|Part of a series on|
Renewable energy is generally defined as energy that is collected from resources which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat. Renewable energy often provides energy in four important areas: electricity generation, air and water heating/cooling, transportation, and rural (off-grid) energy services.
Based on REN21's 2014 report, renewables contributed 19 percent to humans' global energy consumption and 22 percent to their generation of electricity in 2012 and 2013, respectively. This energy consumption is divided as 9% coming from traditional biomass, 4.2% as heat energy (non-biomass), 3.8% hydro electricity and 2% is electricity from wind, solar, geothermal, and biomass. Worldwide investments in renewable technologies amounted to more than US$214 billion in 2013, with countries like China and the United States heavily investing in wind, hydro, solar and biofuels.
Renewable energy resources exist over wide geographical areas, in contrast to other energy sources, which are concentrated in a limited number of countries. Rapid deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency is resulting in significant energy security, climate change mitigation, and economic benefits. In international public opinion surveys there is strong support for promoting renewable sources such as solar power and wind power. At the national level, at least 30 nations around the world already have renewable energy contributing more than 20 percent of energy supply. National renewable energy markets are projected to continue to grow strongly in the coming decade and beyond. Some places and at least two countries, Iceland and Norway generate all their electricity using renewable energy already, and many other countries have the set a goal to reach 100% renewable energy in the future. For example, in Denmark the government decided to switch the total energy supply (electricity, mobility and heating/cooling) to 100% renewable energy by 2050.
While many renewable energy projects are large-scale, renewable technologies are also suited to rural and remote areas and developing countries, where energy is often crucial in human development. United Nations' Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon has said that renewable energy has the ability to lift the poorest nations to new levels of prosperity. As most of renewables provide electricity, renewable energy deployment is often applied in conjunction with further electrification, which has several benefits: For example, electricity can be converted to heat without losses and even reach higher temperatures than fossil fuels, can be converted into mechanical energy with high efficiency and is clean at the point of consumpion. In addition to that electrification with renewable energy is much more efficient and therefore leads to a significant reduction in primary energy requirements, because most renewables don't have a steam cycle with high losses (fossil power plants usually have losses of 40 to 65%).
- 1 Overview
- 2 History
- 3 Mainstream technologies
- 4 Commercialization
- 4.1 Growth of renewables
- 4.2 Economic trends
- 4.3 Hydroelectricity
- 4.4 Wind power development
- 4.5 Solar thermal
- 4.6 Photovoltaic development
- 4.7 Photovoltaic power stations
- 4.8 Carbon-neutral and negative fuels
- 4.9 Biofuel development
- 4.10 Geothermal development
- 4.11 Developing countries
- 4.12 Industry and policy trends
- 4.13 100% renewable energy
- 5 Emerging technologies
- 6 Debate
- 7 Gallery
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 Bibliography
- 11 External links
Renewable energy is derived from natural processes that are replenished constantly. In its various forms, it derives directly from the sun, or from heat generated deep within the earth. Included in the definition is electricity and heat generated from solar, wind, ocean, hydropower, biomass, geothermal resources, and biofuels and hydrogen derived from renewable resources.
Renewable energy resources and significant opportunities for energy efficiency exist over wide geographical areas, in contrast to other energy sources, which are concentrated in a limited number of countries. Rapid deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency, and technological diversification of energy sources, would result in significant energy security and economic benefits. It would also reduce environmental pollution such as air pollution caused by burning of fossil fuels and improve public health, reduce premature mortalities due to pollution and save associated health costs that amount to several 100 billion dollars annually only in the United States. Renewable energy sources, that derive their energy from the sun, either directly or indirectly, such as hydro and wind, are expected to be capable of supplying humanity energy for almost another 1 billion years, at which point the predicted increase in heat from the sun is expected to make the surface of the earth too hot for liquid water to exist.
Climate change and global warming concerns, coupled with high oil prices, peak oil, and increasing government support, are driving increasing renewable energy legislation, incentives and commercialization. New government spending, regulation and policies helped the industry weather the global financial crisis better than many other sectors. According to a 2011 projection by the International Energy Agency, solar power generators may produce most of the world's electricity within 50 years, reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases that harm the environment.
As of 2011, small solar PV systems provide electricity to a few million households, and micro-hydro configured into mini-grids serves many more. Over 44 million households use biogas made in household-scale digesters for lighting and/or cooking, and more than 166 million households rely on a new generation of more-efficient biomass cookstoves. United Nations' Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon has said that renewable energy has the ability to lift the poorest nations to new levels of prosperity. At the national level, at least 30 nations around the world already have renewable energy contributing more than 20% of energy supply. National renewable energy markets are projected to continue to grow strongly in the coming decade and beyond, and some 120 countries have various policy targets for longer-term shares of renewable energy, including a 20% target of all electricity generated for the European Union by 2020. Some countries have much higher long-term policy targets of up to 100% renewables. Outside Europe, a diverse group of 20 or more other countries target renewable energy shares in the 2020–2030 time frame that range from 10% to 50%.
- Power generation
- Renewable hydroelectric energy provides 16.3% of the worlds electricity. When hydroelectric is combined with other renewables such as wind, geothermal, solar, biomass and waste: together they make the "renewables" total, 21.7% of electricity generation worldwide as of 2013. Renewable power generators are spread across many countries, and wind power alone already provides a significant share of electricity in some areas: for example, 14% in the U.S. state of Iowa, 40% in the northern German state of Schleswig-Holstein, and 49% in Denmark. Some countries get most of their power from renewables, including Iceland (100%), Norway (98%), Brazil (86%), Austria (62%), New Zealand (65%), and Sweden (54%).
- Solar water heating makes an important contribution to renewable heat in many countries, most notably in China, which now has 70% of the global total (180 GWth). Most of these systems are installed on multi-family apartment buildings and meet a portion of the hot water needs of an estimated 50–60 million households in China. Worldwide, total installed solar water heating systems meet a portion of the water heating needs of over 70 million households. The use of biomass for heating continues to grow as well. In Sweden, national use of biomass energy has surpassed that of oil. Direct geothermal for heating is also growing rapidly. The newest addition to Heating is from Geothermal Heat Pumps which provide both heating and cooling, and also flatten the electric demand curve and are thus an increasing national priority (see also Renewable thermal energy).
- Renewable biofuels have contributed to a significant decline in oil consumption in the United States since 2006. U.S. oil use fell 8.5% from 2005 to 2014. The 93 billion liters of biofuels produced worldwide in 2009 displaced the equivalent of an estimated 68 billion liters of gasoline, equal to about 5% of world gasoline production.
Prior to the development of coal in the mid 19th century, nearly all energy used was renewable. Almost without a doubt the oldest known use of renewable energy, in the form of traditional biomass to fuel fires, dates from 790,000 years ago. Use of biomass for fire did not become commonplace until many hundreds of thousands of years later, sometime between 200,000 and 400,000 years ago. Probably the second oldest usage of renewable energy is harnessing the wind in order to drive ships over water. This practice can be traced back some 7000 years, to ships on the Nile. Moving into the time of recorded history, the primary sources of traditional renewable energy were human labor, animal power, water power, wind, in grain crushing windmills, and firewood, a traditional biomass. A graph of energy use in the United States up until 1900 shows oil and natural gas with about the same importance in 1900 as wind and solar played in 2010.
By 1873, concerns of running out of coal prompted experiments with using solar energy. Development of solar engines continued until the outbreak of World War I. The importance of solar energy was recognized in a 1911 Scientific American article: "in the far distant future, natural fuels having been exhausted [solar power] will remain as the only means of existence of the human race".
The theory of peak oil was published in 1956. In the 1970s environmentalists promoted the development of renewable energy both as a replacement for the eventual depletion of oil, as well as for an escape from dependence on oil, and the first electricity generating wind turbines appeared. Solar had long been used for heating and cooling, but solar panels were too costly to build solar farms until 1980.
The IEA 2014 World Energy Outlook projects a growth of renewable energy supply from 1,700 gigawatts in 2014 to 4,550 gigawatts in 2040. Fossil fuels received about $550 billion in subsidies in 2013, compared to $120 billion for all renewable energies.
Airflows can be used to run wind turbines. Modern utility-scale wind turbines range from around 600 kW to 5 MW of rated power, although turbines with rated output of 1.5–3 MW have become the most common for commercial use; the power available from the wind is a function of the cube of the wind speed, so as wind speed increases, power output increases up to the maximum output for the particular turbine. Areas where winds are stronger and more constant, such as offshore and high altitude sites, are preferred locations for wind farms. Typically full load hours of wind turbines vary between 16 and 57 percent annually, but might be higher in particularly favorable offshore sites.
Globally, the long-term technical potential of wind energy is believed to be five times total current global energy production, or 40 times current electricity demand, assuming all practical barriers needed were overcome. This would require wind turbines to be installed over large areas, particularly in areas of higher wind resources, such as offshore. As offshore wind speeds average ~90% greater than that of land, so offshore resources can contribute substantially more energy than land stationed turbines. In 2013 wind generated almost 3% of the worlds total electricity.
