Sako TRG

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Sako TRG
Sako TRG-42.jpg
A Sako TRG-42 sniper rifle
Type Sniper rifle
Place of origin Finland
Service history
In service 2000–present
Used by See Users
Wars Afghanistan War, Iraq War
Production history
Designed 1989 (TRG-21/41)
1999 (TRG-22/42)
Manufacturer Sako
Produced 1989–1999 (TRG-21/41)
1999–present (TRG-22/42)
Variants See Variants
Specifications
Weight 4.7 kg (10.4 lb) empty (TRG-22 black)
4.9 kg (10.8 lb) empty (TRG-22 green/tan/dark earth)
5.2 kg (11.5 lb) empty (TRG-22 fold. stock 510 mm barrel)
5.4 kg (11.9 lb) empty (TRG-22 fold. stock 660 mm barrel)
5.1 kg (11.2 lb) empty (TRG-42 black)
5.3 kg (11.7 lb) empty (TRG-42 green/tan/dark earth)
5.8 kg (12.8 lb) empty (TRG-42 fold. stock 690 mm barrel)
Length 1,000 mm (39.37 in) (TRG-22 510 mm barrel)
1,150 mm (45.28 in) (TRG-22)
1,020 mm (40.16 in) (TRG-42 folded stock 510 mm barrel)
1,200 mm (47.24 in) (TRG-42)
Barrel length 510 mm (20.08 in) (TRG-22 and TRG-42 folded stock)
660 mm (25.98 in) (TRG-22)
690 mm (27.17 in) (TRG-42)

Cartridge TRG-21:
.308 Winchester/7.62×51mm NATO
TRG-22:
.260 Remington, .308 Winchester/7.62×51mm NATO
TRG-41 and TRG-42:
.300 Winchester Magnum, .338 Lapua Magnum
Action Bolt-action
Effective firing range 800 m (875 yd) (TRG-22 .308 Winchester)
1,100 m (1,203 yd) (TRG-42 .300 Winchester Magnum)
1,500 m (1,640 yd) (TRG-42 .338 Lapua Magnum)
Feed system 5 round detachable box magazine (.338 Lapua Magnum)
7 round detachable box magazine (.300 Winchester Magnum)
10 round detachable box magazine (.308 Winchester)
Sights Aperture rear (with flip-up open tritium night/combat sight); day or night optics

The Sako TRG are a series of sniper rifles developed by a Finnish firearm manufacturer, SAKO of Riihimäki. The TRG-21 and TRG-22 are designed to fire standard .308 Winchester[1]/7.62×51mm NATO ammunition, while the TRG-41 and TRG-42 are designed to fire the more powerful .300 Winchester Magnum and .338 Lapua Magnum ammunition and therefore having a standard larger action and barrel. They are available with olive drab green, desert tan/coyote brown, dark earth or black stocks, and are also available with a folding stock.[2]

Sako also offers the TRG M10 Sniper Weapon System. It was designed as a user configurable multi caliber modular system and does not share its receiver and other technical features with the rest of the TRG line.

The sniper rifles are normally fitted with muzzle brakes to reduce recoil, jump and flash. The Sako factory TRG muzzle brakes vent sideways and are detachable. Generally TRGs are outfitted with a Zeiss[3] or Schmidt & Bender PM II[4] telescopic sight with fixed power of magnification or with variable magnification. Variable telescopic sights can be used if the operator wants more flexibility to shoot at varying ranges, or when a wide field of view is required.

History[edit]

Sako TRG-22 chambered in .308 Winchester used for hunting.

In 1989 Sako Ltd. (Riihimäki, Finland) introduced the TRG-21 precision rifle as a sniper rifle model chambered in .308 Winchester cartridge. A more hunting oriented variation of the TRG was later introduced as the TRG-S M995, which uses the same receiver (short action) and bolt (different bolt handle) as the TRG-21 with the exception that the receiver is open at the top rather than possessing a cartridge ejection port on the right side as found with the TRG-21. Subsequently, a second sniper rifle with a 20 mm (0.79 in) longer scaled up magnum action emerged as the TRG-41 in order to take advantage of the .338 Lapua Magnum cartridge. Similarly, a hunting variant of this model, again using the same bolt (different bolt handle) and with the receiver open at the top was introduced as the TRG-S M995 Mag in magnum calibers up to .338 Lapua Magnum.[5]

