Coal tar

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Coal tar
Clinical data
Trade namesBalnetar, Cutar, others
Other namesliquor carbonis detergens (LCD)
liquor picis carbonis (LPC)[1]
AHFS/Drugs.comMultum Consumer Information
Routes of
administration
Topical
ATC code
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  • US: OTC / Rx-only
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ECHA InfoCard100.029.417 Edit this at Wikidata

Coal tar is a thick dark liquid which is a by-product of the production of coke and coal gas from coal.[2][3] It has both medical and industrial uses.[2][4] Medicinally it is a topical medication applied to skin to treat psoriasis and seborrheic dermatitis (dandruff).[5] It may be used in combination with ultraviolet light therapy.[5] Industrially it is a railway tie preservative and used in the surfacing of roads.[6] Coal Tar was listed as a known human carcinogen in the first Report on Carcinogens from the U.S. Federal Government. [7]

Coal tar was discovered circa 1665 and used for medical purposes as early as the 1800s.[6][8] Circa 1850, the discovery that it could be used as the main ingredient in synthetic dyes engendered an entire industry.[9] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines.[10] Coal tar is available as a generic medication and over the counter.[4]

Side effects include skin irritation, sun sensitivity, allergic reactions, and skin discoloration.[5] It is unclear if use during pregnancy is safe for the baby and use during breastfeeding is not typically recommended.[11] The exact mechanism of action is unknown.[12] It is a complex mixture of phenols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and heterocyclic compounds.[2] It demonstrates antifungal, anti-inflammatory, anti-itch, and antiparasitic properties.[12]

Uses[edit]

Medicine[edit]

Coal tar is used in medicated shampoo, soap and ointment. It demonstrates antifungal, anti-inflammatory, anti-itch, and antiparasitic properties.[12] It may be applied topically as a treatment for dandruff and psoriasis, and to kill and repel head lice.[5] It may be used in combination with ultraviolet light therapy.[5]

Pine tar has historically also been used for this purpose. Though it is frequently cited online as having been banned as a medical product by the FDA due to a "lack of evidence having been submitted for proof of effectiveness", pine tar is included in the Code of Federal Regulations, subchapter D: Drugs for Human Use, as an OTC treatment for "Dandruff/seborrheic dermatitis/psoriasis".[13]

Coal tar may be used in two forms: crude coal tar (Latin: pix carbonis) or a coal tar solution (Latin: liquor picis carbonis, LPC) also known as liquor carbonis detergens (LCD).[12][14][15] Named brands include Denorex, Balnetar, Psoriasin, Tegrin, T/Gel, and Neutar. When used in the extemporaneous preparation of topical medications, it is supplied in the form of coal tar topical solution USP, which consists of a 20% w/v solution of coal tar in alcohol, with an additional 5% w/v of polysorbate 80 USP; this must then be diluted in an ointment base such as petrolatum.

Construction[edit]

Coal tar was a component of the first sealed roads. In its original development by Edgar Purnell Hooley, tarmac was tar covered with granite chips. Later the filler used was industrial slag. Today, petroleum derived binders and sealers are more commonly used. These sealers are used to extend the life and reduce maintenance cost associated with asphalt pavements, primarily in asphalt road paving, car parks and walkways.[citation needed]

Coal tar is incorporated into some parking-lot sealcoat products used to protect the structural integrity of the underlying pavement.[16] Sealcoat products that are coal-tar based typically contain 20 to 35 percent coal-tar pitch.[16] Research[17] shows it is used throughout the United States of America, however several areas have banned its use in sealcoat products, [18][19][20] including the District of Columbia; the city of Austin, Texas; Dane County, Wisconsin; the state of Washington; and several municipalities in Minnesota and others.[21][22]

Industry[edit]

Being flammable, coal tar is sometimes used for heating or to fire boilers. Like most heavy oils, it must be heated before it will flow easily.[citation needed]

A large part of the binder used in the graphite industry for making "green blocks" is coke oven volatiles (COV), a considerable portion of which is coal tar. During the baking process of the green blocks as a part of commercial graphite production, most of the coal tar binders are vaporised and are generally burned in an incinerator to prevent release into the atmosphere, as COV and coal tar can be injurious to health.[citation needed]

Coal tar is also used to manufacture paints, synthetic dyes (notably tartrazine/Yellow #5), and photographic materials.[23]

In the coal gas era, there were many companies in Britain whose business was to distill coal tar to separate the higher-value fractions, such as naphtha, creosote and pitch. Many industrial chemicals were first isolated from coal tar during this time. These companies included:[24][25]

Safety[edit]

Side effects of coal tar products include skin irritation, sun sensitivity, allergic reactions, and skin discoloration.[5] It is unclear if use during pregnancy is safe for the baby and use during breastfeeding is not typically recommended.[26]

According to the National Psoriasis Foundation, coal tar is a valuable, safe and inexpensive treatment option for millions of people with psoriasis and other scalp or skin conditions.[27] According to the FDA, coal tar concentrations between 0.5% and 5% are considered safe[28] and effective for psoriasis.