In 2013 hydropower generated almost 16% of the worlds total electricity. Since water is about 800 times denser than air, even a slow flowing stream of water, or moderate sea swell, can yield considerable amounts of energy. There are many forms of water energy:
- Hydroelectric energy is a term usually reserved for large-scale hydroelectric dams. The largest of which is the Three Gorges Dam in China and a smaller example is the Akosombo Dam in Ghana.
- Micro hydro systems are hydroelectric power installations that typically produce up to 100 kW of power. They are often used in water rich areas as a remote-area power supply (RAPS).
- Run-of-the-river hydroelectricity systems derive kinetic energy from rivers without the creation of a large reservoir.
Hydropower is produced in 150 countries, with the Asia-Pacific region generating 32 percent of global hydropower in 2010. For counties having the largest percentage of electricity from renewables, the top 50 are primarily hydroelectric. China is the largest hydroelectricity producer, with 721 terawatt-hours of production in 2010, representing around 17 percent of domestic electricity use. There are now three hydroelectricity stations larger than 10 GW: the Three Gorges Dam in China, Itaipu Dam across the Brazil/Paraguay border, and Guri Dam in Venezuela.
Wave power, which captures the energy of ocean surface waves, and tidal power, converting the energy of tides, are two forms of hydropower with future potential; however, they are not yet widely employed commercially. A demonstration project operated by the Ocean Renewable Power Company on the coast of Maine, and connected to the grid, harnesses tidal power from the Bay of Fundy, location of world's highest tidal flow. Ocean thermal energy conversion, which uses the temperature difference between cooler deep and warmer surface waters, has currently no economic feasibility.
Solar energy, radiant light and heat from the sun, is harnessed using a range of ever-evolving technologies such as solar heating, photovoltaics, concentrated solar power, solar architecture and artificial photosynthesis. Solar technologies are broadly characterized as either passive solar or active solar depending on the way they capture, convert and distribute solar energy. Passive solar techniques include orienting a building to the Sun, selecting materials with favorable thermal mass or light dispersing properties, and designing spaces that naturally circulate air. Active solar technologies encompass solar thermal energy, using solar collectors for heating, and solar power, converting sunlight into electricity either directly using photovoltaics (PV), or indirectly using concentrated solar power (CSP).
A photovoltaic system converts light into electrical direct current (DC) by taking advantage of the photoelectric effect. Solar PV has turned into a multi-billion, fast-growing industry, continues to improve its cost-effectiveness, and has the most potential of any renewable technologies together with CSP. Concentrated solar power (CSP) systems use lenses or mirrors and tracking systems to focus a large area of sunlight into a small beam. Commercial concentrated solar power plants were first developed in the 1980s. CSP-Stirling has by far the highest efficiency among all solar energy technologies.
In 2011, the International Energy Agency said that "the development of affordable, inexhaustible and clean solar energy technologies will have huge longer-term benefits. It will increase countries' energy security through reliance on an indigenous, inexhaustible and mostly import-independent resource, enhance sustainability, reduce pollution, lower the costs of mitigating climate change, and keep fossil fuel prices lower than otherwise. These advantages are global. Hence the additional costs of the incentives for early deployment should be considered learning investments; they must be wisely spent and need to be widely shared". In 2013 solar generated less than 1% of the worlds total grid electricity.
High Temperature Geothermal energy is from thermal energy generated and stored in the Earth. Thermal energy is the energy that determines the temperature of matter. Earth's geothermal energy originates from the original formation of the planet and from radioactive decay of minerals (in currently uncertain but possibly roughly equal proportions). The geothermal gradient, which is the difference in temperature between the core of the planet and its surface, drives a continuous conduction of thermal energy in the form of heat from the core to the surface. The adjective geothermal originates from the Greek roots geo, meaning earth, and thermos, meaning heat.
The heat that is used for geothermal energy can be from deep within the Earth, all the way down to Earth's core – 4,000 miles (6,400 km) down. At the core, temperatures may reach over 9,000 °F (5,000 °C). Heat conducts from the core to surrounding rock. Extremely high temperature and pressure cause some rock to melt, which is commonly known as magma. Magma convects upward since it is lighter than the solid rock. This magma then heats rock and water in the crust, sometimes up to 700 °F (371 °C).
From hot springs, geothermal energy has been used for bathing since Paleolithic times and for space heating since ancient Roman times, but it is now better known for electricity generation.
Low Temperature Geothermal refers to the use of the outer crust of the earth as a Thermal Battery to facilitate Renewable thermal energy for heating and cooling buildings, and other refrigeration and industrial uses. In this form of Geothermal, a Geothermal Heat Pump and Ground-coupled heat exchanger are used together to move heat energy into the earth (for cooling) and out of the earth (for heating) on a varying seasonal basis. Low temperature Geothermal (generally referred to as "GHP") is an increasingly important renewable technology because it both reduces total annual energy loads associated with heating and cooling, and it also flattens the electric demand curve eliminating the extreme summer and winter peak electric supply requirements. Thus Low Temperature Geothermal/GHP is becoming an increasing national priority with multiple tax credit support and focus as part of the ongoing movement toward Net Zero Energy. New York City has even just passed a law to require GHP anytime is shown to be economical with 20 year financing including the Socialized Cost of Carbon.
Biomass is biological material derived from living, or recently living organisms. It most often refers to plants or plant-derived materials which are specifically called lignocellulosic biomass. As an energy source, biomass can either be used directly via combustion to produce heat, or indirectly after converting it to various forms of biofuel. Conversion of biomass to biofuel can be achieved by different methods which are broadly classified into: thermal, chemical, and biochemical methods. Wood remains the largest biomass energy source today; examples include forest residues – such as dead trees, branches and tree stumps –, yard clippings, wood chips and even municipal solid waste. In the second sense, biomass includes plant or animal matter that can be converted into fibers or other industrial chemicals, including biofuels. Industrial biomass can be grown from numerous types of plants, including miscanthus, switchgrass, hemp, corn, poplar, willow, sorghum, sugarcane, bamboo, and a variety of tree species, ranging from eucalyptus to oil palm (palm oil).
Plant energy is produced by crops specifically grown for use as fuel that offer high biomass output per hectare with low input energy. Some examples of these plants are wheat, which typically yield 7.5–8 tonnes of grain per hectare, and straw, which typically yield 3.5–5 tonnes per hectare in the UK. The grain can be used for liquid transportation fuels while the straw can be burned to produce heat or electricity. Plant biomass can also be degraded from cellulose to glucose through a series of chemical treatments, and the resulting sugar can then be used as a first generation biofuel.
Biomass can be converted to other usable forms of energy like methane gas or transportation fuels like ethanol and biodiesel. Rotting garbage, and agricultural and human waste, all release methane gas – also called landfill gas or biogas. Crops, such as corn and sugarcane, can be fermented to produce the transportation fuel, ethanol. Biodiesel, another transportation fuel, can be produced from left-over food products like vegetable oils and animal fats. Also, biomass to liquids (BTLs) and cellulosic ethanol are still under research. There is a great deal of research involving algal fuel or algae-derived biomass due to the fact that it's a non-food resource and can be produced at rates 5 to 10 times those of other types of land-based agriculture, such as corn and soy. Once harvested, it can be fermented to produce biofuels such as ethanol, butanol, and methane, as well as biodiesel and hydrogen. The biomass used for electricity generation varies by region. Forest by-products, such as wood residues, are common in the United States. Agricultural waste is common in Mauritius (sugar cane residue) and Southeast Asia (rice husks). Animal husbandry residues, such as poultry litter, are common in the United Kingdom.
Biofuels include a wide range of fuels which are derived from biomass. The term covers solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels. Liquid biofuels include bioalcohols, such as bioethanol, and oils, such as biodiesel. Gaseous biofuels include biogas, landfill gas and synthetic gas. Bioethanol is an alcoho] made by fermenting the sugar components of plant materials and it is made mostly from sugar and starch crops. These include maize, sugarcane and, more recently, sweet sorghum. The latter crop is particularly suitable for growing in dryland conditions, and is being investigated by International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics for its potential to provide fuel, along with food and animal feed, in arid parts of Asia and Africa.
With advanced technology being developed, cellulosic biomass, such as trees and grasses, are also used as feedstocks for ethanol production. Ethanol can be used as a fuel for vehicles in its pure form, but it is usually used as a gasoline additive to increase octane and improve vehicle emissions. Bioethanol is widely used in the United States and in Brazil. The energy costs for producing bio-ethanol are almost equal to, the energy yields from bio-ethanol. However, according to the European Environment Agency, biofuels do not address global warming concerns. Biodiesel is made from vegetable oils, animal fats or recycled greases. It can be used as a fuel for vehicles in its pure form, or more commonly as a diesel additive to reduce levels of particulates, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons from diesel-powered vehicles. Biodiesel is produced from oils or fats using transesterification and is the most common biofuel in Europe. Biofuels provided 2.7% of the world's transport fuel in 2010.