Even though the TRG-21 obtained its origins from the successful Sako TR-6 target rifle, the 4.7 kg (10 lb 6 oz) TRG-21 was designed as a result of a thorough study of sniper requirements. With the introduction of the TRG bolt-action, Sako moved away from the modified two-lug Mauser bolt-actions, favoured during the past, to an action with a symmetrical three-lug bolt of 19 mm (0.75 in) diameter, displaying a locking surface of 75 mm2 (0.116 in2). The evolution of this design continues to the present and can be found in Sako's hunting rifle offerings, the Sako 75 and the Sako 85.

To make the TRG system more suitable for military use, Sako upgraded and improved the TRG-21/41 design in the late 1990s. Some TRG accessories like the muzzle brake and bipod (that lets the rifle swivel or "hang" near its bore axis offering a more stable shooting position with large and heavy aiming optics mounted) were also improved. This resulted in the TRG-22/42 rifle system.

Around 2011 an American Sako vendor commissioned a special limited production run of TRG-22 sniper rifles chambered in .260 Remington cartridge and started offering them as of May 2011.[6]

Sako TRG-42 chambered in .338 Lapua Magnum used by an Italian soldier.

In 2013 the TRG system was further upgraded and improved based on customer requirements. The upgrades consist of mounting improved recoil pads to reduce felt recoil, a newly constructed bolt release and a new fully adjustable two-stage trigger mechanism that features a new more ergonomic ambidextrous safety lever, and a trigger guard milled from aluminum for more positive magazine attachment. Further the bolt handle and its attachment to the bolt body were ruggedized. These general 2013 upgrades are backwards compatible with older TRG sniper rifles. Exclusive for the .338 Lapua Magnum chambered TRG-42 model a new bolt featuring double plunger ejectors was introduced in 2013 to improve the ejection reliability of dimensionally large and heavy .338 Lapua Magnum rifle cases.[7]

Sako never totally forgot the target rifle origins of the TRG system. The necessary accessories to attach sighting components such as match grade peep sights or target aperture sights and a mirage strap are all available. Equipped with these accessories the TRG can be used for non military or law enforcement tasks such as 300 m UIT standard rifle competition, CISM competition or other kinds of full bore target shooting. The rifle is commonly seen in long-range competition where it has done very well.[8] Besides civilian target shooting the TRG system can and is sometimes used for hunting.

The TRG system’s purposive design features, reliability in adverse conditions and consistent accuracy performance (a capable marksman can expect ≤ 0.5 MOA consistent accuracy with appropriate ammunition) have made it a popular, though expensive, sniper rifle system.[9]

Design details[edit]

The TRG system is almost unique in being a purpose-designed sniper rifle, rather than an accurised version of an existing, general-purpose rifle.[citation needed] The sniper rifles can have a matte or manganese phosphatised finish.

Features[edit]

The heart of the TRG system is a cold-hammer forged receiver and barrel. Both provide maximum strength for minimum weight as well as excellent resistance to wear. The action has a hex style profile on top with a smaller closed ejection port. Actions with an ejection port make it more difficult to reach in with a finger to discreetly eject brass when desired, but it does allow for additional strength in the action. The "resistance free" bolt has three massive lugs and requires a 60-degree bolt rotation and a 98 mm (3.86 in) bolt throw for the short and 118 mm (4.65 in) bolt throw for the long bolt-action; these features should be appreciated by the shooter during multiple firings that require rapid projectile placement on the target. The bolt handle is the appropriate length and sports a large synthetic bulbous knob that provides a firm, positive grip. On top of the receiver a 17 mm (0.67 in) integral dovetail rail with shape connection drillings for one or more recoil lugs provides for fixing mounting components to accommodate different types of optical or electro-optical sights. Folding iron sights can be obtained for secondary or emergency use.[10]

The receiver's large bedding surface is mated to an aluminium alloy-bedding block by three screws for maximum stability. This combination ensures an unusually high degree of stability.[10]

Ammunition feeding[edit]

The detachable box magazine is based upon centre feeding for maximum reliability as well as precise positioning of the cartridge into the chamber.

