group in Europe when it acquired 75%[13] of the German company Papierwerke Waldhof-Aschaffenburg AG (PWA), which produced tissue paper and packaging board like SCA. Prior to the transaction, SCA had sold its power plant and its MoDo shareholding. Mölnlycke accounted for half of the company’s turnover, with one third coming from packaging and the remainder from graphic papers. The company built a second Light Weight Coated machine at the Ortviken mill. Mondi of South Africa and SCA built a newsprint machine based on recycled fibre at Aylesford in the UK.[13]

In 1998, SCA acquired corrugated board producer Rexam in the UK.[14]

In 1999, SCA acquired packaging company Nicolet of France.[15]

2000–2016[edit]

In May 2000, Metsä-Serla and SCA negotiated a share swap in which SCA would acquire a majority stake in Metsä Tissue, a tissue paper producer. Metsä-Serla acquired a stake in Modo Paper, which was co-owned by SCA and Holmen.[16] The transaction was completed in June 2000.[17]

However, the EU banned the sale of Metsä Tissue in January 2001, on the basis that the combined market share of SCA and Metsä Tissue in the Nordic countries would have become too large.[18] SCA acquired Tuscarora, a company in the United States that manufactured tissue paper and packaging.[19]

In February 2002, SCA acquired Italian tissue company Cartoinvest,[20] and later in the year British tissue company Benedetti Paper Division.[21]

In March 2004, SCA acquired the tissue paper businesses of Carter Holt Harvey in New Zealand and half of their joint venture Sancella.[22]

In 2005, SCA had 50,000 employees in 50 countries. Due to fierce competition, it laid off 3,600 employees working on packaging and hygiene products in Europe. The Danish carton board plant was shut down and production was moved to Eastern Europe.[23]

In March 2007, SCA acquired the European tissue paper business of US-based Procter & Gamble.[24] In September, SCA and Norwegian energy company Statkraft announced the construction of seven wind farms in northern Sweden. The farms were designed to produce 2,800GWh of electricity a year, equivalent to approximately 2% of Sweden’s total electricity demand. Of this amount, 500GWh was allocated to SCA.[25] In December 2007, SCA announced that it would reduce its production activities in Sweden the following year due to increasing raw material and energy prices and overcapacity.[26]

SCA delisted from the London stock exchange in 2008.[3] SCA increased its ownership in Chinese tissue company Vinda.

In 2011, Norges Bank bought a stake of more than 5% in SCA.[27]

In July 2012, the EU approved a deal in which SCA acquired the European operations of tissue paper company Georgia-Pacific. It employed 4,700 people in seven countries.[28][29] SCA divested its packaging operations – excluding the two kraftliner mills in Sweden – to DS Smith.

In November 2013, SCA announced that it would buy a majority stake of almost 60% in Chinese tissue paper company Vinda.[30]

In 2014, SCA was the most profitable forestry company in the Nordic countries. While other forestry companies were active in the wholesale market, its main customers were consumers.[31] The company had 44,000 employees and sold its products in 100 countries.[32]

In early 2015, Sverker Martin-Löf, chairman of the board, and Jan Johansson, CEO, resigned following a row over the private use of SCA’s jet aircraft. Johansson and his family had used the company’s aircraft for private flights, including to Dubai, Verona and Nice. Magnus Groth succeeded him. The Swedish Anti-Corruption Authority was investigating whether there were any criminal offences involved.[33] At the same time, Martin-Löf also resigned from the listed investment company Industrivärden, where he was CEO, and which was one of the largest owners of SCA.[34] In August the company announced that it would double its annual pulp production in Timrå to 900,000 tonnes.[35] The investment amounted to approximately SEK 7.8 billion (€815m) and was expected to be one of the largest industrial investment in the history of Norrland.[36] In October, the company acquired the American tissue paper producer Wausau Paper.[37] In November, SCA announced that it would sell its stake in Industrivärden.[38]

In summer 2016, insurance company Skandia and private equity firm Nordic Capital, among others, made a bid for SCA's forest operations and forests. In August, the company’s board announced plans to split the company into two.[39] The Tunadal sawmill was renovated. The Obbola mill was piloting the production of liquid biofuel.[40] SCA sold the rest of its Asian mills to Vinda, China's largest tissue paper manufacturer.[41] In December, SCA acquired BSN Medical, a German company that manufactured products such as bandages and plasters.[42] SCA was the fourth largest forestry company in the world. Hygiene products accounted for 86% of its €12.3 billion turnover.[43] The company's brands included TENA, Lotus, Libresse and Libero.[5]

2017–[edit]

SCA and Essity became two separate companies in the summer of 2017.[44] Tissue paper and health products, such as those produced by the Nokia paper mill, were transferred to Essity. SCA decided to focus on sawmills, pulp, board and paper mills, as well as forests and renewable energy production. The rationale for the split was that the synergies of the businesses had diminished over the years.[43] SCA was mentioned on Greenpeace's "Wiping away" report for its role in the Great Northern Forest and contribution to global warming.[45]