Biomass, biogas and biofuels are burned to produce heat/power and in doing so harm the environment. Pollutants such as sulphurous oxides (SOx), nitrous oxides (NOx), and particulate matter (PM) are produced from the combustion of biomass; the World Health Organisation estimates that 7 million premature deaths are caused each year by air pollution. Biomass combustion is a major contributor. The life cycle of the plants is sustainable, the lives of people less so.
A heat pump is a device that provides heat energy from a source of heat to a destination called a "heat sink". Heat pumps are designed to move thermal energy opposite to the direction of spontaneous heat flow by absorbing heat from a cold space and releasing it to a warmer one. A heat pump uses some amount of external power to accomplish the work of transferring energy from the heat source to the heat sink.
While air conditioners and freezers are familiar examples of heat pumps, the term "heat pump" is more general and applies to many HVAC (heating, ventilating, and air conditioning) devices used for space heating or space cooling. When a heat pump is used for heating, it employs the same basic refrigeration-type cycle used by an air conditioner or a refrigerator, but in the opposite direction - releasing heat into the conditioned space rather than the surrounding environment. In this use, heat pumps generally draw heat from the cooler external air or from the ground. In heating mode, heat pumps are three to four times more efficient in their use of electric power than simple electrical resistance heaters.
It has been concluded that heat pumps are the single technology that could reduce the greenhouse gas emissions of households better than every other technology that is available on the market. With a market share of 30% and (potentially) clean electricity, heat pumps could reduce global CO2 emissions by 8% annually. Using ground source heat pumps could reduce around 60% of the primary energy demand and 90% of CO2 emissions in Europe in 2050 and make handling high shares of renewable energy easier. Using surplus renewable energy in heat pumps is regarded as the most effective household means to reduce to reduce global warming and fossil fuel depletion.
Energy storage is a collection of methods used to store electrical energy on an electrical power grid, or off it. Electrical energy is stored during times when production (especially from intermittent power plants such as renewable electricity sources such as wind power, tidal power, solar power) exceeds consumption, and returned to the grid when production falls below consumption.
Growth of renewables
From the end of 2004, worldwide renewable energy capacity grew at rates of 10–60% annually for many technologies. For wind power and many other renewable technologies, growth accelerated in 2009 relative to the previous four years. More wind power capacity was added during 2009 than any other renewable technology. However, grid-connected PV increased the fastest of all renewables technologies, with a 60% annual average growth rate. In 2010, renewable power constituted about a third of the newly built power generation capacities.
According to a 2011 projection by the International Energy Agency, solar power generators may produce most of the world's electricity within 50 years, reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases that harm the environment. Cedric Philibert, senior analyst in the renewable energy division at the IEA said: "Photovoltaic and solar-thermal plants may meet most of the world's demand for electricity by 2060 – and half of all energy needs – with wind, hydropower and biomass plants supplying much of the remaining generation". "Photovoltaic and concentrated solar power together can become the major source of electricity", Philibert said.
Wind power is growing at the rate of 30% annually, with a worldwide installed capacity of 282,482 megawatts (MW) at the end of 2012, and is widely used in Europe, Asia, and the United States. At the end of 2012 the photovoltaic (PV) capacity worldwide was 100,000 MW, and PV power stations are popular in Germany and Italy. Solar thermal energy stations operate in the USA and Spain, and the largest of these is the 354 MW Solar Energy Generating Systems power plant in the Mojave Desert. The world's largest geothermal power installation is The Geysers in California, with a rated capacity of 750 MW. Brazil has one of the largest renewable energy programs in the world, involving production of ethanol fuel from sugar cane, and ethanol now provides 18% of the country's automotive fuel. Ethanol fuel is also widely available in the USA.
|Selected renewable energy global indicators||2008||2009||2010||2011||2012||2013||2014|
|Investment in new renewable capacity (annual) (109 USD)||182||178||237||279||256||232||270|
|Renewables power capacity (existing) (GWe)||1,140||1,230||1,320||1,360||1,470||1,578||1,712|
|Hydropower capacity (existing) (GWe)||885||915||945||970||990||1,018||1,055|
|Wind power capacity (existing) (GWe)||121||159||198||238||283||319||370|
|Solar PV capacity (grid-connected) (GWe)||16||23||40||70||100||138||177|
|Solar hot water capacity (existing) (GWth)||130||160||185||232||255||373||406|
|Ethanol production (annual) (109 litres)||67||76||86||86||83||87||94|
|Biodiesel production (annual) (109 litres)||12||17.8||18.5||21.4||22.5||26||29.7|
|Countries with policy targets
for renewable energy use
|Source: The Renewable Energy Policy Network for the 21st Century (REN21)–Global Status Report|
Renewable energy technologies are getting cheaper, through technological change and through the benefits of mass production and market competition. A 2011 IEA report said: "A portfolio of renewable energy technologies is becoming cost-competitive in an increasingly broad range of circumstances, in some cases providing investment opportunities without the need for specific economic support," and added that "cost reductions in critical technologies, such as wind and solar, are set to continue."
Hydro-electricity and geothermal electricity produced at favourable sites are now the cheapest way to generate electricity. Renewable energy costs continue to drop, and the levelised cost of electricity (LCOE) is declining for wind power, solar photovoltaic (PV), concentrated solar power (CSP) and some biomass technologies. Renewable energy is also the most economic solution for new grid-connected capacity in areas with good resources. As the cost of renewable power falls, the scope of economically viable applications increases. Renewable technologies are now often the most economic solution for new generating capacity. Where "oil-fired generation is the predominant power generation source (e.g. on islands, off-grid and in some countries) a lower-cost renewable solution almost always exists today". A series of studies by the US National Renewable Energy Laboratory modeled the "grid in the Western US under a number of different scenarios where intermittent renewables accounted for 33 percent of the total power." In the models, inefficiencies in cycling the fossil fuel plants to compensate for the variation in solar and wind energy resulted in an additional cost of "between $0.47 and $1.28 to each MegaWatt hour generated"; however, the savings in the cost of the fuels saved "adds up to $7 billion, meaning the added costs are, at most, two percent of the savings."
Only 25% of the worlds estimated hydroelectric potential of 14,000 TWh/year has been developed, with Africa, Asia and Latin America having the greatest potential. The Three Gorges Dam in Hubei, China, has the world's largest instantaneous generating capacity (22,500 MW), with the Itaipu Dam in Brazil/Paraguay in second place (14,000 MW). The Three Gorges Dam is operated jointly with the much smaller Gezhouba Dam (3,115 MW). As of 2012[update], the total generating capacity of this two-dam complex is 25,615 MW. In 2008, this complex generated 98 TWh of electricity (81 TWh from the Three Gorges Dam and 17 TWh from the Gezhouba Dam), which is 3% more power in one year than the 95 TWh generated by Itaipu in 2008.
Wind power development
Wind power is widely used in Europe, China, and the United States. From 2004 to 2014, worldwide installed capacity of wind power has been growing from 47 GW to 369 GW—a more than sevenfold increase within 10 years with 2014 breaking a new record in global installations (51 GW). As of the end of 2014, China, the United States and Germany combined accounted for half of total global capacity. Several other countries have achieved relatively high levels of wind power penetration, such as 21% of stationary electricity production in Denmark, 18% in Portugal, 16% in Spain, and 14% in Ireland in 2010 and have since continued to expand their installed capacity. More than 80 countries around the world are using wind power on a commercial basis.
- As of 2014, offshore wind power amounted to 8,771 megawatt of global installed capacity. Although offshore capacity doubled within three years (from 4,117 MW in 2011), it accounted for only 2.3% of the total wind power capacity. The United Kingdom is the undisputed leader of offshore power with half of the world's installed capacity ahead of Denmark, Germany, Belgium and China.
- As of 2012, the Alta Wind Energy Center (California, 1,020 MW) is the world's largest wind farm. The London Array (630 MW) is the largest offshore wind farm in the world. The United Kingdom is the world's leading generator of offshore wind power, followed by Denmark. There are several large offshore wind farms under construction and these include Anholt (400 MW), BARD (400 MW), Clyde (548 MW), Fântânele-Cogealac (600 MW), Greater Gabbard (500 MW), Lincs (270 MW), London Array (630 MW), Lower Snake River (343 MW), Macarthur (420 MW), Shepherds Flat (845 MW), and the Sheringham Shoal (317 MW).
The United States conducted much early research in photovoltaics and concentrated solar power. The U.S. is among the top countries in the world in electricity generated by the Sun and several of the world's largest utility-scale installations are located in the desert Southwest.
The oldest solar thermal power plant in the world is the 354 megawatt (MW) SEGS thermal power plant, in California. The Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System is a solar thermal power project in the California Mojave Desert, 40 miles (64 km) southwest of Las Vegas, with a gross capacity of 377 MW. The 280 MW Solana Generating Station is a solar power plant near Gila Bend, Arizona, about 70 miles (110 km) southwest of Phoenix, completed in 2013. When commissioned it was the largest parabolic trough plant in the world and the first U.S. solar plant with molten salt thermal energy storage.