Barrel[edit]

The free-floating, heavy, chrome moly barrels (chrome moly barrels resist throat erosion better offering a longer accuracy life than stainless steel barrels[11]) for the available cartridge chamberings all have a different length, groove cutting and rifling twist rate optimized for their respective chambering and intended ammunition. The .260 Remington, .308 Winchester, .300 Winchester Magnum and .338 Lapua Magnum chamberings are available with barrels of common length for sniper rifles and relatively short 510 mm (20.08 in) long barrels. On special order TRG sniper rifles can also be supplied with stainless steel barrels.Two types of flash eliminator/muzzle brakes are available as an accessory with one being threaded to accommodate a sound-suppressor.

For the .260 Remington chambering a non-traditional 203 mm (1 in 8 inch) or 31.2 calibers right-hand twist rate optimized to stabilize longer, heavier very-low-drag bullets was selected over the standard 229 mm (1 in 9 inch) or 35.2 calibers twist rate. The TRG-22 can be ordered cambered for the .260 Remington cartridge as of May 2011.[12] The introduction of the .260 Remington (6.5×51mm) chambering does not introduce major technical changes for the TRG system since the .260 Remington is essentially a necked down 6.5 mm (.264 in) variant of the .308 Winchester (7.62×51mm) cartridge, meaning these cartridges can be used in .308 Winchester chambered rifles only requiring different barrels.[13]

For the .308 Winchester chambering the 280 mm (1 in 11 inch) or 36.7 calibers right-hand twist rate with four grooves was selected over the 305 mm (1 in 12 inch) or 40 calibers, traditionally found for the .308 Winchester, as a compromise when switching between supersonic and subsonic cartridges.
The .300 Winchester Magnum chambering also has a non-traditional 280 mm (1 in 11 inch) or 36.7 calibers right-hand twist rate.

For the .338 Lapua Magnum chambering a non-traditional 305 mm (1 in 12 inch) or 36.4 calibers right-hand twist rate was selected to optimize the rifle for firing 16.2 gram (250 grain) .338-caliber very-low-drag bullets. As of 2009 .338 Lapua Magnum barrels can also be supplied with a 254 mm (1 in 10 inch) or 30.3 calibers twist rate optimized to stabilize longer, heavier very-low-drag bullets like the Sierra HPBT MatchKing and Lapua Scenar .338-caliber 19.44 gram (300 grain) bullets. The traditional 254 mm (1 in 10 inch) has since become the standard twist rate for the .338 Lapua Magnum chambering.

Trigger[edit]

The two-stage trigger mechanism displays an adjustable trigger pull weight of 1 to 2.5 kg (2 to 5 lb) and can be adjusted for length, horizontal and vertical pitch. The advantage of these features is to prevent trigger movement in an inappropriate direction that would cause the rifle to move off target. Trigger travel is short with no noticeable over-travel. The trigger mechanism can be removed without additional disassembling of the rifle.[10] The firing pin travel is 6.5 mm (0.26 in). The trigger guard is dimensioned to allow easy access with gloved fingers.

Safety[edit]

The safety lever is located in front of the trigger inside of the trigger guard and can be operated without producing mechanical noise. The two-position safety locks the trigger mechanism, locks the bolt in closed position and blocks the firing pin. The safety is on when it is in its rearmost position. It is off when it is pushed to its most forward position. When the weapon is cocked the firing pin protrudes 1.6 mm (0.06 in) from the rear of the bolt-action, making it possible to feel if the weapon is ready to fire or not in poor visibility.[10]

Stock[edit]

Sako TRG rifle with an optional older model folding stock.

The TRG stock design is besides sniping requirements, designed to conform to both UIT and CISM regulations. Sako offers black, green, desert tan or dark earth coloured stock variants and the green, desert tan or dark earth stock variants are 0.2 kg (0.4 lb) heavier than the black variants. In 2011 Sako also began offering stocks in several styles of digital camouflage. The base of the ergonomic injection-moulded polyurethane forestock is made of aluminium and encompasses the bedding block with the bedding block serving as a point of attachment for a bipod. The polyurethane buttstock with its pistol grip and integrated aluminium skeleton to add strength, is designed for right- and left-handed shooters. The rear of the buttstock possesses a series of spacer and angle plates to regulate the length of pull and curvature adjustments that can be tailored for the individual shooter. The buttplate is adjustable for both height and pitch. Finally, the cheek-piece is adjustable for both height and pitch as well.[10]

Sako TRG-42 with an optional newer model folding stock in a desert tan finish, an MSSR integrated extended rail system, and a 510 mm (20.08 in) barrel.

