|Parts||Bíletín, Malý Rapotín, Mýto, Oldřichov (Tachov District), Světce, Tachov (Tachov District), Velký Rapotín, Vítkov (Tachov District)|
|- elevation||483 m (1,585 ft)|
|Area||40.85 km2 (15.77 sq mi)|
|Density||309/km2 (800/sq mi)|
|- summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|Postal code||347 01|
|Wikimedia Commons: Tachov|
|Municipality with Extended Competence|
|Parts||Bor, Planá u Mariánských Lázní, Tachov|
|Area||947.92 km2 (365.99 sq mi)|
|Density||37/km2 (96/sq mi)|
|Municipality with Commissioned Local Authority|
|Municipalities||Ctiboř (Tachov District), Částkov (Tachov District), Dlouhý Újezd, Halže, Hošťka, Lesná (Tachov District), Lom u Tachova, Milíře, Obora (Tachov District), Studánka, Tachov, Tisová (Tachov District)|
|Area||293.11 km2 (113.17 sq mi)|
|Density||58/km2 (150/sq mi)|
Tachov (Czech pronunciation: [ˈtaxof]; German: Tachau) is a town in the Pilsen Region of the Czech Republic. It lies on the Mže River, some 55 km (34 mi) to the west from the region capital of Pilsen.
Tachov is also the seat of the Municipality with Extended Competence and the Municipality with Commissioned Local Authority.
- 1 Basic Information
- 2 History
- 3 Cultural relics
- 4 Accommodation
- 5 People
- 6 References
- 7 Resources
- 8 External links
Tachov is a city situated in the west part of the Czech Republic very close to the German border, and it lies in the middle of protected landscape area known as the Czech Forest. There is a one river flowing through the town and the whole region of Tachov, the river Mže. Tachov occupies an area of 4 095 ha and has about 12 640 inhabitants. This interesting town is a part of the Plzeň County, but the City of Tachov is divided into small neighborhoods like Biletín, Malý Rapotín, Mýto, Oldřichov, Světce, Velký Rapotín, and Vítkov. The head of the city is Jiří Struček. He is also at the same time a deputy governor of Pilsen Region. Although the district is mostly agricultural, Tachov has more of engineering industry and machinery. Some of the products that are manufactured here are molds for plastic injection, ski sticks, doors, windows, or many different types of components for car industry. Also, if you are a fan of good beer, in local restaurants and pubs you can have a taste of Chodovar, beer with a long tradition and good reputation, which is produced in a brew - house that lies in the village close to Tachov. The transport is realized by bus or by train. Tachov was built up in the valley surrounded by a variety of landscapes, and so you can find green forests, woods, and hills as well as wide fields with yellow turnip around here. Thanks to its historical and cultural wealth, it is a great touristic place and it offers a lot of activities to do. Though it is just a small town, Tachov has its own unforgettable beauty.
The area was inhabited by humans around 8,000-6,000 BCE. The first written document mentioning Tachov comes from 1115. King Ottokar II of Bohemia (1233–1278) built a new castle with a massive round stone tower there. He also founded a walled town near the castle.
During the Hussite Wars (1419-1434), the city was several times besieged and conquered. In 1427, Prokop the Great defeated the crusaders near Tachov. The Thirty Years War (1618-1648) damaged the city considerably. In 1664, Count Johann Anton Losy became the new proprietor. The Losy family began conversion of the medieval castle to a large baroque château. In 1784, the title passed to the Windisch-Graetz family. The Windisch-Graetzs, in their turn, rebuilt the house in the classical style at great expense.
A post office was opened in Tachov in October 1850.
In 1938, it was occupied by the German army as part of the Sudetenland. Most of the German-speaking population was expelled in 1945 (see the Beneš decrees). The area was only partly repopulated, mostly by Czechs and Slovaks, but also by immigrants from Romania and Ukraine. Later on uranium was mined here, attracting laborers to work in the mines.
After the Velvet Revolution that ended the Communist era in 1989, the uranium mines were closed. Some German companies established factories in the area to make use of the cheap labour. However, the Tachov area is still among the economically least developed Czech regions.
During the 14th century, the city walls were built up around the town. They gradually became a pride of Tachov, especially because of its condition that they are in. In the walls there were three entrances to the town. Thanks to the reconstruction, the walls are very well kept, so even today we can see almost all of the original twenty-four towers, which played an important role during wars and enemy attacks.