The solar thermal power industry is growing rapidly with 1.3 GW under construction in 2012 and more planned. Spain is the epicenter of solar thermal power development with 873 MW under construction, and a further 271 MW under development. In the United States, 5,600 MW of solar thermal power projects have been announced. Several power plants have been constructed in the Mojave Desert, Southwestern United States. The Ivanpah Solar Power Facility being the most recent. In developing countries, three World Bank projects for integrated solar thermal/combined-cycle gas-turbine power plants in Egypt, Mexico, and Morocco have been approved.
Photovoltaics (PV) uses solar cells assembled into solar panels to convert sunlight into electricity. It's a fast-growing technology doubling its worldwide installed capacity every couple of years. PV systems range from small, residential and commercial rooftop or building integrated installations, to large utility-scale photovoltaic power station. The predominant PV technology is crystalline silicon, while thin-film solar cell technology accounts for about 10 percent of global photovoltaic deployment. In recent years, PV technology has improved its electricity generating efficiency, reduced the installation cost per watt as well as its energy payback time, and has reached grid parity in at least 30 different markets by 2014. Financial institutions are predicting a second solar "gold rush" in the near future.
At the end of 2014, worldwide PV capacity reached at least 177,000 megawatts. Photovoltaics grew fastest in China, followed by Japan and the United States, while Germany remains the world's largest overall producer of photovoltaic power, contributing about 7.0 percent to the overall electricity generation. Italy meets 7.9 percent of its electricity demands with photovoltaic power—the highest share worldwide. For 2015, global cumulative capacity is forecasted to increase by more than 50 gigawatts (GW). By 2018, worldwide capacity is projected to reach as much as 430 gigawatts. This corresponds to a tripling within five years. Solar power is forecasted to become the world's largest source of electricity by 2050, with solar photovoltaics and concentrated solar power contributing 16% and 11%, respectively. This requires an increase of installed PV capacity to 4,600 GW, of which more than half is expected to be deployed in China and India.
Photovoltaic power stations
Commercial concentrated solar power plants were first developed in the 1980s. As the cost of solar electricity has fallen, the number of grid-connected solar PV systems has grown into the millions and utility-scale solar power stations with hundreds of megawatts are being built. Solar PV is rapidly becoming an inexpensive, low-carbon technology to harness renewable energy from the Sun.
Many of these plants are integrated with agriculture and some use tracking systems that follow the sun's daily path across the sky to generate more electricity than fixed-mounted systems. There are no fuel costs or emissions during operation of the power stations.
However, when it comes to renewable energy systems and PV, it is not just large systems that matter. Building-integrated photovoltaics or "onsite" PV systems use existing land and structures and generate power close to where it is consumed.
Carbon-neutral and negative fuels
Carbon-neutral fuels are synthetic fuels (including methane, gasoline, diesel fuel, jet fuel or ammonia) produced by hydrogenating waste carbon dioxide recycled from power plant flue-gas emissions, recovered from automotive exhaust gas, or derived from carbonic acid in seawater. Such fuels are considered carbon-neutral because they do not result in a net increase in atmospheric greenhouse gases. To the extent that synthetic fuels displace fossil fuels, or if they are produced from waste carbon or seawater carbonic acid, and their combustion is subject to carbon capture at the flue or exhaust pipe, they result in negative carbon dioxide emission and net carbon dioxide removal from the atmosphere, and thus constitute a form of greenhouse gas remediation.
Such renewable fuels alleviate the costs and dependency issues of imported fossil fuels without requiring either electrification of the vehicle fleet or conversion to hydrogen or other fuels, enabling continued compatible and affordable vehicles. Carbon-neutral fuels offer relatively low cost energy storage, alleviating the problems of wind and solar intermittency, and they enable distribution of wind, water, and solar power through existing natural gas pipelines. Nighttime wind power is considered the most economical form of electrical power with which to synthesize fuel, because the load curve for electricity peaks sharply during the warmest hours of the day, but wind tends to blow slightly more at night than during the day, so, the price of nighttime wind power is often much less expensive than any alternative. Germany has built a 250 kilowatt synthetic methane plant which they are scaling up to 10 megawatts.
The George Olah carbon dioxide recycling plant in Grindavík, Iceland has been producing 2 million liters of methanol transportation fuel per year from flue exhaust of the Svartsengi Power Station since 2011. It has the capacity to produce 5 million liters per year.
Biofuels provided 3% of the world's transport fuel in 2010. Mandates for blending biofuels exist in 31 countries at the national level and in 29 states/provinces. According to the International Energy Agency, biofuels have the potential to meet more than a quarter of world demand for transportation fuels by 2050.
Since the 1970s, Brazil has had an ethanol fuel program which has allowed the country to become the world's second largest producer of ethanol (after the United States) and the world's largest exporter. Brazil's ethanol fuel program uses modern equipment and cheap sugarcane as feedstock, and the residual cane-waste (bagasse) is used to produce heat and power. There are no longer light vehicles in Brazil running on pure gasoline. By the end of 2008 there were 35,000 filling stations throughout Brazil with at least one ethanol pump.
Nearly all the gasoline sold in the United States today is mixed with 10% ethanol, a mix known as E10, and motor vehicle manufacturers already produce vehicles designed to run on much higher ethanol blends. Ford, Daimler AG, and GM are among the automobile companies that sell "flexible-fuel" cars, trucks, and minivans that can use gasoline and ethanol blends ranging from pure gasoline up to 85% ethanol (E85). By mid-2006, there were approximately 6 million E85-compatible vehicles on U.S. roads. The challenge is to expand the market for biofuels beyond the farm states where they have been most popular to date. Flex-fuel vehicles are assisting in this transition because they allow drivers to choose different fuels based on price and availability. The Energy Policy Act of 2005, which calls for 7.5 billion US gallons (28,000,000 m3) of biofuels to be used annually by 2012, will also help to expand the market.
Geothermal power is cost effective, reliable, sustainable, and environmentally friendly, but has historically been limited to areas near tectonic plate boundaries. Recent technological advances have expanded the range and size of viable resources, especially for applications such as home heating, opening a potential for widespread exploitation. Geothermal wells release greenhouse gases trapped deep within the earth, but these emissions are much lower per energy unit than those of fossil fuels. As a result, geothermal power has the potential to help mitigate global warming if widely deployed in place of fossil fuels.
The International Geothermal Association (IGA) has reported that 10,715 MW of geothermal power in 24 countries is online, which is expected to generate 67,246 GWh of electricity in 2010. This represents a 20% increase in geothermal power online capacity since 2005. IGA projects this will grow to 18,500 MW by 2015, due to the large number of projects presently under consideration, often in areas previously assumed to have little exploitable resource.
In 2010, the United States led the world in geothermal electricity production with 3,086 MW of installed capacity from 77 power plants; the largest group of geothermal power plants in the world is located at The Geysers, a geothermal field in California. The Philippines follows the US as the second highest producer of geothermal power in the world, with 1,904 MW of capacity online; geothermal power makes up approximately 18% of the country's electricity generation.
Renewable energy can be particularly suitable for developing countries. In rural and remote areas, transmission and distribution of energy generated from fossil fuels can be difficult and expensive. Producing renewable energy locally can offer a viable alternative.
Technology advances are opening up a huge new market for solar power: the approximately 1.3 billion people around the world who don't have access to grid electricity. Even though they are typically very poor, these people have to pay far more for lighting than people in rich countries because they use inefficient kerosene lamps. Solar power costs half as much as lighting with kerosene. An estimated 3 million households get power from small solar PV systems. Kenya is the world leader in the number of solar power systems installed per capita. More than 30,000 very small solar panels, each producing 12 to 30 watts, are sold in Kenya annually. Some Small Island Developing States (SIDS) are also turning to solar power to reduce their costs and increase their sustainability.
Micro-hydro configured into mini-grids also provide power. Over 44 million households use biogas made in household-scale digesters for lighting and/or cooking, and more than 166 million households rely on a new generation of more-efficient biomass cookstoves. Clean liquid fuel sourced from renewable feedstocks are used for cooking and lighting in energy-poor areas of the developing world. Alcohol fuels (ethanol and methanol) can be produced sustainably from non-food sugary, starchy, and cellulostic feedstocks. Project Gaia, Inc. and CleanStar Mozambique are implementing clean cooking programs with liquid ethanol stoves in Ethiopia, Kenya, Nigeria and Mozambique.
Renewable energy projects in many developing countries have demonstrated that renewable energy can directly contribute to poverty reduction by providing the energy needed for creating businesses and employment. Renewable energy technologies can also make indirect contributions to alleviating poverty by providing energy for cooking, space heating, and lighting. Renewable energy can also contribute to education, by providing electricity to schools.
Industry and policy trends
U.S. President Barack Obama's American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 includes more than $70 billion in direct spending and tax credits for clean energy and associated transportation programs. Leading renewable energy companies include First Solar, Gamesa, GE Energy, Hanwha Q Cells, Sharp Solar, Siemens, SunOpta, Suntech Power, and Vestas.