The stock features two steel sling swivel attachment sockets positioned at the right and left rear sides of the buttstock. Forward sling attachment is achieved by inserting and fixing a metal sling mount into a metal rail which runs under the forestock or forend. This forward sling attachment point can be (re)positioned along the length of the rail for right- or left-handed use and is fixed with a screw. The factory carrying/shooting sling itself features quick mountable and detachable metal swivels. The swivels are mounted by pushing them into an attachment socket and detached by pushing integrated buttons in the swivels and pulling them out of the attachment sockets.[10]

A folding skeleton type buttstock designed for right- and left-handed shooters is also available. The folding stock is 0.5 kg (1.1 lb) heavier than the non-folding green, desert tan or dark earth stock variants and is hinged behind the pistol grip; it folds to the left side and locks into position. When folded, the rifle becomes 250 mm (9.84 in) shorter. The steel parts of the folding stock are manganese phosphatised and the polyurethane parts are coloured olive drab or desert tan. The rear of the buttstock is adjustable for length of pull and height. The cheek-piece and rear support are also adjustable for height. These adjustment options allow shooters of various sizes and shapes to tailor the TRG folding stock to their personal preferences, which is an uncommon feature for folding stocks. The pistol grip body has a steel loop for a hook type military sling swivel. Sako TRG folding stock rifles are supplied with a Picatinny rail for mounting aiming optics.[14]

The folding stock was later redesigned with the most conspicuous change being a bigger "foot" with an external lever/hinge support system monopod instead of the vertical moving small "spike" found on the earlier folding stock.

Accessories[edit]

Sako accessories[15] for the TRG system include auxiliary iron sights for emergency use, a muzzle brake/flash-hider, match sight mounting set, telescopic sight mounting sets,[16] STANAG 2324 (Picatinny rail),[17] accessory ITRS tri-rail for TRG forestock, accessory rail for TRG forestock (bottom), night sight adapter, sound suppressor, muzzle thread protector, various slings and swivels, cleaning kits, soft case, and a heavy-duty transit case. Several versions of TRG-specific bipods were produced that all lock into an attachment point in the aluminium bedding block at the end of the forestock. The latest bipod version is one of a few rifle bipods that lets the rifle swivel or "hang" just above its bore axis offering a more stable shooting position with large and heavy aiming optics mounted. It has a narrower leg angle due to complaints that the previous version interfered with some night vision systems mounted forward of the telescopic sight. Further versions of accessories are the ITRS tri-rail NV attachment point with an optional extended aluminium bedding block. This extended bedding block also can feature an optional STANAG 2324 Picatinny rail in the bottom of the block.

Variants[edit]

Sako TRG M10 Sniper Weapon System.
  • TRG-21: The Sako TRG-21 is designed to chamber the .308 Winchester/7.62×51mm NATO cartridge.
  • TRG-22: The Sako TRG-22 is an upgraded and improved version of the TRG-21 with a new stock design and a maximum cartridge length of 75 mm (2.95 in). An American Sako vendor also commissioned a special limited production run of the TRG-22 chambered in .260 Remington cartridge.
  • TRG-41: The Sako TRG-41 is designed to chamber either the .338 Lapua Magnum or .300 Winchester Magnum.
  • TRG-42: The Sako TRG-42 is an upgraded and improved version of the TRG-41 with a new stock design and a maximum cartridge length of 95 mm (3.74 in).
  • Beretta TRG-42: In October 2008, the Beretta TRG-42 was presented by Sako (importer Beretta USA) at the Association of the United States Army (AUSA) Annual Meeting and Exposition as a possible platform for fulfilling the United States Military .338 mm caliber Precision Sniper Rifle (PSR) solicitations. It is essentially a TRG-42 with a shorter barrel, a folding stock, and an integrated extended rail system.[18][19][20][21][22]
  • TRG M10: In October 2011, Sako unveiled the Sako TRG M10 Sniper Weapon System.[23] The TRG M10 was designed as a user configurable multi caliber modular system and does not share its receiver and other technical features with the Sako TRG line. It can switch between .308 Winchester/7.62×51mm NATO, .300 Winchester Magnum, and .338 Lapua Magnum chamberings by changing the bolts, magazines, forends and barrels, to adapt to various requirements in the field. When it was first introduced, it was marketed for "military and law enforcement only".[24][23][25]
    The TRG M10 was entered as a contender for the Precision Sniper Rifle program by the United States Special Operations Command to replace all current bolt-action sniper rifles in use by U.S. special operations snipers with a single bolt-action rifle chambered for a large caliber magnum chambering. The contract was awarded in 2013 to Remington Arms for their Modular Sniper Rifle beating out the TRG M10.[26]