The castle with a cylindrical tower was built up during the reign of Přemysl Otakar II. In 1802 the tower was taken down, and the Windischgrätz family built up the Renaissance castle instead. The construction was finished in 1808 and the Windischgrätzs lived here until 1939. During World War II, the castle was used for civil and military purposes, but it was really ruined, so in 1968 there was the possibility of demolition. Eventually, the castle was saved and from 1969 to 1983 it was under reconstruction. It is now used as The School of Art and also the Municipal Office today, so it is still open to the public.
The Church of the Virgin Maria’s Assumption
First it was a Gothic church, but it went through many arrangements during the 14th century. The last reconstruction lasted from 1904–1908 and the church was rebuilt in neogothic style. The inside arrangements come from 1670. It does not have only the classical function of a church. Nowadays there are held many concerts during the year, and it is much – frequented especially during the Christmas time.
The Church of St. Wenceslas
It is the oldest church in Tachov that was found maybe even before the city itself. In 1802 the Windischgrätzs bought it and they made it a family tomb. It is a simple building located in park, which replaced a former churchyard. There are still many tombstones of significant burgesses, who lived in Tachov during the 15th – 18th century. In 1947 the Czechoslovakian Hussite Church took over this place.
The first Franciscans came to Tachov in 1466 and since this year both – the church and the monastery went through many reconstructions. An Italian architect Martino Allio made the first reconstruction in 1686–1694, and the most important one came in years 1745–1750. In 1945 bombs damaged the church and four years later it was closed. Since 1945 it has been used as the County Museum, and it offers information about the history of Tachov and the region surrounding it. The museum is used for many activities and many expositions are held here every year.
The regent Jan Filip Husmann found this baroque mill in 1645. During reconstruction a millwheel was added and at this time it is used by the Cultural Center of the Town and the Tachov’s Children Choir.
The Jewish Churchyard
The churchyard was found in 1615 near the Rapotín Street. The oldest extant gravestones come from the 17th century. Recently arrangements that should prevent another damaging of gravestones are done by the business STAKUS Tachov.
Světce is a complex, which includes three historical buildings. One of them is a monastery built in the 17th century. Josef II cancelled it and so in 1787 the Windischgrätzs bought it and rebuilt it as a castle. The castle, which was finished in 1700 went down, and nowadays we can see only some remain of the walls and a small tower. The last one is a riding hall from the time of romanticism, which was built in 1830. It is the second largest riding hall in Central Europe, right after the Viennese riding hall. Today it is still under a reconstruction and it is not open for the public yet. The only time, when you can visit this place is during the festival, when many concerts are arranged here.
In the closest neighborhood two monumental memorials occur. One of them is called “Mohyla", which commemorates the death of 232 people, who were killed during the death marches, which were performed during the World War II. On the top of the hill Vysoká another memorial commemorates the Hussite Battle, which took a place in 1427, when the Hussites defeated the crusade troops. Very nice walk can be also taken at the “Knížecí" alley, which leads you up to the spa discovered in 1853 and located in the eastern part of the town.
The city offers lodging in three – star hotels, which are Hotel Club, Olympic, and Parkhotel. Each of them has its own parking lot, cycle store, restaurant, and offers massages, pedicures, and so. You can also get a cheaper lodging in one of the six pensions. All other information and services for tourists are provided by the Cultural Center of the Town, which is situated on the town square.
- Johann Teufel (15th-century), Lutheran preacher
- Franz Joseph Dollhopf (c.1655–1743), Bohemian philosopher, tenor, organist
- Elias Dollhopf (1703–1773), Bohemian painter (de)
- Franz Rumpler (1848–1922), painter, acted in Vienna (de)
- Reinhold Dollhopf (1875–1963), architect
- Peter Kurzeck (1943–2013), writer, acted in Germany (de)
- Klein, Wilhelm. Die postalischen Abstempelungen auf den österreichischen Postwertzeichen-Ausgaben 1867, 1883 und 1890, 1967
- Mueller, Edwin. Handbook of Austria and Lombardy-Venetia Cancellations on the Postage Stamp Issues 1850-1864, 1961.
- Czech Statistical Office (2005), Vybrané údaje podle správních obvodů obcí s rozšířenou působností a správních obvodů obcí s pověřeným obecním úřadem k 31. 12. 2005, retrieved 2005-03-08