The military has also focused on the use of renewable fuels for military vehicles. Unlike fossil fuels, renewable fuels can be produced in any country, creating a strategic advantage. The US military has already committed itself to have 50% of its energy consumption come from alternative sources.
The International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) is an intergovernmental organization for promoting the adoption of renewable energy worldwide. It aims to provide concrete policy advice and facilitate capacity building and technology transfer. IRENA was formed on 26 January 2009, by 75 countries signing the charter of IRENA. As of March 2010, IRENA has 143 member states who all are considered as founding members, of which 14 have also ratified the statute.
As of 2011, 119 countries have some form of national renewable energy policy target or renewable support policy. National targets now exist in at least 98 countries. There is also a wide range of policies at state/provincial and local levels.
United Nations' Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon has said that renewable energy has the ability to lift the poorest nations to new levels of prosperity. In October 2011, he "announced the creation of a high-level group to drum up support for energy access, energy efficiency and greater use of renewable energy. The group is to be co-chaired by Kandeh Yumkella, the chair of UN Energy and director general of the UN Industrial Development Organisation, and Charles Holliday, chairman of Bank of America".
100% renewable energy
The incentive to use 100% renewable energy, for electricity, transport, or even total primary energy supply globally, has been motivated by global warming and other ecological as well as economic concerns. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has said that there are few fundamental technological limits to integrating a portfolio of renewable energy technologies to meet most of total global energy demand. Renewable energy use has grown much faster than even advocates anticipated. At the national level, at least 30 nations around the world already have renewable energy contributing more than 20% of energy supply. Also, Professors S. Pacala and Robert H. Socolow have developed a series of “stabilization wedges” that can allow us to maintain our quality of life while avoiding catastrophic climate change, and "renewable energy sources," in aggregate, constitute the largest number of their "wedges." 
Using 100% renewable energy was first suggested in a Science paper published in 1975 by Danish physicist Bent Sørensen. It was followed by several other proposals, until in 1998 the first detailed analysis of scenarios with very high shares of renewables were published. These were followed by the first detailed 100% scenarios. In 2006 a PhD thesis was published by Czisch in which it was shown that in a 100% renewable scenario energy supply could match demand in every hour of the year in Europa and North Africa. In the same year Danish Energy professor Henrik Lund published a first paper in which he addresses the optimal combination of renewables, which was followed by several other papers on the transition to 100% renewable energy in Denmark. Since then Lund has been publishing several papers on 100% renewable energy. After 2009 publications began to rise steeply, covering 100% scenarios for countries in Europa, America, Australia and other parts of the world.
In 2011 Mark Z. Jacobson, professor of civil and environmental engineering at Stanford University, and Mark Delucchi published a study on 100% renewable global energy supply in the journal Energy Policy. They found producing all new energy with wind power, solar power, and hydropower by 2030 is feasible and existing energy supply arrangements could be replaced by 2050. Barriers to implementing the renewable energy plan are seen to be "primarily social and political, not technological or economic". They also found that energy costs with a wind, solar, water system should be similar to today's energy costs.
Similarly, in the United States, the independent National Research Council has noted that “sufficient domestic renewable resources exist to allow renewable electricity to play a significant role in future electricity generation and thus help confront issues related to climate change, energy security, and the escalation of energy costs … Renewable energy is an attractive option because renewable resources available in the United States, taken collectively, can supply significantly greater amounts of electricity than the total current or projected domestic demand." .
The most significant barriers to the widespread implementation of large-scale renewable energy and low carbon energy strategies are primarily political and not technological. According to the 2013 Post Carbon Pathways report, which reviewed many international studies, the key roadblocks are: climate change denial, the fossil fuels lobby, political inaction, unsustainable energy consumption, outdated energy infrastructure, and financial constraints.
Other renewable energy technologies are still under development, and include cellulosic ethanol, hot-dry-rock geothermal power, and marine energy. These technologies are not yet widely demonstrated or have limited commercialization. Many are on the horizon and may have potential comparable to other renewable energy technologies, but still depend on attracting sufficient attention and research, development and demonstration (RD&D) funding.
There are numerous organizations within the academic, federal, and commercial sectors conducting large scale advanced research in the field of renewable energy. This research spans several areas of focus across the renewable energy spectrum. Most of the research is targeted at improving efficiency and increasing overall energy yields. Multiple federally supported research organizations have focused on renewable energy in recent years. Two of the most prominent of these labs are Sandia National Laboratories and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), both of which are funded by the United States Department of Energy and supported by various corporate partners. Sandia has a total budget of $2.4 billion while NREL has a budget of $375 million.
- Enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) are a new type of geothermal power technologies that do not require natural convective hydrothermal resources. The vast majority of geothermal energy within drilling reach is in dry and non-porous rock. EGS technologies "enhance" and/or create geothermal resources in this "hot dry rock (HDR)" through hydraulic stimulation. EGS and HDR technologies, like hydrothermal geothermal, are expected to be baseload resources which produce power 24 hours a day like a fossil plant. Distinct from hydrothermal, HDR and EGS may be feasible anywhere in the world, depending on the economic limits of drill depth. Good locations are over deep granite covered by a thick (3–5 km) layer of insulating sediments which slow heat loss. There are HDR and EGS systems currently being developed and tested in France, Australia, Japan, Germany, the U.S. and Switzerland. The largest EGS project in the world is a 25 megawatt demonstration plant currently being developed in the Cooper Basin, Australia. The Cooper Basin has the potential to generate 5,000–10,000 MW.
- Several refineries that can process biomass and turn it into ethano are built by companies such as Iogen, POET, and Abengoa, while other companies such as the Verenium Corporation, Novozymes, and Dyadic International are producing enzymes which could enable future commercialization. The shift from food crop feedstocks to waste residues and native grasses offers significant opportunities for a range of players, from farmers to biotechnology firms, and from project developers to investors.
- Artificial photosynthesis uses techniques including nanotechnology to store solar electromagnetic energy in chemical bonds by splitting water to produce hydrogen and then using carbon dioxide to make methanol. Researchers in this field are striving to design molecular mimics of photosynthesis that utilize a wider region of the solar spectrum, employ catalytic systems made from abundant, inexpensive materials that are robust, readily repaired, non-toxic, stable in a variety of environmental conditions and perform more efficiently allowing a greater proportion of photon energy to end up in the storage compounds, i.e., carbohydrates (rather than building and sustaining living cells). However, prominent research faces hurdles, Sun Catalytix a MIT spin-off stopped scaling up their prototype fuel-cell in 2012, because it offers few savings over other ways to make hydrogen from sunlight.
- Producing liquid fuels from oil-rich varieties of algae is an ongoing research topic. Various microalgae grown in open or closed systems are being tried including some system that can be set up in brownfield and desert lands.
- Concentrated photovoltaics (CPV) systems employ sunlight concentrated onto photovoltaic surfaces for the purpose of electricity generation. Thermoelectric, or "thermovoltaic" devices convert a temperature difference between dissimilar materials into an electric current.
- Marine energy (also sometimes referred to as ocean energy) refers to the energy carried by ocean waves, tides, salinity, and ocean temperature differences. The movement of water in the world's oceans creates a vast store of kinetic energy, or energy in motion. This energy can be harnessed to generate electricity to power homes, transport and industries. The term marine energy encompasses both wave power – power from surface waves, and tidal power – obtained from the kinetic energy of large bodies of moving water. Offshore wind power is not a form of marine energy, as wind power is derived from the wind, even if the wind turbines are placed over water. The oceans have a tremendous amount of energy and are close to many if not most concentrated populations. Ocean energy has the potential of providing a substantial amount of new renewable energy around the world.
|1.||Sihwa Lake Tidal Power Station||South Korea||254 MW|||
|2.||Rance Tidal Power Station||France||240 MW|||
|3.||Annapolis Royal Generating Station||Canada||20 MW|||
Renewable electricity production, from sources such as wind power and solar power, is sometimes criticized for being variable or intermittent, but is not true for concentrated solar, geothermal and biofuels, that have continuity. In any case, the International Energy Agency has stated that deployment of renewable technologies usually increases the diversity of electricity sources and, through local generation, contributes to the flexibility of the system and its resistance to central shocks.
There have been "not in my back yard" (NIMBY) concerns relating to the visual and other impacts of some wind farms, with local residents sometimes fighting or blocking construction. In the USA, the Massachusetts Cape Wind project was delayed for years partly because of aesthetic concerns. However, residents in other areas have been more positive. According to a town councilor, the overwhelming majority of locals believe that the Ardrossan Wind Farm in Scotland has enhanced the area.
A recent UK Government document states that "projects are generally more likely to succeed if they have broad public support and the consent of local communities. This means giving communities both a say and a stake". In countries such as Germany and Denmark many renewable projects are owned by communities, particularly through cooperative structures, and contribute significantly to overall levels of renewable energy deployment.