Users[edit]

Finnish Defence Forces 8.6 TKIV 2000 Sniper Rifle (TRG-42 chambered in .338 Lapua Magnum).
"FinnDot" reticle.
Swiss Army 8.6 mm Sniper Rifle 04 (TRG-42 chambered in .338 Lapua Magnum).

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Sako never mentions the military equivalent of the .308 Winchester - the 7.62 × 51 mm NATO cartridge (that has slightly different chamber specifications and a lower maximum chamber pressure compared to the .308 Winchester) - as a chambering option. For more information about the differences between the .308 Winchester and the 7.62 × 51 mm NATO cartridges read the .308 Winchester Cartridge Guide: .308 Win vs. 7.62x51 - The Straight Scoop by AccurateShooter.com article.
  2. ^ SAKO TRG sharpshooting system specification Archived 2009-01-17 at the Wayback Machine.
  3. ^ Zeiss: Telescopic sights for handheld weapons
  4. ^ Schmidt & Bender PM II
  5. ^ SAKO TRG-S specification Archived 2007-06-11 at the Wayback Machine.
  6. ^ EuroOptic Exclusive: .260 Remington TRG22s at www.accurateshooter.com
  7. ^ SAKO TRG 22/42 UPGRADE Archived 2014-05-12 at the Wayback Machine.
  8. ^ accurateshooter.com: Gun of the Week Collection, Week 69, TRG-22 for Competition - the Dutch Perspective by Jim de Kort
  9. ^ A standard factory TRG-42 .338 Lapua Magnum user from Finland has reported on successfully hitting 45 × 90 cm (17. 7 × 35.4 in) reactive army targets from 1,600 m (1,750 yd), 1,800 m (1,969 yd) and 2,008 m (2,196 yd) before a group of witnesses. The shooting area air density ρ was 1.228 kg/m³. This is slightly denser than International Standard Atmosphere sea level conditions (air density ρ = 1.225 kg/m³). Besides the rifle, ammunition (in this case handloads with GB488 16.2 g (250 gr) Scenar projectiles) and skill of the marksman, the employed sighting components, fire control software calculations and favourable atmospeheric conditions are also important to hit point targets at those ranges. See Amazing Trajectory
  10. ^ a b c d e f Owner's and maintenance manual for the SAKO TRG-22/42 sharpshooting system Archived 2007-08-19 at the Wayback Machine.
  11. ^ The Finnish Army found out during a test/trails program and 7 years of actual service that the barrels of their Sako TRG-42's lasted 4000 to 5000 rounds with Lapua Lock Base B408 factory ammunition before showing impermissible accuracy decay. The Finnish Army consistent accuracy requirement for these rifles is ≤ 1 MOA at 1000 m. If this requirement is not met the TRG-42 gets a new .338 Lapua Magnum barrel. This is normal practice for active high performance precision rifle operators who regard barrels as expendable items. The continuous use of very powerful handloads (which results in higher muzzle velocities) resulted in much quicker throat erosion reducing the TRG-42 barrels accuracy life to 1000 to 2000 rounds.
  12. ^ Sako TRG-22 260 Remington is now available , May 2011
  13. ^ demigodllc.com: The Case for .260 Remington: A Better Cartridge For Practical Long-Range Shooting by Zak Smith
  14. ^ SAKO TRG folding stock specification Archived 2008-12-09 at the Wayback Machine.
  15. ^ TRG accessories Archived 2011-08-28 at the Wayback Machine.
  16. ^ TRG Tactical Scope Mount Technical Specification Archived 2006-12-30 at the Wayback Machine.
  17. ^ TRG Picatinny Rail Technical Specification Archived 2011-10-01 at the Wayback Machine.