Cancer[edit]

Long-term, consistent exposure to coal tar likely increases the risk of non-melanoma skin cancers.[29] Evidence is inconclusive whether medical coal tar, which does not remain on the skin for the long periods seen in occupational exposure, causes cancer, because there is insufficient data to make a judgment.[30] While coal tar consistently causes cancer in cohorts of workers with chronic occupational exposure, animal models, and mechanistic studies,[31] the data on short-term use as medicine in humans has so far failed to show any consistently significant increase in rates of cancer.[30]

Coal tar contains many polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and it is believed that their metabolites bind to DNA, damaging it.[32] The PAHs found in coal tar and air pollution induce immunosenescence and cytotoxicity in epidermal cells.[33][34] It's possible that the skin can repair itself from this damage after short-term exposure to PAHs but not after long-term exposure.[30] Long-term skin exposure to these compounds can produce "tar warts", which can progress to squamous cell carcinoma.[35]

Coal tar was one of the first chemical substances proven to cause cancer from occupational exposure, during research in 1775 on the cause of chimney sweeps' carcinoma.[35] Modern studies have shown that working with coal tar pitch, such as during the paving of roads or when working on roofs, increases the risk of cancer.[31]

The International Agency for Research on Cancer lists coal tars as Group 1 carcinogens, meaning they directly cause cancer.[31][36][37] Both the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and the state of California list coal tars as known human carcinogens.[38]

In response to public health concerns regarding the carcinogenicity of PAHs some municipalities, such as the city of Milwaukee, have banned the use of common coal tar-based road and driveway sealants citing concerns of elevated PAH content in groundwater.[39]

Other[edit]

Coal tar causes increased sensitivity to sunlight,[40] so skin treated with topical coal tar preparations should be protected from sunlight.

The residue from the distillation of high-temperature coal tar, primarily a complex mixture of three or more membered condensed ring aromatic hydrocarbons, was listed on 28 October 2008 as a substance of very high concern by the European Chemicals Agency.[citation needed]

Mechanism of action[edit]

The exact mechanism of action is unknown.[12] Coal tar is a complex mixture of phenols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and heterocyclic compounds.[2]

It is a keratolytic agent, which reduces the growth rate of skin cells and softens the skin's keratin.[41][35]

Composition[edit]

Coal tar is produced through thermal destruction (pyrolysis) of coal. Its composition varies with the process and type of coal used – lignite, bituminous or anthracite.[35]

Coal tar contains approximately 10,000 chemicals, of which only about 50% have been identified.[42][better source needed] Components include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (4-rings: chrysene, fluoranthene, pyrene, triphenylene, naphthacene, benzanthracene, 5-rings: picene, benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[e]pyrene, benzofluoranthenes, perylene, 6-rings: dibenzopyrenes, dibenzofluoranthenes, benzoperylenes, 7-rings: coronene), as well as methylated and polymethylated derivatives, mono- and polyhydroxylated derivatives, and heterocyclic compounds.[31][43] Others include benzene, toluene, xylenes, cumenes, coumarone, indene, benzofuran, naphthalene and methyl-naphthalenes, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenol, cresols, pyridine, picolines, phenanthracene, carbazole, quinolines, fluoranthene.[35] Many of these constituents are known carcinogens.[44][32]

Derivatives[edit]

Various phenolic coal tar derivatives have analgesic (pain-killer) properties. These included acetanilide, phenacetin, and paracetamol aka acetaminophen.[45] Paracetamol may be the only coal-tar derived analgesic still in use today.[46] Industrial phenol is now usually synthesized from crude oil rather than coal tar.[47]

Coal tar derivatives are contra-indicated for people with the inherited red cell blood disorder glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD deficiency), as they can cause oxidative stress leading to red blood cell breakdown.[48]

Society and culture[edit]

Coal tar is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system.[10] Coal tar is generally available as a generic medication and over the counter.[4]

Regulation[edit]

Exposure to coal tar pitch volatiles can occur in the workplace by breathing, skin contact, or eye contact. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has set the permissible exposure limit) to 0.2 mg/m3 benzene-soluble fraction over an 8-hour workday. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has set a recommended exposure limit (REL) of 0.1 mg/m3 cyclohexane-extractable fraction over an 8-hour workday. At levels of 80 mg/m3, coal tar pitch volatiles are immediately dangerous to life and health.[49]