The market for renewable energy technologies has continued to grow. Climate change concerns and increasing in green jobs, coupled with high oil prices, peak oil, oil wars, oil spills, promotion of electric vehicles and renewable electricity, nuclear disasters and increasing government support, are driving increasing renewable energy legislation, incentives and commercialization. New government spending, regulation and policies helped the industry weather the 2009 economic crisis better than many other sectors.
Sunrise at the Fenton Wind Farm in Minnesota, USA
Stump harvesting to increases recovery of biomass from forests
- Ipsos 2011, p. 3
- Omar Ellabban, Haitham Abu-Rub, Frede Blaabjerg, Renewable energy resources: Current status, future prospects and their enabling technology. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 39, (2014), 748–764, p 749, doi:10.1016/j.rser.2014.07.113.
- REN21 (2010). Renewables 2010 Global Status Report p. 15.
- REN21 (2014). "Renewables 2014: Global Status Report" (PDF). pp. 13, 17, 21, 25. ISBN 978-3-9815934-2-6. Archived from the original on 4 September 2014.
- International Energy Agency (2012). "Energy Technology Perspectives 2012" (PDF).
- "Global Trends in Sustainable Energy Investment 2007: Analysis of Trends and Issues in the Financing of Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency in OECD and Developing Countries" (PDF). unep.org. United Nations Environment Programme. 2007. p. 3. Archived from the original on 13 October 2014. Retrieved 13 October 2014.
- REN21 (2013). "Renewables global futures report 2013" (PDF).
- Brian Vad Mathiesen et al., Smart Energy Systems for coherent 100% renewable energy and transport solutions. In: Applied Energy 145, (2015), 139–154, doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.01.075.
- World Energy Assessment (2001). Renewable energy technologies, p. 221.
- Steve Leone (25 August 2011). "U.N. Secretary-General: Renewables Can End Energy Poverty". Renewable Energy World.
- Nicola Armaroli, Vincenzo Balzani: Towards an electricity-powered world. In: Energy and Environmental Science 4, (2011), 3193-3222, doi:10.1039/c1ee01249e.
- Nicola Armaroli, Vincenzo Balzani: Solar Electricity and Solar Fuels: Status and Perspectives in the Context of the Energy Transition. In: Chemistry – A European Journal 22, (2016), 32-57, doi:10.1002/chem.201503580.
- Volker Quaschning, Regenerative Energiesysteme. Technologie – Berechnung – Simulation. 8th. Edition. Hanser (Munich) 2013, p. 49.
- IEA Renewable Energy Working Party (2002). Renewable Energy... into the mainstream, p. 9.
- Mark Z. Jacobson et al.: 100% clean and renewable wind, water, and sunlight (WWS) all-sector energy roadmaps for the 50 United States. In: Energy and Environmental Science (2015), doi:10.1039/C5EE01283J.
- Schröder, K.-P.; Smith, R.C. (2008). "Distant future of the Sun and Earth revisited". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 386 (1): 155–163. arXiv:0801.4031. Bibcode:2008MNRAS.386..155S. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2008.13022.x. See also Palmer, J. (2008). "Hope dims that Earth will survive Sun's death". New Scientist. Retrieved 24 March 2008.
- Carrington, D. (21 February 2000). "Date set for desert Earth". BBC News. Retrieved 31 March 2007.
- Clean Edge (2009). Clean Energy Trends 2009 pp. 1–4.
- Ben Sills (29 August 2011). "Solar May Produce Most of World's Power by 2060, IEA Says". Bloomberg.
- REN21 (2011). "Renewables 2011: Global Status Report" (PDF). p. 14.
- Historical Data Workbook (2013 calendar year)
- REN21 (2010). Renewables 2010 Global Status Report p. 53.
- , DOE - Geothermal Heat Pumps
- , Net Zero Technologies
- "The transition from fossil fuels to renewable energy - Ten Fast Facts". thecherrycreeknews.com. 27 May 2015.
- K. Kris Hirst. "The Discovery of Fire". About.com. Retrieved 15 January 2013.
- "wind energy". The Encyclopedia of Alternative Energy and Sustainable Living. Retrieved 15 January 2013.
- "The surprising history of sustainable energy". Sustainablehistory.wordpress.com. Retrieved 1 November 2012.
- "Power from Sunshine": A Business History of Solar Energy 25 May 2012
- Hubbert, M. King (June 1956). "Nuclear Energy and the Fossil Fuels" (PDF). Shell Oil Company/American Petroleum Institute. Retrieved 10 November 2014.
- "History of PV Solar". Solarstartechnologies.com. Archived from the original on 7 April 2014. Retrieved 1 November 2012.
- Tweed, Katherine. "In 2040, Fossil Fuels Still Reign". IEEE. Retrieved 15 November 2014.
- "Analysis of Wind Energy in the EU-25" (PDF). European Wind Energy Association. Retrieved 11 March 2007.
- Martin Kaltschmitt, Wolfgang Streicher, Andreas Wiese (eds.): Erneuerbare Energien. Systemtechnik, Wirtschaftlichkeit, Umweltaspekte. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg 2013, p. 819.
- "Offshore stations experience mean wind speeds at 80 m that are 90% greater than over land on average. Evaluation of global wind power
"Overall, the researchers calculated winds at 80 meters [300 feet] above sea level traveled over the ocean at approximately 8.6 meters per second and at nearly 4.5 meters per second over land [20 and 10 miles per hour, respectively]." Global Wind Map Shows Best Wind Farm Locations . Retrieved 30 January 2006.
- Worldwatch Institute (January 2012). "Use and Capacity of Global Hydropower Increases".
- "Solar Energy Perspectives: Executive Summary". International Energy Agency. 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 December 2011.
- "Solar Fuels and Artificial Photosynthesis". Royal Society of Chemistry. 2012. Retrieved 11 March 2013.
- "Energy Sources: Solar". Department of Energy. Retrieved 19 April 2011.
- NREL.gov U.S. Renewable Energy Technical Potentials: A GIS-Based Analysis, July 2013 :iv
- thinkprogress.org National Renewable Energy Laboratory: Solar Has The Most Potential Of Any Renewable Energy Source, 30 July 2013
- Dye, S. T. (2012). Geoneutrinos and the radioactive power of the Earth. Reviews of Geophysics, 50(3).
- Gando, A., Dwyer, D. A., McKeown, R. D., & Zhang, C. (2011). Partial radiogenic heat model for Earth revealed by geoneutrino measurements. Nature Geoscience, 4(9), 647–651.
- Nemzer, J. "Geothermal heating and cooling".
- , DSIRE: Database of State Incentives for Renewables & Efficiency
- Zero-energy building
- , Net Zero Foundation, Net Zero Technologies
- , New York City Council Gives a Thumbs Up to Geothermal Heat Pumps, December 14, 2015
- , U.S. EPA, The Social Cost of Carbon
- , Sci Am, What Is the Right Price for Carbon? Evan Lehmann, Climatewire on April 2, 2010
- Biomass Energy Center. Biomassenergycentre.org.uk. Retrieved on 28 February 2012.
-  Retrieved on 12 April 2012.
- T.A. Volk, L.P. Abrahamson (January 2000). "Developing a Willow Biomass Crop Enterprise for Bioenergy and Bioproducts in the United States". North East Regional Biomass Program. Retrieved 4 June 2015.
- "Energy crops". crops are grown specifically for use as fuel. BIOMASS Energy Centre. Retrieved 6 April 2013.
- Energy Kids. Eia.doe.gov. Retrieved on 28 February 2012.
- "Fuel Ethanol Production: GSP Systems Biology Research". U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science. 19 April 2010. Archived from the original on 27 May 2010. Retrieved 2 August 2010.
- "Breaking the Biological Barriers to Cellulosic Ethanol: A Joint Research Agenda" (PDF). June 2006. Retrieved 2 August 2010.
- Frauke Urban and Tom Mitchell 2011. Climate change, disasters and electricity generation. London: Overseas Development Institute and Institute of Development Studies
- Demirbas, A. . (2009). "Political, economic and environmental impacts of biofuels: A review". Applied Energy 86: S108–S117. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2009.04.036.
- Sweet sorghum for food, feed and fuel New Agriculturalist, January 2008.
- "Opinion of the EEA Scientific Committee on Greenhouse Gas Accounting in Relation to Bioenergy". Retrieved 1 November 2012.
- REN21 (2011). "Renewables 2011: Global Status Report" (PDF). pp. 13–14. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 May 2012.
- "WHO - 7 million premature deaths annually linked to air pollution".
- "WHO - Ambient (outdoor) air quality and health".
- "WHO - Household air pollution and health".
- Air-source heat pumps National Renewable Energy Laboratory June 2011
- Iain Staffell et al., A review of domestic heat pumps. In: Energy and Environmental Science 5, (2012), 9291-9306, doi:10.1039/c2ee22653g.