In March 2018, SCA announced that it would build a biorefinery in Timrå to produce transport fuel for cars and aircraft. The production was to use by-products from the Östrand pulp mill.[46] In May, SCA announced that it would start co-operating with St1 in the production of renewable diesel. The pine oil-based fuel was to be produced at St1's refinery in Gothenburg.[47] The modernisation of the Östrand pulp mill in Sundsvall doubled its capacity to 900,000 tonnes.[44][40]

In August 2020, SCA announced that it would withdraw from the printing paper business and cease paper production at Ortviken[8] in Sundsvall. In the future, the company planned to focus on tissue paper and packaging materials.[48] The company invested 140 million euros in the production of chemical thermoplastic pulp (CTMP).[49]

In autumn 2021, St1 and SCA announced their half-owned joint ventures called St1 Gothenburg Biorefinery Ab and SCA Östrand Biorefinery. The Gothenburg-based biorefinery would produce biofuel from pine oil and other renewable raw materials supplied by SCA.[50]

Organisation[edit]

Businesses[edit]

In 2022, SCA is divided into five business units and supporting Sourcing & Logistics & Product Development units:[7][51]

  • The Containerboard unit includes two paper mills that manufacture kraftliner. Kraftliner is used on the surface of corrugated board.[52]
  • The Forest unit manages the company's forests in northern Sweden, Estonia and Latvia and buys wood from private forest owners
  • The Pulp unit includes pulp mills in Östrand and Ortviken
  • The Renewable Energy unit is focused on wind energy production on land owned by SCA. The other units produce bioenergy, such as solid and liquid biofuels, pellets and biochemicals, from by-products.
  • Wood includes sawmills, wood processing units and planing mills in Sweden. The unit mainly processes spruce and pine wood products, which are exported around the world

Owners[edit]

In December 2021, the company's largest shareholders were[53]

  • Industrivärden
  • Norges Bank
  • AMF Pension & Fonder
  • Handelsbanken Pensionsförsäkring
  • T. Rowe Price
  • BlackRock
  • Swedbank Robur Fonder
  • Vanguard
  • Insurance company Skandia

Products[edit]

SCA owns 2.6 million hectares of forest in Sweden,[6] amounting to six per cent of Sweden’s surface area.[8] The company also owns forests in Estonia and Latvia.[7]

SCA produces wood-based products such as pulp, packaging paper[6] and kraftliner. In addition, the company’s sawmills, wood processing units and planing mills produce spruce and pine wood products.[7] The company owns wind turbines[6] and produces solid and liquid biofuels from its by-products.[7]

Criticism[edit]

Several complaints have been filed against SCA because of its repeated practice of clearcutting,[54] where large areas of forests are cut down uniformly, which in temperate and boreal climates leads to the release of large amounts of carbon stored in the soil due to its increased exposure to sunlight. As minutely documented by Greenpeace, SCA "clearcuts some of Sweden's last remaining old-growth forests, wiping away habitats of threatened species and endangering the livelihood of indigenous communities".[55]

Awards[edit]