When used as a medication in the United States, coal tar preparations are considered over-the-counter drug pharmaceuticals and are subject to regulation by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  2. ^ a b c d "Background and Environmental Exposures to Creosote in the United States" (PDF). cdc.gov. September 2002. p. 19. Archived (PDF) from the original on 25 January 2017. Retrieved 13 January 2017.
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  9. ^ "History The Early Years (1863–1881)". Bayer AG. Retrieved 4 February 2021.
  10. ^ a b World Health Organization (2019). World Health Organization model list of essential medicines: 21st list 2019. Geneva: World Health Organization. hdl:10665/325771. WHO/MVP/EMP/IAU/2019.06. License: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
  11. ^ "Coal Tar use while Breastfeeding | Drugs.com". www.drugs.com. Archived from the original on 18 January 2017. Retrieved 13 January 2017.
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  13. ^ "Title 21 – Food and Drugs. CHAPTER I – FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED): SUBCHAPTER D—DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE". United States Government Publishing Office. 1 March 2008. Archived from the original on 2016-03-10. Retrieved 3 March 2016.
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  31. ^ a b c d "Coal-tar pitch" (PDF). IARC. IARC. Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 May 2016. Retrieved 10 June 2017. it was concluded that there is sufficient evidence in humans for the carcinogenicity of occupational exposures during paving and roofing with coal tar pitch. ... Six coal-tar pitches and three extracts of coal-tar pitches all produced skin tumours, including carcinomas, when applied to the skin of mice
  32. ^ a b "COAL TAR - National Library of Medicine HSDB Database". toxnet.nlm.nih.gov. Archived from the original on 2017-05-28. Retrieved 2017-06-10.
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  35. ^ a b c d e Roberts L (2014). "Coal Tar". In Wexler P (ed.). Encyclopedia of Toxicology (Third ed.). Oxford: Academic Press. pp. 993–995. doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-386454-3.00012-9. ISBN 9780123864550. composition of coal tar will be influenced by the process used for pyrolytic distillation as well as by the original composition of the coal ... He then demonstrated excess cancers occurring in laboratory animals when coal tar is applied to the ears and skin ... [therapeutic effect] is thought to involve decreased epidermal proliferation ... Coal tar is classified as a human carcinogen ... Both inhalation and dermal routes of exposure are considered hazardous.
  36. ^ "IARC Monographs- Classifications". monographs.iarc.fr. Archived from the original on 2017-06-10. Retrieved 2017-06-10. CAS No.: 8007-45-2, Agent: Coal tars (see Coal-tar distillation), Volume: 35, Sup 7, Year: 1987, Agent: Coal-tar distillation, Group: 1, Volume: 92, 100F, Year: 2012
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  39. ^ Quirmbach C (7 February 2017). "Milwaukee Common Council Bans Coal Tar Sealants". Wisconsin Public Radio.
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  41. ^ "WHO Model Prescribing Information: Drugs Used in Skin Diseases: Keratoplastic and keratolytic agents: Coal tar". apps.who.int. Archived from the original on 2017-04-20. Retrieved 2017-06-10. keratolytic agent that inhibits excessive proliferation of epidermal cells by reducing DNA synthesis and mitotic activity to normal levels
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  43. ^ Betts WD (1997). "Tar and pitch". Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology (5th ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons. doi:10.1002/0471238961. ISBN 9780471238966.
  44. ^ "EUR-Lex - 32013R1272 - EN - EUR-Lex". eur-lex.europa.eu. Archived from the original on 2015-10-19. Retrieved 2017-06-10. ...are classified as carcinogens of category 1B in accordance with Annex VI to Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008 of the European Parliament
  45. ^ Dronsfield A (1 July 2005). "Pain relief: from coal tar to paracetamol". Education in Chemistry. Vol. 42 no. 4. Royal Society of Chemistry. pp. 102–105. Archived from the original on 13 October 2017. Retrieved 14 June 2018.
  46. ^ Brown, Trevor; Dronsfield, Alan; Ellis, Peter (1 July 2005). "Pain relief: from coal tar to paracetamol". Royal Society of Chemistry.
  47. ^ . doi:10.1002/dta.301. Cite journal requires |journal= (help); Missing or empty |title= (help)
  48. ^ US EPA National Center for Environmental Assessment (15 March 2009). "Hematologic Disorders". hero.epa.gov. Retrieved 21 April 2020.
  49. ^ "CDC – NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards – Coal tar pitch volatiles". www.cdc.gov. Archived from the original on 2015-12-08. Retrieved 2015-11-27.

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