- Carvalho et al, Ground source heat pump carbon emissions and primary energy reduction potential for heating in buildings in Europe—results of a case study in Portugal. In: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 45, (2015), 755–768, doi:10.1016/j.rser.2015.02.034.
- André Sternberg, André Bardow, Power-to-What? – Environmental assessment of energy storage systems. In: Energy and Environmental Science 8, (2015), 389–400, doi:10.1039/c4ee03051f.
- "REN21, Renewables Global Status Report 2012". Ren21.net. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 August 2014. Retrieved 11 August 2014.
- UNEP, Bloomberg, Frankfurt School, Global Trends in Renewable Energy Investment 2011、Figure 24.
- Jacobson, Mark Z.; Delucchi, M.A. (November 2009). "A Path to Sustainable Energy by 2030" (PDF). Scientific American 301 (5): 58–65. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1109-58. PMID 19873905.
- Jacobson, M. Z.; Delucchi, M. A. (2011). "Providing all global energy with wind, water, and solar power, Part I: Technologies, energy resources, quantities and areas of infrastructure, and materials". Energy Policy 39 (3): 1154. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2010.11.040.
- REN21 (2011). "Renewables 2011: Global Status Report" (PDF). p. 15.
- REN21 (2012). Renewables Global Status Report 2012 p. 17.
- "REN21 2013 Renewables Global Status Report" (PDF). Retrieved 30 January 2014.
- REN21. "Renewables 2014: Global Status Report" (PDF). Archived from the original on 4 September 2014. Retrieved 20 January 2015.
- E. Lantz, M. Hand, and R. Wiser ( 13–17 May 2012) "The Past and Future Cost of Wind Energy," National Renewable Energy Laboratory conference paper no. 6A20-54526, page 4
- "Solar Photovoltaics Competing in the Energy Sector—On the road to competitiveness" (PDF). European Photovoltaic Industry Association. September 2011. p. 18. Retrieved March 2015.
- Henning Gloystein (23 November 2011). "Renewable energy becoming cost competitive, IEA says". Reuters.
- International Renewable Energy Agency (2012). "Renewable Power Generation Costs in 2012: An Overview" (PDF).
- Timmer, John (25 September 2013). "Cost of renewable energy's variability is dwarfed by the savings: Wear and tear on equipment costs millions, but fuel savings are worth billions.". Ars Technica. Condé Nast. Retrieved 26 September 2013.
- "How much hydro power could be built at undeveloped sites?".
- "GWEC Global Wind Statistics 2014" (PDF). GWEC. 10 February 2015.
- "World Wind Energy Report 2010" (PDF). Report. World Wind Energy Association. February 2011. Retrieved 30 April 2011.
- "Renewables". eirgrid.com. Retrieved 22 November 2010.
- Terra-Gen Closes on Financing for Phases VII and IX, Business Wire, 17 April 2012
- Patrick Barkham (8 January 2009). "Blown away". London: Guardian. Retrieved 21 November 2011.
- "Segs Iii, Iv, V, Vi, Vii, Viii & Ix". Fplenergy.com. Retrieved 31 January 2012.
- "Brightsource Ivanpah". ivanpahsolar.com. Retrieved 16 May 2014.
- Mearian, Lucas. U.S. flips switch on massive solar power array that also stores electricity: The array is first large U.S. solar plant with a thermal energy storage system, 10 October 2013. Retrieved 18 October 2013.
- "Global Concentrating Solar Power" (PDF). International Renewable Energy Agency. June 2012. Retrieved 8 September 2012.
- "Solar Thermal Projects Under Review or Announced". Energy.ca.gov. Retrieved 21 November 2011.
- REN21 (2008). Renewables 2007 Global Status Report (PDF) p. 12.
- "Crossing the Chasm" (PDF). Deutsche Bank Markets Research. 27 February 2015. Archived from the original on 1 April 2015.
- "2014 Outlook: Let the Second Gold Rush Begin" (PDF). Deutsche Bank Markets Research. 6 January 2014. Archived from the original on 22 November 2014. Retrieved 22 November 2014.
- GreenTechMedia.com, RenewEconomy, Giles Parkinson Deutsche Bank Predicts Second Solar 'Gold Rush', 9 January 2014
- Giles Parkinson (13 August 2014). "Citigroup: Outlook for global solar is getting brighter". RenewEconomy. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- "Snapshot of Global PV 1992-2014" (PDF). iea-pvps.org. International Energy Agency — Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme. 30 March 2015. Archived from the original on 30 March 2015.
- "Global Market Outlook for Photovoltaics 2014-2018" (PDF). epia.org. EPIA – European Photovoltaic Industry Association. Archived from the original on 12 June 2014. Retrieved 12 June 2014.
- iea.org (2014). "Technology Roadmap: Solar Photovoltaic Energy" (PDF). IEA. Archived from the original on 7 October 2014. Retrieved 7 October 2014.
- Denis Lenardic. Large-scale photovoltaic power plants ranking 1 - 50 PVresources.com, 2010.
- "Solar Integrated in New Jersey". Jcwinnie.biz. Retrieved 20 August 2013.
- Leighty and Holbrook (2012) "Running the World on Renewables: Alternatives for Transmission and Low-cost Firming Storage of Stranded Renewables as Hydrogen and Ammonia Fuels via Underground Pipelines" Proceedings of the ASME 2012 International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition 9–15 November 2012, Houston, Texas
- Graves, Christopher; Ebbesen, Sune D.; Mogensen, Mogens; Lackner, Klaus S. (2011). "Sustainable hydrocarbon fuels by recycling CO2 and H2O with renewable or nuclear energy". Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 15 (1): 1–23. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2010.07.014. (Review.)
- Lackner, Klaus S.; et al. (2012). "The urgency of the development of CO2 capture from ambient air". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 109 (33): 13156–62. Bibcode:2012PNAS..10913156L. doi:10.1073/pnas.1108765109. PMID 22843674. Retrieved 7 September 2012.
- Eisaman, Matthew D.; et al. (2012). "CO2 extraction from seawater using bipolar membrane electrodialysis" (PDF). Energy and Environmental Science 5 (6): 7346–52. doi:10.1039/C2EE03393C. Retrieved 6 July 2013.
- Goeppert, Alain; Czaun, Miklos; Prakash, G.K. Surya; Olah, George A. (2012). "Air as the renewable carbon source of the future: an overview of CO2 capture from the atmosphere". Energy and Environmental Science 5 (7): 7833–53. doi:10.1039/C2EE21586A. Retrieved 7 September 2012. (Review.)
- Pearson, R.J.; Eisaman, M.D.; et al. (2012). "Energy Storage via Carbon-Neutral Fuels Made From CO2, Water, and Renewable Energy" (PDF). Proceedings of the IEEE 100 (2): 440–60. doi:10.1109/JPROC.2011.2168369. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 May 2013. Retrieved 7 September 2012. (Review.)
- Center for Solar Energy and Hydrogen Research Baden-Württemberg (2011). "Verbundprojekt 'Power-to-Gas'" (in German). zsw-bw.de. Retrieved 9 September 2012.
- Center for Solar Energy and Hydrogen Research (24 July 2012). "Bundesumweltminister Altmaier und Ministerpräsident Kretschmann zeigen sich beeindruckt von Power-to-Gas-Anlage des ZSW" (in German). zsw-bw.de. Retrieved 9 September 2012.
- Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft (5 May 2010). "Storing green electricity as natural gas". fraunhofer.de. Retrieved 9 September 2012.
- "George Olah CO2 to Renewable Methanol Plant, Reykjanes, Iceland" (Chemicals-Technology.com)
- "First Commercial Plant" (Carbon Recycling International)
- "IEA says biofuels can displace 27% of transportation fuels by 2050 Washington". Platts. 20 April 2011.
- "Industry Statistics: Annual World Ethanol Production by Country". Renewable Fuels Association. Archived from the original on 8 April 2008. Retrieved 2 May 2008.
- Macedo Isaias, M. Lima Verde Leal and J. Azevedo Ramos da Silva (2004). "Assessment of greenhouse gas emissions in the production and use of fuel ethanol in Brazil" (PDF). Secretariat of the Environment, Government of the State of São Paulo. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 May 2008. Retrieved 9 May 2008.
- Daniel Budny and Paulo Sotero, editor (April 2007). "Brazil Institute Special Report: The Global Dynamics of Biofuels" (PDF). Brazil Institute of the Woodrow Wilson Center. Retrieved 3 May 2008.
- Erica Gies. As Ethanol Booms, Critics Warn of Environmental Effect The New York Times, 24 June 2010.
- "American Energy: The Renewable Path to Energy Security" (PDF). Worldwatch Institute. September 2006. Retrieved 11 March 2007.
- William E. Glassley. Geothermal Energy: Renewable Energy and the Environment CRC Press, 2010.
- Geothermal Energy Association. Geothermal Energy: International Market Update May 2010, p. 4-6.
