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等 seems to mean rank, grade or class .. so I think the 'military ranks' translation is accurate. I'll change the page. Pratyeka 23:58, 9 Nov 2003 (UTC)
True, my understanding of the history of this period leads me to better translate 等 as honours or peerages of achievement on battlefield.
Actually, 商鞅 is written Shang Yang in both Pinyin and Wade Giles romanizations. He is also known as 公孫鞅 which is written Gongsun Yang in Pinyin and Kung-sun Yang in Wade Giles. 22.214.171.124 04:12, 10 February 2007 (UTC)
Quote from the page:
"Before Shang's arrival in 361 BC, Qin was a backwards state. The vast majority of his reforms were taken from policies instituted elsewhere, such as from Wu Qi of Chu and Han Feizi of Wei; however, Shang's reforms were more thorough and extreme than those of other states."
Shang Yang died in 338 BC, decades before Han Fei (ca. 280 - 233 BC) was born. It was Li Si who was Qin's prime minister when Han Fei lived and wrote. -- Anthee (talk) 23:28, 28 January 2008 (UTC)