  • In 2014, SCA was named one of the world's most ethical companies for the seventh consecutive year by the Ethisphere Institute.[32]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.nasdaqomxnordic.com/aktier/microsite?Instrument=SSE322
  2. ^ http://www.nasdaqomxnordic.com/aktier/microsite?Instrument=SSE323
  3. ^ a b c d e "Our history". www.sca.com. Retrieved 7 April 2022.
  4. ^ a b c d e f "Annual Report 2021" (PDF). Svenska Cellulosa Aktiebolaget. Retrieved 7 April 2022.
  5. ^ a b c "Metsä- ja hygieniajätti SCA jakautuu kahdeksi pörssiyhtiöksi – ei vaikuta Suomen liiketoimintoihin". Yle Uutiset (in Finnish). 5 April 2017. Retrieved 7 April 2022.
  6. ^ a b c d e f Dempsey, Harry; Hodgson, Camilla (2 August 2021). "Europe's biggest private forest owner defends harvesting strategy". Financial Times. Retrieved 7 April 2022.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i "This is SCA". www.sca.com. Retrieved 7 April 2022.
  8. ^ a b c Honkanen, Veera. "UPM tiristi suomalaiskilpailijoitaan paremman alkuvuoden – Paperin ahdinko ei ole ohi: "Emme ole vielä vankalla maaperällä, emme edes UPM:n ja SCA:n ilmoitusten jälkeen"". Kauppalehti (in Finnish). Retrieved 7 April 2022.
  9. ^ "Svenska Cellulosa Aktiebolaget (SCA)". Hoovers. 2008. Retrieved 13 October 2008. That year Axel Enstrom became the president of SCA and began to consolidate the operations of its subsidiaries, creating a single forest company by 1954.
  10. ^ Jyri, Raivio (11 March 1990). "Ruotsin SCA osti vähemmistöosuuden Feldmühlestä". Helsingin Sanomat (in Finnish). Retrieved 7 April 2022.
  11. ^ a b Jyrki, Iivonen (12 December 1990). "SCA osti 900 miljoonalla markalla määräysvallan Carlgrenin MoDosta Yhteenliittymän jälkeen Ruotsissa enää kaksi suurta metsäyhtiötä". Helsingin Sanomat (in Finnish). Retrieved 7 April 2022.
  12. ^ Jaakko, Hautamäki (21 June 1990). "Ruotsin SCA ostaa Reedpackin Kauppahinta on yli kolme miljardia markkaa". Helsingin Sanomat (in Finnish). Retrieved 7 April 2022.
  13. ^ a b Pentti, Laitinen (6 January 1995). "Ruotsalaisesta SCA:sta tulee Euroopan suurin metsäkonserni Enemmistö saksalaisesta PWA:sta vie ruotsalaiset kiertokuidun maailmaan". Helsingin Sanomat (in Finnish). Retrieved 7 April 2022.
  14. ^ Startel (22 December 1998). "SCA ostaa Britanniasta Rexamin pahvituotannon". Helsingin Sanomat (in Finnish). Retrieved 7 April 2022.
  15. ^ "LYHYESTI | Ruotsalaisyhtiö SCA ostaa ranskalaisen pakkausvalmistajan". Helsingin Sanomat (in Finnish). 3 August 1999. Retrieved 7 April 2022.
  16. ^ Laitinen, Pentti (17 May 2000). "Metsä-Serla ja SCA suunnittelevat uutta osakevaihtoa". Helsingin Sanomat (in Finnish). Retrieved 7 April 2022.
  17. ^ Laitinen, Pentti (1 June 2000). "Metsä-Serla osti ruotsalaisen Modon". Helsingin Sanomat (in Finnish). Retrieved 7 April 2022.
  18. ^ Iivonen, Jyrki (1 February 2001). "EU-komissio kielsi Metsä Tissuen myynnin Ruotsiin". Helsingin Sanomat (in Finnish). Retrieved 7 April 2022.
  19. ^ "LYHYESTI | SCA ostaa pehmopaperi- tuotantoa Yhdysvalloista". Helsingin Sanomat (in Finnish). 23 January 2001. Retrieved 7 April 2022.
  20. ^ "LYHYESTI | SCA ostaa italialaisen Cartoinvestin". Helsingin Sanomat (in Finnish). 20 February 2002. Retrieved 7 April 2022.
  21. ^ Startel (23 September 2002). "Ruotsin SCA ostaa pehmopaperia Britanniasta". Helsingin Sanomat (in Finnish). Retrieved 7 April 2022.
  22. ^ Startel (26 March 2004). "Pehmopaperin SCA laajentaa Australiaan". Helsingin Sanomat (in Finnish). Retrieved 7 April 2022.
  23. ^ Manninen, Mari (26 August 2005). "Pakkausjätti SCA irtisanoo 3600". Helsingin Sanomat (in Finnish). Retrieved 7 April 2022.
  24. ^ "NÄKÖKULMA | SCA pyyhkäisi isolla kädellä". Helsingin Sanomat (in Finnish). 13 March 2007. Retrieved 7 April 2022.
  25. ^ "Ruotsiin valtava tuulivoimainvestointi". Yle Uutiset (in Finnish). 15 September 2007. Retrieved 7 April 2022.
  26. ^ STT (19 December 2007). "Paperiyhtiö SCA saneeraa Ruotsissa". Ilta-Sanomat (in Finnish). Retrieved 7 April 2022.
  27. ^ TT (10 June 2011). "Norges centralbank flaggar upp i SCA". Svenska Dagbladet (in Swedish). ISSN 1101-2412. Retrieved 7 April 2022.