- Geothermal Energy Association. Geothermal Energy: International Market Update - May 2010, p. 7
- Khan, M. Ali (2007). "The Geysers Geothermal Field, an Injection Success Story" (PDF). Annual Forum of the Groundwater Protection Council. Retrieved 25 January 2010.[dead link]
- Power for the People p. 3. Archived 15 March 2015 at the Wayback Machine
- Kevin Bullis (27 January 2012). "In the Developing World, Solar Is Cheaper than Fossil Fuels". Technology Review.
- REN21 (2010). Renewables 2010 Global Status Report p. 12. Archived 13 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- Fry, Carolyn. 28 June 2012. Anguilla moves towards cleaner energy
- "Ethiopia". Projectgaia.com. Retrieved 1 November 2012.
- Energy for Development: The Potential Role of Renewable Energy in Meeting the Millennium Development Goals pp. 7-9.
- "Bloomberg New Energy Finance, UNEP SEFI, Frankfurt School, Global Trends in Renewable Energy Investment 2011". Unep.org. Retrieved 21 November 2011.
- REN21 (2008). Renewables 2007 Global Status Report (PDF) p. 18.
- Hooper, Craig (2011). "Air Force cedes the Green lead–and the lede–to Navy". nextnavy.com. Retrieved 27 December 2011.
- Signatory States Archived 26 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine
- Signatories of IRENA's statute Archived 24 January 2011 at the Wayback Machine
- Mark Tran (2 November 2011). "UN calls for universal access to renewable energy". The Guardian (London).
- Paul Gipe (4 April 2013). "100 Percent Renewable Vision Building". Renewable Energy World.
- S. Pacala and R. Socolow (2004). "Stabilization Wedges: Solving the Climate Problem for the Next 50 Years with Current Technologies" (PDF). Science Vol. 305. pp. 968–972.
- Bent Sørensen: A plan is outlined according to which solar and wind energy would supply Denmark's needs by the year 2050. In: Science 189, Number 4199, (1975), 255-260, doi:10.1126/science.189.4199.255.
- Henrik Lund: Large-scale integration of optimal combinations of PV, wind and wave power into the electricity supply. In: Renewable Energy 31, Issue 4, (2006), 503–515, doi:10.1016/j.renene.2005.04.008.
- Olav Hohmeyer, Sönke Bohm, Trends toward 100% renewable electricity supply in Germany and Europe: a paradigm shift in energy policies. In: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Energy and Environment 4, (2015), 74–97, doi:10.1002/wene.128.
- Mark A. Delucchi and Mark Z. Jacobson (2011). "Providing all global energy with wind, water, and solar power, Part II: Reliability, system and transmission costs, and policies" (PDF). Energy Policy. Elsevier Ltd. pp. 1170–1190.
- National Research Council (2010). "Electricity from Renewable Resources: Status, Prospects, and Impediments". National Academies of Science. p. 4.
- John Wiseman; et al. (April 2013). "Post Carbon Pathways" (PDF). University of Melbourne.
- International Energy Agency (2007). Renewables in global energy supply: An IEA facts sheet[dead link] (PDF), OECD, p. 3.
- S.C.E. Jupe, A. Michiorri, P.C. Taylor (2007). "Increasing the energy yield of generation from new and renewable energy sources". Renewable energy 14 (2): 37–62.
- "Defense-scale supercomputing comes to renewable energy research". Sandia National Laboratories. Retrieved 16 April 2012.
- "Sandia National Laboratories" (PDF). Sandia National Laboratories. Retrieved 16 April 2012.
- *Chakrabarty, Gargi, 16 April 2009. "Stimulus leaves NREL in cold" Denver Post"
- Duchane, Dave; Brown, Don (December 2002). "Hot Dry Rock (HDR) Geothermal Energy Research and Development at Fenton Hill, New Mexico" (PDF). Geo-Heat Centre Quarterly Bulletin 23 (4) (Klamath Falls, Oregon: Oregon Institute of Technology). pp. 13–19. ISSN 0276-1084. Retrieved 5 May 2009.
- Australia's Renewable Energy Future inc Cooper Basin & geothermal map of Australia Retrieved 15 August 2015
- "Dyadic International - Bioenergy , Biopharmaceutical Enzymes".
- Pernick, Ron and Wilder, Clint (2007). The Clean Tech Revolution p. 96.
- Collings AF and Critchley C (eds). Artificial Photosynthesis – From Basic Biology to Industrial Application (Wiley-VCH Weinheim 2005) p ix.
- "Energy and environment policy case for a global project on artificial photosynthesis". Energy & Environmental Science (RSC Publishing) 6: 695. doi:10.1039/C3EE00063J. Retrieved 19 August 2013.
- jobs. "'Artificial leaf' faces economic hurdle: Nature News & Comment". Nature.com. Retrieved 7 November 2012.
- Carbon Trust, Future Marine Energy. Results of the Marine Energy Challenge: Cost competitiveness and growth of wave and tidal stream energy, January 2006
- "Sihwa Tidal Power Plant". Renewable Energy News and Articles.
- Tidal power (PDF), retrieved 20 March 2010
- International Energy Agency (2007). Contribution of Renewables to Energy Security IEA Information Paper, p. 5. Archived 11 January 2015 at the Wayback Machine
- "Whatever Happened to Wind Energy?". LiveScience. 14 January 2008. Retrieved 17 January 2012.
- Simon Gourlay (12 August 2008). "Wind farms are not only beautiful, they're absolutely necessary". The Guardian (UK). Retrieved 17 January 2012.
- Department of Energy & Climate Change (2011). UK Renewable Energy Roadmap (PDF) p. 35.
- DTI, Co-operative Energy: Lessons from Denmark and Sweden, Report of a DTI Global Watch Mission, October 2004
- Morris C & Pehnt M, German Energy Transition: Arguments for a Renewable Energy Future, Heinrich Böll Foundation, November 2012
- Spellman, Frank R. (2013). Safe Work Practices for Green Energy Jobs (first ed.). DEStech Publications. p. 323. ISBN 978-1-60595-075-4. Retrieved 29 December 2014.
- Aitken, Donald W. (2010). Transitioning to a Renewable Energy Future, International Solar Energy Society, January, 54 pages.
- Nicola Armaroli, Vincenzo Balzani: Energy for a Sustainable World – From the Oil Age to a Sun-Powered Future, Wiley-VCH 2011, ISBN 978-3-527-32540-5.
- HM Treasury (2006). Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change, 575 pages.
- International Council for Science (c2006). Discussion Paper by the Scientific and Technological Community for the 14th session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, 17 pages.
- International Energy Agency (2006). World Energy Outlook 2006: Summary and Conclusions, OECD, 11 pages.
- International Energy Agency (2007). Renewables in global energy supply: An IEA facts sheet, OECD, 34 pages.
- International Energy Agency (2008). Deploying Renewables: Principles for Effective Policies, OECD, 8 pages.
- International Energy Agency (2011). Deploying Renewables 2011: Best and Future Policy Practice, OECD.
- International Energy Agency (2011). Solar Energy Perspectives, OECD.
- Martin Kaltschmitt, Wolfgang Streicher, Andreas Wiese (ed): Renewable energy. Technology, economics and environment, Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg 2007, ISBN 978-3-540-70947-3.
- Lovins, Amory (2011). Reinventing Fire: Bold Business Solutions for the New Energy Era, Chelsea Green Publishing, 334 pages.
- Makower, Joel, and Ron Pernick and Clint Wilder (2009). Clean Energy Trends 2009, Clean Edge.
- National Renewable Energy Laboratory (2006). Non-technical Barriers to Solar Energy Use: Review of Recent Literature, Technical Report, NREL/TP-520-40116, September, 30 pages.
- Volker Quaschning: Understanding Renewable Energy Systems. Earthscan, London 2005, ISBN 1-84407-128-6.
- REN21 (2008). Renewables 2007 Global Status Report, Paris: REN21 Secretariat, 51 pages.
- REN21 (2009). Renewables Global Status Report: 2009 Update, Paris: REN21 Secretariat.
- REN21 (2010). Renewables 2010 Global Status Report, Paris: REN21 Secretariat, 78 pages.
- REN21 (2011). Renewables 2011: Global Status Report, Paris: REN21 Secretariat.
- REN21 (2012). Renewables 2012: Global Status Report, Paris: REN21 Secretariat.
- Renewable Power Generation Costs in 2014 (February 2015), International Renewable Energy Agency. Executive summary (8 pages). More concise summary (3 pages).
- United Nations Environment Programme and New Energy Finance Ltd. (2007). Global Trends in Sustainable Energy Investment 2007: Analysis of Trends and Issues in the Financing of Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency in OECD and Developing Countries, 52 pages.
- Worldwatch Institute and Center for American Progress (2006). American energy: The renewable path to energy security, 40 pages.
|Wikinews has news related to:|
- The dictionary definition of renewable energy at Wiktionary
- Media related to Renewable energy at Wikimedia Commons
- http://tethys.pnnl.gov/ Tethys is an online knowledge management system that provides the marine and hydrokinetic energy (MHK) and offshore wind (OSW) communities with access to information and scientific literature on environmental effects of MHK and OSW developments.