  18. ^ New Mission Gear Beretta TRG-42 Sniper
  19. ^ SOCOM PSR Contenders by Tom Beckstrand
  20. ^ US Special Operations Considers A ".338" Sniper Rifle
  21. ^ Precession Sniper Rifle - Solicitation Number: H92222-09-PSR
  22. ^ Precision Sniper Rifle (PSR) - Solicitation Number: H92222-09-PSR2
  23. ^ a b SAKO TRG M10
  24. ^ SAKO Introduces TRG M10 — New Modular Tactical Rifle
  25. ^ SAKO TRG M10 standard weapon configuration chart
  26. ^ Curtis, Rob (7 March 2013). "SOCOM PSR contract awarded to Remington Defense MSR". Gearscout blog. Military Times. Retrieved 9 March 2013. 
  27. ^ a b c Sako TRG-42 The quest for cold-bore accuracy stops here. By Eric R. Poole, Posted: 2010-04 Archived 2011-07-11 at the Wayback Machine.
  28. ^ photograph of a Special Operations Command (Australia) with a TRG M10
  29. ^ "Armenian Army Sniper Rifles". YouTube. Retrieved 26 October 2014. 
  30. ^ "Azerbaijan reacts to French and British arms sales to Armenia". APA. 1 February 2016. 
  31. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1VEykPjHWp8&feature=related
  32. ^ a b c d e f g h i O'Dwyer, Gerard (February 25, 2008). "Finland's Sako Targets Nordic Rifle Sales". Defense News. Retrieved July 31, 2010. 
  33. ^ "RUČNÍ ZBRANĚ AČR (hand weapons)" (PDF) (in Czech). Ministry of Defence & Armed Forces of the Czech Republic. 2007-04-18. p. 62. Retrieved 2010-06-29. 
  34. ^ a b worldrifles.com
  35. ^ Finskyttevåben M/04 (Danish) Archived 2011-06-07 at the Wayback Machine.
  36. ^ Estonia to buy sniper rifles from Finland
  37. ^ Finnish Army webpage on the 8.6 TKIV 2000
  38. ^ Image collection of an 8.6 TKIV 2000/TRG-42 with a FDF Zeiss FinDot telescopic sight[permanent dead link]
  39. ^ Mizoram Police to Get Latest Weapons
  40. ^ Sako TRG-42 - colmoschin.it Archived 2008-05-10 at the Wayback Machine.
  41. ^ "Arma dei Carabinieri" (in Italian). Retrieved 2012-03-07. 
  42. ^ "Georgian Army". Georgian Army. Archived from the original on 2012-03-09. Retrieved 2007-06-25. 
  43. ^ Shea, Dan (Spring 2009). "SOFEX 2008". Small Arms Defense Journal, p. 29.
  44. ^ Special Operations Report - Spotlight Jordan
  45. ^ http://kariuomene.kam.lt/lt/ginkluote_ir_karine_technika/snaiperiniai_sautuvai/snaiperinis_sautuvas_bdquosako_trg_22rdquo.html
  46. ^ "GGK’s Long Guns and an RIV too – edited". malaysiandefence.com. Retrieved 31 January 2015. 
  47. ^ Snajper a sprawa polska (Polish) Archived 2010-02-19 at the Wayback Machine.
  48. ^ Sako TRG (Polish) Archived 2010-06-12 at the Wayback Machine.
  49. ^ http://specijalne-jedinice.com/Oprema/Puske-za-precizno-gadjanje/Puske-Sako-TRG.html
  50. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5gjfrXaJjes
  51. ^ "Web Del Grupo Especial De Operaciones (GEO)" (in Spanish). http://www.policia.es - Official Website of the Spanish National Police Corps. Archived from the original on 2011-05-20. Retrieved 2009-06-26.  External link in |publisher= (help)
  52. ^ Finnish Government
  53. ^ Swiss Army Infantriebrigade 7 - Wettkampf der Scharfschützen (German) Archived 2009-02-24 at the Wayback Machine.
  54. ^ YLE Nyheter 5.12.2007
  55. ^ YLE Uutiset 6.12.2007
  56. ^ Владимир Крашевский. Профессионалы: Украинская «Альфа»: терроризм не пройдет // журнал «Братишка», июнь 2009
  57. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-UBcVIFLzhU&feature=related

External links and sources[edit]