The township covers 157.6 km² with a population of 176,000. With the urban centre covering only some 18 km², there are 27000mu under cultivation and 10 neighbourhood and 26 village committees.
Some of these villages are surrounded by high-rise urban development, while others lie in the rural outskirts of the township, including the village of Bi Hou (庇厚).
In 1891, the Presbyterian Church of America constructed a chapel on the main thoroughfare of Tai Xi Road, which was reconstructed in elegant red-brick in 1922 with a capacity of 300.
In 1907, the Tan Clan Middle School was founded east of the town, but is now surrounded by urban development. A new residential school is being constructed outside of the town to replace what is now a dilapidated and crowded structure.
In 1938 the railway was destroyed in advance of invading Japanese troops.
On March 3, 1941, Japanese troops from Doushan marched into Taicheng led by a Chinese traitor, and took the town in three hours. 282 people were killed, 534 stores and houses were burnt, and goods estimated at ¥3,600,000 were plundered. A week later the Nationalist Chinese Army retook the town, but were again forced out on September 20, 1941. Japanese troops remained in occupation until their unconditional surrender at the end of the war on August 15, 1945.
Railway service to Taishan started again in 2018, with the opening of the Shenzhen–Zhanjiang high-speed railway. The Taishan Railway Station (台山站; ) is located within Taicheng Subdistrict, some 7 km north of Taishan city center.
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