  28. ^ "SCA:n kauppa hyväksyttiin". Maaseudun Tulevaisuus (in Finnish). Retrieved 7 April 2022.
  29. ^ STT (10 November 2011). "Ruotsalainen SCA ostamassa Georgia-Pacificin Euroopan-tehtaat". Helsingin Sanomat (in Finnish). Retrieved 7 April 2022.
  30. ^ "SCA:s storaffär i Kina i hamn". ATL (in Swedish). 11 November 2013. Retrieved 7 April 2022.
  31. ^ HS, Jyrki Iivonen (1 March 2015). "Ruotsalainen SCA oli Pohjoismaiden kannattavin metsäyhtiö". Helsingin Sanomat (in Finnish). Retrieved 7 April 2022.
  32. ^ a b "SCA a été nommé l'une des entreprises les plus éthiques au monde sept années consécutives". www.lelezard.com (in French). Retrieved 7 April 2022.
  33. ^ HS, Elina Kervinen (11 February 2015). "Metsäyhtiö SCA:n toimitusjohtaja Johansson sai potkut yksityislentokonekohun takia". Helsingin Sanomat (in Finnish). Retrieved 7 April 2022.
  34. ^ HS, Jaana Savolainen (23 January 2015). "Industrivärden vaihtaa johtoaan". Helsingin Sanomat (in Finnish). Retrieved 7 April 2022.
  35. ^ HS, Jyrki Iivonen (29 August 2015). "Ruotsalainen SCA laajentaa sellun tuotantoa". Helsingin Sanomat (in Finnish). Retrieved 7 April 2022.
  36. ^ Paper, EUWID Pulp and. "SCA to split the group in two divisions and invest in NBSK pulp capacity at Östrand mill - EUWID Pulp and Paper". www.euwid-paper.com. Retrieved 24 September 2017.
  37. ^ ÅkermanText, Felicia (13 October 2015). "SCA köper för miljarder i USA". Dagens industri (in Swedish). Retrieved 7 April 2022.
  38. ^ "SCA säljer Industrivärden". Dagens Nyheter (in Swedish). 3 November 2015. ISSN 1101-2447. Retrieved 7 April 2022.
  39. ^ Pöysä, Jorma. "DN: Skandia ja Nordic Capital tekivät tarjouksen SCA:n metsäyhtiöstä". Kauppalehti (in Finnish). Retrieved 7 April 2022.
  40. ^ a b Pöysä, Jorma. "SCA:n jättisellutehdas nousee Sundsvalliin". Kauppalehti (in Finnish). Retrieved 7 April 2022.
  41. ^ Pöysä, Jorma. "Brändejä kahdelle miljardille ihmiselle - kiinalainen pehmopaperijätti keskittyy SCA:lta ostetun Aasian liiketoiminnan haltuunottoon". Kauppalehti (in Finnish). Retrieved 7 April 2022.
  42. ^ "Sweden's SCA to scoop up Germany's BSN for 2.7 billion euros: FT". Reuters. 19 December 2016. Retrieved 7 April 2022.
  43. ^ a b STT (5 April 2017). "Ruotsalainen metsäjätti SCA jakautuu". Ilta-Sanomat (in Finnish). Retrieved 7 April 2022.
  44. ^ a b Pöysä, Jorma. "Pelkistetty SCA pysyi metsäyhtiöiden kärjessä". Kauppalehti (in Finnish). Retrieved 7 April 2022.
  45. ^ "How Europe's Tissue Giant is Wiping Away the Boreal" (PDF). Greenpeace. September 2017. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
  46. ^ "Ruotsalaislehti: SCA suunnittelee liikennepolttoaineita valmistavaa biojalostamoa". Maaseudun Tulevaisuus (in Finnish). Retrieved 7 April 2022.
  47. ^ "St1 ja SCA ja aloittavat polttoainetuotannon mäntyöljystä". Maaseudun Tulevaisuus (in Finnish). Retrieved 7 April 2022.
  48. ^ Lehto, Essi. "Ruotsissa lopetetaan painopaperin tuotanto Kaipolan kokoisella tehtaalla – Naapurin paperijätti keskittyy pehmopaperiin ja pakkauksiin". Talouselämä (in Finnish). Retrieved 7 April 2022.
  49. ^ "Ruotsalaisyhtiö SCA aikoo investoida 140 miljoonaa euroa kemihierteen tuotantoon paperitehtaalla Sundsvallissa ja luopua painopaperin tuotannosta". Maaseudun Tulevaisuus (in Finnish). Retrieved 7 April 2022.
  50. ^ Lehmusvirta, Antti. "St1 ja SCA yhdistävät voimansa biojalostamohankkeessa". Kauppalehti (in Finnish). Retrieved 7 April 2022.
  51. ^ "Our organization". www.sca.com. Retrieved 7 April 2022.
  52. ^ "Puun hinnat nousevat Ruotsissa – "Markkina on suotuisa sekä puutuotteille että sellulle"". Maaseudun Tulevaisuus (in Finnish). Retrieved 7 April 2022.
  53. ^ "Shareholders". www.sca.com. Retrieved 7 April 2022.
  54. ^ "ANOTHER FORMAL COMPLAINT AGAINST SCA'S CLEARCUTS IN SWEDEN – THIS ONE FROM GREENPEACE NORDIC AND SSNC". FSC-WATCH. 19 June 2008. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
  55. ^ Glienicke, Angela (28 September 2017). "In pictures: the Great Northern Forest – beauty and destruction". Greenpeace UK. Retrieved 7 January 2020.

External links[edit]